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O F T H E 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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IVIicrosoft Corporation 


Samuel Johk^son, i..i..d. 





I N W H I C H 









Cum tabulis animum cenforis fumet honefti : 
Auilebit quKcunque paruin fplendoris habebunt, 
Et fine pondere erunt, ct honore indigna ferentur, 
Verba moverc loco; quamvis invita recedant, 
Et vcrfciituT adhuc intra penetralia Vcftx: 
Obfcurata d;u populo bonus eruet, atqUe 
Proferct in luccm fpcctolii vocabula rerum, 
(^i.x- prifcis mcmorata Catonibus atque Cethsgis 
Nunc fitus informis preinit ct delerta vetuftas. HoR. 


Piinteil for J. F. and C. Rivrrr.TOs, L. Davis, T. Payne and Sos, T. Losgmas, B. I, aw, J. Dodsley, C. Di^ly, 
W. LowKors, G. G. J. ariil J. Kobinson, T. Cadeli., Jo. Johnson,, J. Kobson, W. Richardson, J. Nichols, 
R. Ealdwih, W. Goldsmith, J. Murray, W. Stuart, P. Elmsly, W. Fox, S. H.vYtf, V. OoiuviE, 
W. Bent, T. and J. Eoerton, J. Phillips, nnd M. NjiWBERV. 


R E F A C E. 

IT is the fate of thofe who toil at the lower employments of life, to be rather driven by the fear of' 
evil, than attrafted by the profpedt of good j to be expofed to cenfure, without hope of praife ; to be 
difgraced by mifcarriage, or punifhed for negleft, where fuccefs would have been without applaufe, 
and diligence without reward. 

Among thefe unhappy mortals is the writer of diflionarlesj whom mankind have confidered, not as the 
pupil, but the Have of fcience, the pioneer of literature, doomed only to remove rubbifh and clear ob- 
ftruftions from the paths through which Learning and Genius prefs forwai-d to conqueft and glory, without 
bellowing a fmile on the humble drudge that facilitates their progrefs. Every other author may afpire to 
praife; the lexicographer can only hope to efcape reproach, and even this negative recompenfe has been yet 
granted to very few. 

I have, notwithftanding this difcouragement, attempted a Dictionary of the Englijh language, which, 
■while it was employed in the cultivation of every fpecies of literature, has itfelf been hitherto neglefted j 
fuffered to fpread, under the direftion of chance, into wild exuberance ; refigned to the tyranny of time 
and fafhion; and expofed to the corruptions of ignorance, and caprices of innovation. 

"When I took the firft furvey of my undertaking, I found our fpeech copious without order, and 
energetick without rules: wherever I turned my view, there was perplexity to be difentangled, and con- 
fufion to be regulated; choice was to be made out of boundlefs variety, without any eftablifhed principle 
of feledlion ; adulterations were to be deted:ed, without a fettled tcft of purity ; and modes of expreffion 
to be rejefted or received, without the fuffrages of any writers of claflical reputation or acknowledged 

Having therefore no affiftance but from general grammar, I applied myfelf to the perufal of our writers ; 
and noting whatever might be of ufe to afcertain or illuftrate any word or phrafc, accumulated in time the 
materials of a didionary, which, by degrees, I reduced to method, eftablifliing to myfelf, in the progrefs 
of the work, fuch rules as experience and analogy fuggefted to me ; experience, which pradice and ob- 
fervation were continually increafing; and analogy, which, though in fome words obfcure, was evident in 

In adjufting the Orthography, which iias been to this time unfetcled and fortuitous, I found it necef- 
fary to diftinguilh thofe irregularities that are inherent in our tongue, and perhaps coeval with it, from 
others. which the ignorance or negligence of later writers has produced. Every language has its anomalies, 
which, though inconvenient, and in themfelves once unneceffary, muft be tolerated among the imperfec- 
tions of human things, and which require only to be rcgiflered, that they may not be increafed, and afcer- 
tained, that they may not be confounded: but every language has likewife its improprieties and abfurdides, 
which it is the duty of the lexicographer to corredl or profcribe. 

As language was at its beginning merely oral, all words of neceflary or common ufe 'were ifjolicn be-. 
fore they were written ; and while they were unfixed by any vifible figns, muft ha,ve been fpoken with 
great diverfity, as we now obferve thofe who cannot read to catch founds imperfeftly, and utter them 
negligently. When this wild and barbarous jargon was firft reduced to an alphabet, every penman endea- 
voured to exprefs, as he could, the founds which he was accuftomed to pronounce or to receive, and vi- 
tiated in writing fuch words as were already vitiated in fpeech. The powers of the letters, when they 
were applied to a new language, muft have been vague and unfettlcd, and therefore different hands would 
exhibit the fame found by diiFerent combinations, 

7 From 


From this uncfrtain pronunciation arifc in a great part the various dialcds of the fame country, which 
will alwAVs bcr obfcrved to grow fewer, and lefs different, as books are multiplied ; and from this arbitrary 
reprcfc-nt.uion of founds by letters, proceeds that divcrfity of fpclling obfcrvablc in the Saxon remains, 
and I fupjx>fc in the firft books of every nation, which perplexes or dcftroys analogy, and produces ano- 
maUius formations, that, being once incorporated, can never be afterwards difmiffed or reformed. 

Of this kind arc the derivatives length from long, Jirwgth from ftrong, darling from dear, breadth from 
kr—d^ from dry^ drought, and from' high, height, which Miltctt, in real for analogy, writes highthi 
^id te fxempta JHvat Jpinis de pluribus una ? to change all would be too much, and to change one is 

Tl)i 'rninty is moft frequent in the Vowels, which are fo capricioufly pronounced, and fo difFer- 
cnily i: i, by accident or afFcAation, not only in every province, but in every mouth, that to 

them, as Vk well known to ctymologifts, little regard is to be (hewn in the dcdu<5bion of one language from 

Such defeifls are not errours in orthography, but fpots of barbarity imprefl*ed fo deep in the EtigUJh 
language, that criticifm can never wa(h ihcm away : thefe, therefore, muft be permitted to remain un- 
touched ; but many words have likcwife been altered by accident, or depraved by ignorance, as the pro- 
nunciation of the vulgar has been weakly followed ; and fome ftill continue to be varioufly written, as 
authors differ in their care or fkill : of thefe it was proper to enquire the true orthography, which 1 have 
always confidcreil as depending on their derivation, and have therefore referred them to their original lan- 
guages : thus I write enchant, enchantment, enchanter, after the French, and incantation after the Latin ; thus 
tniire is chofcn rather than intire, becaufc it paffcd to us not from the Latin integer, but from the French 

Of many words it is difficult to fay whether they were immediately received from the Latin or the 
French, fincc at the time v^hen we had dominions in France, we had Latin fcrvice in our churches. It is, 
however, my opinion, that the French generally fupplied us j for we hav^ few Latin words, among the 
terms of domeftick ufe, which are not French; but many French, which are very remote from Latin. 

Even in words of Jwhich the derivation is apparent, I have been often obliged to facrifice uniformity to 
cuffom J thus I write. In compliance v ith a numberlefs majority, convey and inveigh, deceit and receipt, 
fancy and phantom -, fomctimes the derivative varies from the primitive, as explain and explanation, repeat 
4f>d repetition. 

' Some combinations of letters having the fame power, are ufed indifirrently without any difcoverable 
reafon of choice, as in choak, choke ; /oap,fope ; fewel, fuel, and many others; which I have fomctimes in- 
fcrted twice, that thofe who fearch for them under either form, may not fcarch in vain. 

! In examining the orthography of any doubtful word, the mode of fpelling by which it is infcrted in the 
(cries of the dictionary, is to be confidercd as that to which I give, perhaps not often rafhly, the prefer- 
ence. I have left, in the examples, to every author Iiis own praftice unmolefled, that the reader may 
J)alar.ce fuffrages, and judge between us: but this qucftion is not always to be determined by reputed or 
by rf.n Irirniii'i;; fome men, intent upon greater things, have thought little on founds and derivations; 
f) in the ancient tongues, have neglefted tnofe in which our words are commonly to be fought. 

T' .' writes " ■" '> (or feajillenejs, becaufe I fuppofe he imagined it derived immediately 

Tr'' . _ ; ; and I uds, fuch as dependant, dependent; dependance, dependence, vary their final 

lyllablc, as one or another language is prefent to the writer. 

, Jn this part of the work, where caprice has long wantoned without controul, and vanity fought praife 
by petty reformation, I have endeavoured to proceed with a fcholar's reverence for antiquity, and a gram- 
piarian's regard to die genius of our tongue. I have attempted few alterations, and among tiiofe few, 
perhaps the greater part is from the modern to the ancient praftice ; and I hope I may be allowed to re- 
corv — ' to thofe, whofe thoughts have been perlnps employed too anxioufly oii verbal fingularitics, not 
|(> upon narrow views, or for minute propriety, the orthography of their fatliers. It has been 

afll-rted, that for tlie law to be kninvn, is of more imf)ortance than to be right. Change, fays Hooker, is 
rot made without inconvenience, even from worfe to better. There is in conft^ancy and Itability a general 
and lafling advantage, which wiU always overbalance the flow improvements of gradual correction. 

$ " Much 


Much lefs ought our written language to comply with the corruptions of oral utterance, or copy that 
which every variation of time or place makes different from itfelf, and imitate thofe changes, which will 
again be changed, while imitation is employed in obferving them. 

This recommendation of fteadinefs and uniformity does not proceed from an opinion, that particular 
combinations of letters have much influence on human happinefs ; or that truth may not be fuccefsfully 
taught by modes of fpelling fanciful and erroneous : I am not yet fo loft in lexicography, as to forget that 
wcrds are the daughters of earth, and that things are the Jons of heaven. Language is only the inftrument 
of fcience, and words are but the figns of ideas : I wifh, however, that the inftrument might be lefs apt to 
decay, and that figns might be permanent, like the things which they denote. 

In fetding the orthography, I have not wholly negleded the pronunciation, which I have direfted, 
by printing an accent upon the acute or elevated fyllable. It will fometimes be found, that the accent 
is placed by the author quoted, on a different fyllable from that marked in the alphabetical feries ; it is 
then to be underftood, that cuftom has varied, or that the author has, in my opinion, pronounced wrong. 
Short directions are fometimes given where the found of letters is irregular ; and if they are fometimes 
omitted, defedl in fuch minute obfervations will be more eafily excufed, than fuperfiuity. 

In the inveftigation both of the orthography and fignification of words, their Etymology was necef^ 
farily to be confidered, and they were therefore to be divided into primitives and derivatives. A pri- 
mitive word, is that which can be traced no furdier to any Englijh root ; thus circumfpe£ty circumvent, cir- 
cumjiance, delude, concave, and complicate, though compounds in the Latin, are to us primitives. Deri- 
vatives are all thofe that can be referred to any word in Englijh of greater fimplicity. 

The derivatives I have referred to their primitives, with an accuracy fometimes needlefs ; for who does 
not fee that remotenejs comes from remote, lovely from love, concavity from concave, and demonftrative from 
demonftrate ? but this grammatical exuberance the fcheme of my work did not allow me to reprcfs. It is 
of great importance, in examining the general fabrick of a language, to trace one word from another, by 
noting the ufual modes of derivation and inflexion ; and uniformity muft be preferved in fyftematical 
v.orks, though fometimes at the cxpence of particular propriety. 

Among other derivatives I have been careful to infert and elucidate the anomalous plurals of nouns and 
preterites of verbs, which in the Teutonick dialcfts are very frequent, and, though familiar to thofe who 
have always ufed them, interrupt and embarrafs the learners of our language. 

The two languages from which our primitives have been derived are the Roman and Teutonick : under 
tlic Roman I comprehend the French and provincial tongues ; and under the Teutonick range the Saxony 
German, and all their kindred dialecfts. Moft of our polyfyllables are Roman, and our words of one fyl- 
lable are very often Teutonick. 

In afllgning the Roman original, it has perhaps fometimes happened that I have . mentioned only the 
Latin, when the word was borrowed from the French; and confidcring myfelf as employed only in the 
ilhiftration of my own language, I have not been very tarefulto obferve whether the Latin word be pure 
or barbarous, or the French elegant or obfolete. 

For the Teutonick etymologies I am commonly indebted to Junius and Skinner, the only names which I 
have forborn to quote when I copied their books ; not that I might appropriate their labours or ufurp their 
honours, but that I might fpare a general repetition by one general acknowledgment. Of thefe, whom I 
ought not to mention bur with the reverence due to inftruflors and benefaftors, Junius appears to have 
excelled in extent of learning, and Skinner in re6litude of underftanding. Junius was accurately flcilled in 
all tiie northern languages. Skinner probably examined the ancient and remoter dialefts only by occafional 
infpedion into diftionaries ; but the learning of Junius is often of no other ufe than to fliow him a track by 
which he may deviate from his purpofe, to v/hich Skinner always prcffes forward by the Ihorteft way. 
Skinner is often ignorant, but never ridiculous : Junius is always full of knowledge j but his variety diftracts 
his judgment, and his learning is very frequently difgraced by his abfurditics. 

The votaries of the northern mufes will not perhaps eafily reftrain their indignation, when they find the 
name o( Junius thus degraded by a difailvantageous comparifon ; but whatever reverence is due to his di- 
ligence, or his attainments, it can be no criminal degree of cenibiioufnefs to charge that etym.ologift with 
want of judgment, who can ferioufly derive dream from drama, becaufe life is a drama, and a drama is a 

dream j 


dreant ; and who declares with a tone of defiance, that no man can fail to derive moan from /^e'l-of, mono$y 
Jingle or Jolitary, who confiders that grief naturally loves to be alone *. 

Our knowledge of the northern literature is fo fcanty, that of words undoubtedly 7V7</o»/V^, the original is 
not always to be found in any ancient language ; and I have therefore infcrted Dutch or German fubftitutes> 
which I confider not as radical, but parallel, not as the parents, but fifters of the Englijh. 

The words which are reprefented as thus related by defcent or cognation, do not always agree in fenfe j 
for it is incident to words, as to their authors, to degenerate from their anceftors, and to change their manners 
when they change their country. It is fufficient, in etymological enquiries, if the fenfcs of kindred words 
be found fuch as may eafily pafs into each other, or fuch as may both be referred to one general idea. 

The etymology, fo far as it is yet known, was eafily found in the volumes where it is particularly and 
profelTedly delivered ; and, by proper attention to the rules of derivation, the orthography was foon ad- 
jufted. But to COLLECT the Words of our language was a tafk of greater difficulty : the deficiency of 
diftionaries was immediately apparent -, and when they were exhaufted, what was yet wanting muft be 
fought by fortuitous and unguided excurfions into books, and gleaned as induftry fhould find, or chance 
fhould offer it, in the boundlefs chaos of a living fpeech. My fearch, however, has been either fkilful or 
lucky i for I have much augmented the vocabulaiy. 

x\s my defign was a diftionary, common or appellative, I have omitted all words which have relation to 
proper names ; fuch as Avian, Socinian, Calvinijt, Benediifine, Mahometan ; but have retained thofe of ^ 
more general nature, as Heathen, Pagan. 

Of the terms of art I have received fuch as could be found either in books of fcience or technical dic- 
tionaries ; and have often inferted, from philofophical writers, words which are fiipported perhaps only by 
a fingle authority, and which being not admitted into general ufe, ftand yet as candidates or probationers, 
and muft depend for their adoption on the fuffrage of futurity. 

The words which our authors have introduced by their knowledge of foreign languages, or ignorance 
of their own, by vanity or wantonnefs, by compliance with falhion or luft of innovation, I have regiftered 
as they occurred, though commonly only to cenfure them, and warn others againft the folly of naturalizing 
ufelefs foreigners to the injury of the natives. 

I have not rejefted any by defign, merely becaufe they were unnecefliary or exuberant ; but have re- 
ceived thofe which by different writers have been differently formed, as vi/cidy and vijcidity, vifcous, and 

Compounded or double words I have feldom noted, except when they obtain a fignification different 
from that which the components have in their fimple ftate. Thus highwayman, woodman, and horfecourfer, 
require an explanation ; but of thieflike or coachdriver no notice was needed, becaufe the primitives Contain 
the meaning of the compounds. 

Words arbitrarily formed by a conftant and fettled analogy, like diminutive adjeftives in ijh, as greenijkf, 
lluijb ; adverbs in ly, as dully, openly ; fubflf Aiitives in nejs, as vilenejs, faultinejs ; were lefs diligently fought, 
and fometimes have been omitted, when I had no authority that invited me to infert them; not that they 

• That I may not appear to have fpoken too irreverently of ubi antique fcriptuminvenimns jemoeteb hit emerij. " Inve- 

Junius, I have here fubjoined a few fpeciraens of hii ctyinolo- " nit earn vacantem." 
gical extravagance. ' ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ p^ g. hyll. Quod videri poteft abfcifum 

Bamish, religare, ex banno vel territorio exigere, in exiliiim ex koX/'mi vel w^utl^. Collit, tumulus, locus in piano editior, 

»gere. G. bannir. It. bandire,bandeggiare. H. bandir. B. ban- Horn. II. b. v. 8il. tri ^s ti? ir^o9ra^oi8t «■o^so{ amiia, xoPiinj. 

nen. M\\ tnedii fcriptores bannire dicebant. V. Spclm. in Ban- Ubi authori brevium fcholiorum xoAwnj exp. tojtov iij a^a^ atn*.u*, 

num iV in Banleuga. Quoniam vcro regionum urbiumq; limites yixMipof e4''X''* 

ar^uis plerumq; montibi.s altis fluminibus, longis deniq; Qcx- iSIap, to take a nap. Dormire, condormifcere. Cym. heppian. 

uofifq; anguftilfimarum viarum amfraaxbus includebantur, fieri p^^ g. hna:ppan. Quod poftremum videri potcll defuraptiim ex 

poteft id genus l.mites *fl«diciab eo quod Ba.,»Ta. & B«»a\« ^^..^aj, obfcuritas, te.iebra; : nihil enim a-que folet conciliare 

Tarentiais ol.m, ficuti tradit Hefychius, vocabantur «: Xo^i. >.fx\ fomnum, quam caliginofa profunda noai^obfcuritas. 
ftn ^9i/Ti»iK JJoi, "obliquae acminimc inreaum tendcntes vi^." t> il ui r /^ .i. c-i- mx^a/to a o _ 

Ac fortafTe quoque hue facit quod B..J,«, eoden. Hefychio telle. Stammerer, Balbu^, Wa:fus. Goth. STAMMb, A. S. pra- 

dicebant %^ re«yyv'A„ montes arduo... '"en. J^amun. D. ftam. B. ftamder. Su. fft. ftamr. bunt 

_ . a TuiMhut vel fuu.i?^>^i"r nimia loquacitate alios oftendere ; quod 

fcMPxy, emie, -vacuus, UamS. A. S. ^mti^. Ncfcio an fint jnip^aue loquentcs libentillime garriie foleant ; vel quod aliis 
ab .f«« vel i^ilao,. Vomo, evomo, vomitu evacuo. Videtur intcvjm ■^■■, r,.„,n„ vi-jcantur. etiam oarciffimc loauentcs. 



arc not genuine and regular ofFsprlngs of EngUjh roots, but becaufe their relation to the primitive being 
always the fame, their fignification cannot be miftaken. 

The verbal nouns in in^, fuch as the keeping of the caftle, the leading of the armyy are always neglefted, 
or placed only to illuftrate the fenfe of the verb, except when they fignify things as well as adioiis, and 
have therefore a plural number, as d-welling, living 5 or have an abfolute and abftrad: fignification, as colcur- 
ifig, painting, leanring. ^ 

The participles are likewife omitted, unlefs, by fignifying rather habit or quality than adlion, they take 
the nature of adjeftives j as a.- thinking man, a man of prudence j a pacing horfe, a horfe that can pace: thefe 
I have ventured to call participial adjcSlives. But neither are thefe always inferted, becaufe they are com- 
monly to be underftood, without any danger of miftake, by confulting the verb. 

Obfolete words are admitted, when they arc found in authors not obfolcte, or when they have any force 
or beauty that may defcrve revival. 

As compofition is one of the chief charafterifticks of a language, I have endeavoured to make fbme 
reparation for the univerfal negligence of my predeceflbrs, by inferting great numbers of compounded- 
words, as may be found under after, fore, new, night, fair, and many more. Thefe, numerous as they 
are, might be multiplied, but that ufe anfl curiofity are here fatisfied, and tlie frame of our language an^ 
modes of our combination amply difcovered. , 

Of fome forms of compofition, fuch as that by which re is prefixed to note repetition, and «« to fignify 
tontrariety or privation^ all the examples cannot be accumulated, becaufe the ufe of thefe particles, if not 
wholly arbitrary, is fo little limited, that they arc hourly affixed to new words as occafion requires, or is 
imagined to require them. 

There is another kind of compofition more Frequent in our language than perhaps in any other, from 
which arifes to foreigners the ereateft: difficulty. We modify the fignification of many words by a particle 
fubjoined 5 as to come off, to elcape by a fetch ; to fall on, to attack j to fall off, to apollatize ; to break 
off, to ftop abruptly; to bear out, to julbfy; to fall in, to comply ; to give over, to ceafe j to Jet off, to 
embellifli ; to Jet in, to begin a continual tenour j to Jet out, to begin a courfe or journey j to lake off^ td 
<opy ; with innumerable expreflions of die fame kind, of which fome appear widely irregular, being fci 
far diftant from the fenfe of the fimple words, that no fagacity will be able to trace the fteps by which 
they arrived at the prefent ufe. Thefe I have noted with great care ; and though I cannot flatter myfelf 
that the coUeftion is complete, I believe I have lb far aflifted the fiiudents of our language, that this kind 
of phrafeology will be no longer infuperable ; and the combinations of verbs and particles, by chance 
©mitted, will be eafily explained by comparifon with thofe that may be found. 

Many words yet ftand fijpported only by the name of Bailey, Ainjworth, Philips, or the contra(5ted 'DiSt. 
for Diffionaries fubjoined; of thefe I am not always certain that they are read in any book but the works 
of lexicographers. Of fuch I have omitted many, becaufe I had neverread them ; and many I have in- 
ferted, becaufe ' they may perhaps exifl:, though they have efcaped my notice : they are, however, to be 
yet confidered as refiling only upon the credit of former diftionaries. Others, which I confidefed as ufeful, 
or know to be proper, though I could not at prefent fupport them by authorities, I have fuffwed to ftand 
upon my own atteftation, claiming the fame privilege with my predeceflTor*, of being fometimes credited 
"without proof. 

The words, thus fdefted and difpofcd, are grammatically confidered ; they are referred to the diff*erent 
parts of fpcech ; traced, when they are irregularly inflefted, through their various terminations^; and il- 
luftratcd by obfcrvations, not indeed of great or firiking importance, feparately confidered, but neccfifary 
to the elucidation of our language, and hitherto neglefted or forgotten by Englifh grammarians. 

That part of my work on which I expeft malignity mod frequently to faften, is the Explanation; in 
which I cannot hope to fatisfy thofe, who arc perhaps not ini lined to be pleafed, fince I have not always 
been able to fatisfy myfelf To interpret a language by itfelf is very difficult; many words cannot be 
explained by fynonimes, becaufe the idea fignified by them has not more than one appellation ; nor by 
paraphrafe, becaufe fimple ideas cannot be dtfcribed. When the nature of things is unknown, or the 
notion unfcttlcd and indefinite, and various in various minds, the words by which fuch nodons are con- 
veyed, or fuch things denoted, will be ambiguous and perplexed. And fuch is the fate of haplefs lexico- 
graphy, that not only darknefs, but light, impedes and diftreflcs it ; thinjgs may be not only too little, but 

Vol. I. b ' tq© 


too mnch kno^'tt, to br happily ilkiftrated. To explain, require^ the ufc of terms Icfs abftrufe than that 
which is to be explained, and fuch terms cannot always be found ; for as nothing can be proved but the 
fuppofmg fomething intuitively known, and evident without proof, fo nothing can be defined but by die 
uie of words too plain to admit a definition. 

Other words there are, of which the fenfe is too fubtle and cvanefcent to be fixed in a paraphrafe j fuch 
are all thofc which are by the grammarians termed expUiives, and, in dead languages, are fuffered to pafs 
for empty founds, of no other ufe than to fill a verfe, or to modulate a period, but whicJi are eafily per- 
ceived in living tongues to have power and emphafisj though it be fometimes fuch as no other form of 
exprelTion can convey. 

My labour has likewifc been much increafed by a clafs of verbs too frequent in the Englijh language, 
of which the lignification is fo loofe and general, tlie ufe fo vague and indeterminate, and tlie fenfes de- 
tortcd fo widely from the firft idea, that it is hard to trace them through the maze of variation, to catch 
them on the brink of utter inanity, to circumfcribe them by any limitations, or interpret them by any 
words of diftinft and fettled meaning; fuch are bear, break, come, caft,full, get, give, do, put. Jet, go, run, make, 
take, turn, throw. If of thefe the whole power is not accurately delivered, it muft be remembered, 
that while our language is yet living, and variable by the caprice of every one that Ipeaks it, thefe words 
arc hourly fhifting their relations, and can no more be afcertained in a diftionary, than a grove, in the agi- 
tation of a ftorm, can be accurately delineated from its piflure in the water. 

The particles are among all nations applied with fo great latitude, that they are not eafily reducible wmder 
any regular fcheme of explication : this difficulty is not lefs, nor perhaps greater, in Englijh, than in other 
languages. I have laboured them with diligence, I hope with fuccefs ; fuch at leaft as can be expeifted in 
a tafk, which no man, however learned or fagacious, has yet been able to perform. 

Some words there are which I cannot explain, becaufe I do not underftand them ; thefe might have 

been omitted very often with little inconvenience, but I would not fo far indulge my vanity as to decline 

this confcfTion : for when Tully owns himfelf ignorant whether lejjus, in the twelve tables, means a Juneral 

Jong, or mourning garment ; and Arijlctle doubts whether ouf luj, in the Iliad, fignifies a mule, or mtileteery 

I may furely, without fhame, leave fome obfcurities to happier indufb-y, or future information. 

The rigour of interpretative lexicography requires that the explanation, and the word explained, Jhould be 
»lways reciprocal j this I have always endeavoured, but could not always attain. Words are fcldom cx- 
aftly fynonimous; a new term was not introduced, but becaufe the former was thought inadequate: 
names, therefore, have often many ideas, but few ideas have many names. It was then necefTary to ufc 
the proximate word, for the deficiency of lingle terms can very feldom be fupplied by circumlocution ; 
nor is the inconvenience great of fuch mutilated interpretations, becaufe the fenfe may eafily be coUefted 
entire from the examples. 

In every word of extenfive ufe, it was requifite to mark the progrefs of its meaning, and fhow by what 
gradations of intermediate fenfe it has pafTcd from its primitive to its remote and accidental fignification ; 
{o that every foregoing explanation fhould tend to that which follows, and die ferles be regularly concate- 
nated from thcfiril notion to the laft. 

This is fpecious, but not always prafticable ; kindred fenfes may be fb interwoven, that the perplexity 
cannot be difentangled, nor any reafon be afligned why one (houkl be ranged before the other. When the 
radical idea branches out into parallel ramifications, iiow can a confecutive feries be formed of fenfes in 
their nature collateral ? The thades of meaning fometimes pafs imperceptibly into each other ; fo that 
tliough on one fide they apparently tlifi'er, yet it is impofTible to mark the point of contaft. Ideas of the 
fame race, though not exaffly alike, are fometimes fo little different, diat no words can exprefs the difTimi- 
litudc, though the mind eafily perceives it, when they are exhibited together ; and fometimes there is fuch 
a confufion of acceptations, that difcernment is wearied, and diflinftion puzzled, and perfcverance herfelf 
hurries to an end, by crowding together what flie cannot feparate. 

Thefe complaints of difficulty will, by thofe that have never confidered words beyond their popular wie, 
be thought only the jargon of a man willing to magnify his labours, and procure veneration to his ftudies 
by involution and obfcurity. But every art is obfcure to thofe that have not learned it : this uncertainty of 
terms, and commixture of ideas, is well known to diofe who have joined philofopliy with grammar ; and if 

I have 

.:p R E F A C E. 

I have not exprefled them very clearly, it muft be remembered that I am fpeaking of that which words arc. 
infufficient to explain. 

The original fenfe of words is often driven out of ufe by theii" metaphorical acceptations, yet muft be 
inferted for the fake of a regular origination. Thus I know not whether ardour is ufed for material heat, 
or ■vihcxher flagrant, in Englifi, ever fignifies the fame with burning -, yet fuch are the primitive Ideas of thefc 
words, which are therefore let firft, diough without examples, that the figurative fenfes may be comniOr- 
dioufly deduced. 

Such is the exuberance of fignification which many words have obtained, tha.t it was fcarcely poffible to 
colieft all their fcnles ; fometimes the meaning of derivatives mull be fought in the mother ternri, and 
fometimes deficient explanations of the primitive may be fupplied in the train of derivation. In any cafe 
of doubt or difficulty, it will be always proper to examine all the words of the fame race ; for fome words 
are fiightly pafied over to avoid repetition, fome admitted eafier and clearer explanation than others, and all 
will be better undeiilood, as they are confidered in greater variety of ftruftures and relations. 

All the interpretatipns of words are not written with the fame flcill, or the fame happinefs : things equally 
eafy in themfelves, are not all equally eafy to any fingle mind. Eveiy writer of a long work cornmits 
errours, where there appears neither ambiguity to miflead, nor obfcurity to confound him ; and in a fearch 
like this, many felicities of expreffion will be cafually overlooked, many convenient parallels will be 
forgotten, and many particulars will admit improvement from a mind utterly-unequal to the whole 

But many feeming faults arc to be imputed rather to the nature of the undertaking, than the negligence 
of the performer. Thus fome explanations are unavoidably reciprocal or circular, as hind, the female of 
the flag; flag, the male of the hind: fometimes eafier words are changed into harder, as hurial into feptil- 
ture or interment, drier into deficcative, drynefs into ftccity or aridity, fit into paroxyfm ; for the eafieft'word, 
•whatever it be, can never be tranflated into one more eafy. But eafinefs and difficulty are merely relative, 
and if the prefent prevalence of our language Ihould invite foreigners to this diftionary, many will be af- 
fifted by thofe wordp which now feem only to increafe or produce obfcurity. For this reafon I have en- 
deavoured frequently to join a Teutonick and Roman interpretation, as to cheer, to gladden, or exhilarate, 
that every learner of Englijh may be affifted by his own tongue. 

The folution of all difficulties, and the fupply of all defefts, muft be fought in the examples, fubjoined 
to the various fenfes of each word, and ranged according to the time of their authors. r^ 

When I firft collefted thefe authorities, I was defirous that every quotation ftiould be ufeful to fome 
other end than the illuftration of a word ; I therefore extrafted from pliilofophers principles of fcience ; 
from hiftofians remarkable faifls ; from chymifts complete procefles ; from divines ftriking exhortations ; 
and from poets beautiful defcriptions. Such is defign, while it is yet at a diftance from execution. 
"When the time called upon me to range this accumulation of elegance and wifdom into an alphabetical 
fcries, 1 foon difcovered that the bulk of ray volumes would fright away the ftudent, and was forced to 
depart from my fcheme of including all that was pkafing or ufeful in Englijh literature, and reduce my 
trar/crlpts very often to clufters of words, In which fcarcely any meaning is retained ; thus to tiie wearinefs 
of copying, I was condemned to add the vexation of expunging. Some pafTages I have yet fpared, which 
may relieve the labour of verbal fearchcs, and interfperfe with verdure and flowers the dully defarts of 
barren philology. 

'I*he examples, thus mutilated, are no longer to be confidered as conveying the fentiments or dodlrinc 
of their authors ; the word for the fake of which they are inferted, with all its appendant claufes, has been 
carefully preferved ; but it may fometimes happen, by hafty detruncation, that die general tendency of 
the fcntencc may be changed : the divine may defert his tenets, or the philofopher his fyilem. 

Some of the examples have been taken from writers who were never mentioned as mailers of elegance 
or models offtylc; but words muft be fought where they arc ufcd ; and In wluit pages, eminent for purity, 
can terms of manufadlure or agriculture be found? Many quotations fcrve no other purpofe, than that 
of proving the bare exiftence of words, and are therefore feledled with Icfs fcrupuloufnefs than thofe which 
are to teach their ftru<flures and relations. 

My purpofe was to admit no teftimony of living authors, that I might not be mifled by partiality, and 
•that none of my contemporaries might have reafon to complain ; nor have I departed from this refolutlon, 

h % . but 

r ft B P A C E. 

but when fomc performance of uncommon excellence excited my veneration, when my memory fuppHecf 
me, from late books, with an example that was wanting, or when my heart, in the tendernefs of friendfhip, 
folicited adiniilion for a favourite name. 

So far have I been from any care to grace my pages with modern decorations, that I have ftudioofly en- 
deavoured to colle<5l examples and authorities from the writers before the reftoration, whofe works I re- 
gani as the wells of Engliflj undeJUed, as the pure fources of genuine diftion. Our language, for almoft 
a century, has, by the concurrence of many caufes, been gradually departing from its original 'Teutonick 
xharafter, and deviating towards a Gallick ftnu5hjre and phrafeology, from which it ought to be our en- 
deavour to recal it, by making our ancient volumes the ground-work of ftyle, admitting among the ad- 
ditions of later times, only fuch as may fupply real deficiencies, fuch as are readily adopted by the genius 
of our tongue, and incorporate eafily with our native idioms. 

But as every language has a time of rudenefs antecedent to perfefbion, as well as of falfe refinement and 
declenfion, I have Iseen cautious left my zeal for antiquity might drive me into times too remote, and 
crowd my book with words now no longer underftood. I Iiave fixed Sidney's work for the boundary, be- 
yond which I make few excurfions. From the authors which rofe in the time of Elixabetb, a fpeech might 
be formed adequate to all the purpofes of ufe and elegance. If the language of theology were extraftcd 
from Hooker and the tranflation of the Bible j the terms of natural knowledge from Bacon ; the phrafes of 
|X)licy, war, and navigation from Raleigh -, the dialed of poetry and fidlion from Spenfer and Sidney ; and 
the didion of common life from Sbakefpeafe, few ideas would be loft to mankind, for want of Englijh words, 
in which they might be exprefled. 

It is not fufficient that a word is found, unlefs it be fb combined as that its meaning is apparently deter- 
Aiined by the tra£t and tenour of the fentence ; fuch paflages I have therefore cliofen, and when it happened 
rhat any author gave a definition of a term, or fuch an explanation as is equivalent to a definition, I have 
placed his authority as a fupplement to my own, without regard to the chronological order, that is other- 
wife obferved. ' 

Some words, indeed, ftand unfupported by any authority, but they are commonly derivative nouns, or 
adverbs, formed from their primitives by regular and conftant analogy, or names of things feldom occur* 
ring in books, or words of which I have reafon to doubt the exiftence. 

There is more danger of cenfure from the multiplicity than paucity of examples ; authorities will 
fomerimes feem to have been accumulated without necelTity or ufe, and perhaps fome will be found, which 
might, without lofs, have been omitted. But a work of this kind is not haftily to be charged with 
fuperfluities : thofe quotations, which to carelefs or unfkilful perufers appear only to repeat the fame 
fenfe, will often exhibit, to a more accurate examinep, diverfities of fignification, or, at leaft, afford different 
fhades of the fame meaning; one will lliew the word applied to perfons, another to things; one will ex- 
prefs an ill, another a good, and a third a neutral fenfe j one will prove the exprefTion genuine from aft 
ancient author ; another will fhew it elegant from a modern : a doubtful authority is corroborated by 
another of more credit ; an ambiguous fentence is afcertained by a paflage clear and determinate ; the 
word, how often foever repeated, appears with new affociates and in different combinations, and every quo- 
tation contributes Ibmething to the ftability or enlargement of the language. 

"When words are ufcd equivocally, I receive them in either fenfe ; when they are metaphorical, I adopt 
them in their primitive acceptation. 

1 hare fometimes, though rarely, yielded to the temptation of exhibiting a genealogy of fentiments, by 
(hewing how one author copied the thoughts and diftion of another: fuch quotations are indeed little more 
than repetitions, which might juftly be cenfured, did they not gratify the mind, by affording a kind of in- 
telleftual hiftory. 

The various fyntadlical ftruftures occurring in the examples have been carefully noted j the licence or 
negligence with which many words have been hitherto ufed, has made our ftyle capricious and indeter- 
minate ; when the different combinations of the fame word are exhibited together, the preference is readily 
given to propriety, and I have often endeavoured to direfb the choice. 

Thus have I laboured by fetding the orthography, difplaying the analogy, regulating the ftruftures, and 
afceruining the fignification of Englijb words, to perform all the parts of a faithful lexicographer : but I 




have not ^ways executed my own fchernc, or fatisfied my own expeftations. The work, whatever proofs 
of diligence and attention it may exhibit, is yet capable of many improvements: the orthography which 
I recommend is ftill controvertible, the etymology which I adopt is uncertain, and perhaps frequently er- 
roneous ; the explanations are fometimes too much contrafted, and fometimes too much difFufed, the 
fignifications are diftinguiflied rather with fubtilty than fkill, and the attention is harafled with unneceflary 

The examples are too often injudicioufly truncated, and perhaps fometimes, I hope very rarely, alleged 
in a miftaken fenfe ; for in making this colledlion I trufted more to memory, than, in a flate of difquiet and 
embarraffinent, memory can contain, and purpofed to fupply at the review what was left incomplete in the 
firft tranfcription. 

'. Many terms appropriated to particular occupations, though neceffary and figniFxant, are undoubtedly 
omitted ; and of the words moft ftudioufly confidered and exemplified, many fenfes have efcaped ob- 

Yet thefe failures, however frequent, may admit extenuation and apology. To have attempted 
much is always laudable, even when the enterprize is above tiie ftrength that undertakes it : To reft 
below his own aim is incident to every one whofe fancy is aftive, and whofe views are comprehenfive ; 
nor is any man fatisfied with himfelf becaufe he has done much, but becaufe he can conceive httle- 
When firft I engaged in this work, I refolved to leave neither words nor things unexamined, and pleafed 
myfelf with a profpeft of the hours wiiich I ftiould revel away in feafts of literature, the obfcure 
recefles of northern learning which I Ihould enter and ranfack, the treafures with which I expefted 
every fearch into thofe neglected mines to reward my labour, and the triumph with which I ftiould dis- 
play my acquifitions to mankind. When I had thus enquired into the original of words, I refolved to 
Jhow likewife my attention to things ; to pierce deep into every fcience, to enquire the nature of every 
fubftance of which I inferted the name, to limit every idea by a definition ftridly logical, and exhibit every 
produftion of art or nature in an accurate defcription, that my book might be in place of all other di£tio-» 
naries whether appellative or technical. But thefe were the dreams of a poet doomed at laft to wake a, 
lexicographer. I foon found that it is too late to look for inftruments, when the work calls for execution, 
and that whatever abilities I had brought to my tafk, with thofe I muft finally perform it. To deliberate 
whenever I doubted, to enquire whenever I was ignorant, would have protracted the undertaking without 
end, and, perhaps, without much improvement j for I did not find by my firft experiments, that what I 
had not of my own was eafily to be obtained : I faw that one enquiry only gave occafion to another, that 
book referred to book, that to fearch was not always to find, and to find was not always to be informed ; 
and that thus to purfue perfection, was, like the firft inhabitants of Arcadia, to chafe the fun, which, 
when they had reached the hill where he fcemed to reft, was ftill beheld at the fame diftance from them. 

I then contraded my defign, determining to confide in myfelf, and no longer to folicit auxiliaries, which 
produced more incumbrance than afTiftance : by this I obtained at leaft one advantage, diat I fet limits to 
my work, which would in time be ended, though not completed. 

Defpondency has never fo far prevailed as to deprefs me to negligence ; fome faults will at laft appear 
to be the effeds of anxious diligence and perfevering aftivity. The nice and fubtle ramifications of 
meanihg were not eafily avoided by a mind intent upon accuracy, and convinced of the necefllty of dif- ■ 
entangling combinations, and fcparating fimilitudes. Many of the diftinftions, which to common readers 
appear ufelefs and idle, will be found real and important by men verfed in the fchool philofophy, without 
which no dictionary can ever be accurately compiled, or fkilfully examined. 

Some fenfes however there are, which, though not the fame, are yet fo nearly allied, that they are 
often confounded. Moft men think indiftinftly, and therefore cannot fpeak-with exaftnefs ; and con- 
fequently fome examples might be indifi^erently put to either fignification : this uncertainty is not to be 
imputed to me, who do not form, but regifter the language ; who do not teach men how they fliould 
think, but relate how they have hitherto exprelTcd their thoughts. 

The imperfeft fenfe of fome examples I lamented, but could not remedy, and hope they will be com- 
penfated by innumerable paffagfs fele£t':d with propriety, and preferred with exaftnefs -, fome Ihining 
with fparks of imagination, and fome replete with treafures of wifdom. 

The orthography and etymology, though imperfed, are not imperfect for want of care, but becaufe 
care will oot always be fucccfsful, and recolk^iwn of iftformation coine too late for ufe. 


P R E 1*' A. C E. 

That many terms of art and manufafture are omitted, muft be frankly acknowledged ; bat for this 
dcfcil I may boldly allege that it was unavoidable: I could not vifit caverns to learn the miner's 
language, nor take a voyage to perfcdl my (kill in the dialed of navigation, nor vifit the warehoufes 
of merchants, and fhops of artificers, to gain the names of wares, tools and operations, of which no 
mention is found in books ; what favourable accident, or eafy enquiry brought within my reach, has 
not been neglcdled ; but it had been a hopclefs labour to glean up words, by courting living informa- 
tion, and contcfting with die fuUennefii of one, and the roughnefs of another. 

To furnifli the academicians della Crujca with words of this kind, a feries of comedies called U 
Tiera, or the Fair, was j^rofcflcdly written by Buonaroti; but I had no fuch afliftant, and therefore 
was content to want wiiat they muft have wanted likewife, had they not luckily been fo fupplied. 

Nor are all words which are not found in the vocabular)-, to be lamented as omiflions. Of the 
laborious and mercantile part of* the people, the diflion is in a great meafure cafual and mutable ; many 
of their terms are formed for fome temporary or local convenience, and though current at certain times 
and places, are in others utterly unknown. This fugitive cant, which is always in a ftate of increafe cw 
decay, cannot be regarded as any part of the durable materials of a language, and therefore muft be 
differed to pcrifh with other things unworthy of prefervation. 

Care -will fometimes betray to the appearance of negligence. He that is catching opportunities wliich 
feldom occur, will fufFer thofe to pafe by unregarded, which he expefts hourly to return ; he that is fearch- 
ing for rare and remote things, will negleft thofe that are obvious and familiar : thus many of the moft 
common and curfory words have been inferted with little illuftration, becaufe in gathering the authorities, 
I forbore to copy thofe which i thought likely to occur whenever they were wanted. It is remark- 
able that, in reviewing my colleftion, I found the word Sea unexemplified. 

Thus it happens, that in things difficult there is danger from ignorance, and in things eafy from 
confidence ; the mind, afraid q{ greatnefs, and difdainful of littlenefs, haftily withdraws herfelf from 
painful fearches, and pafles with fcornful rapidity over tafks not adequate to her powers, fometimes too 
fecure for caution, and again too anxious for vigorous effort ; fometimes idle in a plain path, and fome- 
times diftraftcd in labyrinths, and diflipated by different intentions. 

A large work is difficult becaufe it is large, even though all its parts might fingly be performed with 
facility ; where there are many things to be done, each muft be allowed its (hare of time and labour, 
in the proportion only which it bears to the whole ; nor can it be expecfted, that the ftones which form 
the dome of a temple, (hould be fquared and polilbed like the diamond of a ring. 

Of the event of this work, for which, having laboured it with fo much application, I cannot but 
have fome degree of parental fondnefs, it is natural to form conjedtures. Thofe who have been per- 
fuaded to think well of my dcfign, will require that it (liould fix our language, and put a ftop to 
thofe alterations which time and chance have hitherto been fuffered to make in it without oppofition. 
"With this confequence I will confefs that I flattered myfelf for a while ; but now begin to fear that I 
have indulged expectation which neither reafon nor experience can juftify. When we fee men grow old 
»nd die at a certain time one after another, from century to ccn'^ury, we laugh at the elixir that promifcs 
to prolong life to a thoufand years ; and with equal jultice may the lexicographer be derided, who 
being alile to produce no example of a nation that has preferved their words and phrafcs from mutability, 
ihall imagine tlut his didionary can embalm his language, and fecure it from corruption and decay, 
that it is m his power to change fublunary nature, and clear the world at once from folly, vanity, and 

With this hope, however, academies have been inftituted, to guard the avenues of dieir languages, 
to retau» fugitives, and repulfe intruders -, but their vigilance and aftivity have iiitherto been vain ; 
founds are too volatile and fubtile for legal reftraints ; to enchain fyllables, and to lafh the wind, are 
equally the undertakings of pride, unwilling to meafure its'defires by its ftrc'ngch. The French language 
Jias vifibly changed under the infpedion of the academy; the ftyle of Jmelot's tranfiation of father Paul 
is obfcrved by Le Courayer to be un peu pajfe ; and no Italian will maintain, that the didion of any 
modem writer is not perceptibly different from that of Boccacty Machiavel, or Caro. 

Total and fudden transformations of a language feldom happen ; conqucfts and migrations are now 
very /are .: but there arc other caufcs of change, which, tliough flow in their operation, and invifi-ble in 



their progrefs, are perhaps as much Tuperiour to human refiftance, as the revolutions of the fky, or 
intumefcence of the tide. Commerce, however neceflaiy, however lucrative, as it depraves the manners, 
corrupts the language j they that have frequent intercourfe with ftrangers, to whom they endeavour to 
accommodate themfelves, muft in time learn a mingled dialedt, like the jargon which ferves the traffickers 
on the Mediterranean and Indian coafts. This will not always be confined to the exchange, the warehoufe, 
or tlie port, but wi'l be communicated by degrees to other ranks of the people, and be at laft incorporated 
with the current fpeech. 

There are likewife internal caufes equally forcible. The language mod likely to continue long 
without alteration, would be that of a nation raifed a little, and but a little, above barbarity, fecluded 
from ftrangers, and totally employed in procuring the conveniencies of life ; either without books, or, 
fike fome of 'the Mahometan countries, with very few : men thus bufied and unlearned, havuig only fucl> 
words as common ufe requires, would perhaps long continue to exprefs the fame notions by the fame 
figns. But no fuch conftancy can be expefted in a people polifhed by arts, and clafled by fubordination, 
where one part of the community is fuftained and accommodated by the labour of the other. Thofe 
who have much leifure to think, will always be enlarging the ftock of ideas; and every increafe of 
knowledge, whether real or fancied, will produce new words, or combinations of words. When the 
mind is unchained from neceflity, it will range after convenience ; when it is left at large in the fields 
of fpeculation, it will fhifc opinions ; as any cuftom is difufed, the words that exprefled it muft perifti witli 
it i as any opinion grows popular, it will innovate fpeech in the fame proportion as it altera praftice. 

As by the cultivation of various fciences a language is amplified, it will be more furnifhed with* 
words deflefted from their original fenfe ; the geometrician will talk of a courtier's zenith, or the 
eccentrick virtue of a wild hero, and the phyfician of fanguine expedtations and phlegmatick delays. 
Copioufnefs of fpeech will give opportunities to capricious choice, by which fome words will be pre- 
ferred, and others degraded; vicifTitudes of fafhion will enforce the ufe of new, or extend the figrviftcatioa 
of known terms. The tropes of poetry will make hourly encroachments, and the metaphorical will 
become the current fenfe: pronunciation will be varied by levity or ignorance, and the pen muft 
at length comply with the tongue ; illiterate writers will, at one time or other, by publick infatuation, 
rife into renown, who, not knowing the original import of words, will ufe them with colloquial Ficen- 
tioufnefs, confound diftinftion, and forget propriety. As politenefs increafes, fome cxpreffions will be- 
confidcred as too grofs and vulgar for the delicate, others as too formal and ceremonious for the gav 
and airy; new phrafes are therefore adopted, which muft, for the fame rcafons, be in time difmifleJ. 
Swift, in his petty treatife on the Eng/ijh language, allows that new words muft fometimes be intro- 
duced, but propofes that none fhould be fufFered to become obfolete. But what makes a word obfolete, 
more than general agreement to forbear it ? and how ftiall it be continued, when it conveys an ofFenfivcr 
idea, or recalled again into the mouths of mankind, when it has once become unfamiliar by difufe, and 
unpleafing by unfamiliarity ? 

There is another caufe of alteration more prevalent than any other, which yet ia the prelent ftate of the 
world cannot be obviated. A mixture of two languages will produce a third diftinft from both, and 
they will always be mixed, where the chief part of education, and the moft confpicuous accompliftiment, 
is (kill in ancient or in foreign tongues. He that has long cultivated another language, will find its 
words and combinations crowd upon his memory ; and hafte and negligence, refinement and affediation;, 
will obtrude borrowed terms and exotick expre/Tions. 

The great peft of fpeech is frequency of tranflation. No book was ever turned from one lanrgaage into- 
another, without imparting fomething of its native idiom > this is the moft mifchievous and comprehen- 
five innovation ; fingle words may enter by thoufands, and the fabrick of the tongue continue the fame ; 
but new phrafeology changes much at once ; it alters, not the fingle ftones of the building, but the order 
of the columns, if an academy fhould be eftablifhed for the cultivation of our ftyle, which I, who care 
never wifh to fee dependance multiplied, hope the fpirit of Engiijb liberty will hinder or deftnoy, let them, 
inftead of compiling grammars and didlionaries, endeavour, with all their influence, to flop the licence of 
tranflators, whofe idlenefs and ignorance, if it be fuffered to proceed, will reduce us ta babble a diaJeit 
of France. 

If the changes that we fear be thus irrefiftible, what remains bat to acquiefce with filence, as in the other 
infurmountable diftrefTes of humanity ? It remains that we retard what we cannot repel, that we palliate 
what we cannot cure. Life may be lengthened by care, though death cannot be ultimately defeated? 

. . 5 t<>ngues* 


tongues, like governments, have a natural tendency to degeneration i wc have long prefcrved our confti- 
tution, let us make feme ftruggles for our language. 

In hope of giving longevity to that which its own nature forbids to be immortal, I have devoted this 
book, the labour of years, to the honour of my country, that we may po longer yield the palm of philology, 
without a conteft, to the nations of the continent. The chief glory of every people arifes from its au- 
thors : whether I fhall add any thin^ by my own writings to the reputation of Englijh literature, muft be • 
left to time : much of my life has been loft under the preflures of difeafe ; much has been trifled away ; 
and much has always been fpent in provifion for the day that was paffing over me ; but I fliall not think , 
my employment ufelefs or ignoble, if by my afliftance foreign nations, and diftant ages, gain accefs to 
the propagators of knowledge, and underftand the teachers of truth j if my labours afford light to die 
repofitorics of fcience, and add celebrity to Bacon, to Hooker, to Milion, and to Btyle. 

When I am animated by this wi(h, I look with pleafure on my book, however defeftive, and deliver 
it to the world with the fpirit of a man that has endeavoured welL That it will immediately become 
popular I have not promifed to myfelf : a few wild blunders, and rifible abfurdities, from which no work 
of fuch multiplicity was ever free, may for a time furnifh folly with laughter, and harden igrwrance in 
contempt ; but ufeful diligence will at laft prevail, and there never can be wanting fome who diftinguilh 
defert; who will confider that no didtionary of a living tongue ever can be perfecl, fince while it is haftcn- 
ing to publication, fome words are budding, and fome falling away ; that a whole life cannot be fpent upon 
fyntax and etymology, and that even a whole life would not be fufficient j that he, whofe dcfign includes 
•whatever language can exprefs, muft often fpeak of what he does not underftand ; that a writer will 
fometimes be hurried by eagcrnefs to the end, and foraetimes faint with wcarinefs under a talk, which 
Scaliger compares to the labours of the anvil and the mine ; that what is obvious is not always known, 
and what is known is not always prefent ; tliat fudden fits of inadvertency will furprize vigilance, fligJTt 
avocations will feduce attention, and cafual eclipfes of the mind will darken learning ; and that the writer 
lliall often in vain trace his memory at the moment of need, for that which yefterday he knew with intui- 
tive rcadinefs, and which will come uncalled into his thoughts to-morrow. 

In this work, when it fliall be found that much is omitted, let it not be forgotten that much likewifc 
IS performed ; and though no book was ever fpared out of tendcrnefs to the author, and the world is 
little folicitous to know whence proceeded the faults of that which it condemns ; yet it may gratify curio- 
fity to inform it, that the Englijh DiHionary was written with little affiftance of the learned, and without 
any patronage of the great ; not in the foft obfcuriries of retirement, or under the flicker of academick 
bowers, but amidft inconvenience and diftraftion, in ficknefs and in forro\y. It may reprefs the triumph 
of malignant criticifm to obferve, that if our language is not here fully difplayed, I have only failed in an 
attempt which no human powers have hitherto completed. If the lexicons of ancient tongues, now im- 
mutably fixed, axid comprized in a few volumes, be yet, after the toil of fucceffive ages, inadequate and 
delufive ; if the aggregated knowledge, and co-operating diligence of the Italian academicians, did not 
fecure them from the cenfu.'-e of Beni ^ if the embodied criticks of France-, when fifty years had been 
fpent upon their work, were obliged to change its ceconomy, and give their fecond edition another form, 
I may furcly be contented without the pr?tifc of perfection, which, if I could obtain, in this gloom of fo- 
litude, what would it avail me? I have jirotrafted my work till moft of thofe whom I wiScd to pleafc 
have funk into the grave, and fuccefs and mifcarriage are empty founds ; I therdbre Jifmifs it with frigid 
tranquillity, having little to fear or hope fcom cenfure or from praifc. 







THOUGH ihe Britains or Weljh were the 
firft pofleflbrs of this ifland, whofe names 
are recorded, and are therefore in civil hif- 
tory always confidered as the predeceflbrs of the 
prelent inhabitants; yet the dedu6lion of the Eng- 
lijh language, from the earlieft times of which we 
have any knowledge to its prefent Hate, requires 
no mention of them: for we have fo few words 
which can, with any probability, be referred to Bri- 
tijh roots, that we juftly regard the Saxom and fVe'Jh 
as nations totally diftindl. It has been conjedlured, 
that when the Saxons feized this country, they fuf- 
fered the Britains to live among them in a ftate of 
vaflalage, employed in the culture of the ground, 
and other laborious and ignoble fervices. But it is 
fcarctly poffible, that a nation, however depreflcd, 
fhould have been mixed with another in confidcr- 
able numbers without fome communication of their 
tongue, and therefore, it may, with great reafon, be 
imagined, that thofe, who were not fheltered in the 
mountains, pcriihed by the fword. 

The whole fabrick and fcheme of the Englifl} 
language is Golhick or Teutonick : it is a dialeft of 
that tongue, which prevails over all the northern 
countries of Europe^ except thofe where the Scla- 
vonian is fpokcn. Of thefe languages Dr. Hickes 
has thus exhibited the genealogy. 

G O T H I C K, 

Anglo-Saxon, Francick, 

Dutch German. 



Vol. I. 

' " » 


Of the Cothick, the only monument remaining 
is a copy of the gofpels fomewhat mutilated, which, 
from the filver with which the charaders are adorn- 
ed, is called the^Iver bock. It is now preferved at 
Upfal, and having been twice publiihed before, has 
been lately reprinted at Oxford, under the infpec- 
tion of Mr. Lye, the editor of Junius. Whether 
the didtion of this venerable manufcript be purely 
Gothick, has been doubted j it feems however to 
exhibit the moft ancient dialed now to be found of 
the Teutonick race ; and the Saxon, which is the 
original of the prefent Englijh, was either derived 
from it, or both have defcended from fome com- 
mon parent. 

What was the form of the Saxon language, when, 
about the year 450, they firft entered Britain, can- 
not now be known. They feem to have been a 
people without learning, and very probably with- 
out an alphabet ; their fpeech, therefore, having 
been always curfory and extemporaneous, muft 
have been artlefs and unconnefted, without any 
modes of tranfition or involution of claufes; which 
abruptnefs and inconnedion may be obferved even 
in their later writings. This barbarity may be 
fuppofed to have continued during their wars with 
the Britains, which for a time left them no leifurc 
for fofter ftudics; nor is there any reafon for fup- 
pofing it abated, till the year 570, whei) Augujline 
came from Rome to convert them to Chriftianity. 
The Chriftian religion always implies or produces 
a certain degree of civility and learning; they 
then became by degrees acquainted with the Ro- 
man language, and ib gained, from time to time, 
fome knowledge and elegance, till in three centu- 
ries they had formed a language capable of ex- 
prefling all the fentimcnts of a civilifcd people, as 
c appears 


appears by k'ng Alfreds paraphrafe or imitation of CAP. II. 

Bcethius, and his Ihort preface, which I have fe- ^^ ^^^^ , ^ ,^. ^^^^ lurr'jcnlice ronr. 

Icdtcd as the firft fpecimcn of ancient EngUJb. ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ heopienoe j-in^in. ■] mit) j-pi ur^cpa- 

t)um pojitJum jcferran. |)cah ic jeo npilum je- 

C A P. I. coplice puntie, ac ic nu pepenfce ^ 5ij-cierit?e op 

>cx L ' T;cnat»rii pont>a mirpo. me ablentsan bar unxer- 

/-\N «a;pe ribe fe Doran op 8iSSiu mrrj^e j^^.^ j^j ,j,^_ ^ ^^ 1,^ ponleran^-pa 

^-^ pi)7 Komana jiice jepin upahoron. •] mi]? hi,„^ne on |7i)^ Dinime hoi. Bx bepeapoCon 

heopa cynin^um. Rxbjora ant) eallepica pxjioii j^i^ene luprba-nnerre pa Sa ic hun a-pne berrr 

harne. Romane bupij abparcon. anb eall Iralia ^p^pp^e. Ba pentjon hi me heopa bxc ro anD me 

jiice jJ ip berpux )7am munrum •] Sici'ia ^am ^^,^ ^^„^^ p^omjepiran. To phon pceolmi la 

ealonT5e m anpaib jepehron. -^ fa je^rep Jam j^,^^^ pnient) reTTan bsr ic Terjch-r men pa:ne. 

popepppecenan cyninjum Deot)pic peiij ro f am ,,^ ,^^ 5,^^,^ xepiEhr re Se on 6am Teralbum 

ilcan pice, j-e Deobpic pa.-p Amulmja. he pasp ^uphpuman ne mor:- 

Epipren. feah he on f am Appianipcan jetjpolan . * 

Suphpunot>e. pe ^eher Romanum hir ppeont>- CAP. HI. 
rcine. ppa •* hi morran heopi ealt)pihra pypbe , ^ , , \cr^ 
beon. Ac he ba xehar ppiSe ypele selspre. DA ic fa Sip leoj?. cpa^SBoerIlIp.3eomplent)e■ 
^ ppiSe ppabe Teenl>ot)e mib mancTum mane, apun^en hreptse. «a com ?iajp jan in ro me heo- 
•« pir ro eacan ofpum unapimet)um yplum. f he F^^cunt) pipt)om. •] -p min miipnentse COot) mit> 
lohannep bone papan her opplean. Da y.vy pum hippopbum jejperre. T flip cpasf . ^u ne eapr 
conpul. -p pe heperoha haraf . Boeriup y^y f " f^ »""" )'* "" "i'"r& F^le pa?pe apet) •] ^e- 
haren. re yxr in boccpreprum -j on popult) lappet). Ac hponon pupt)efu mm fippum popult> 
bcapumpepihrpirepra. 8e Sa onrear f a manij- FPS""! f^r TP'l'e jeppencet). buron ic par f 
pealmn ypel fe re cynin3 Deojpic pif f am f u hteppr Sapa pxpna ro hpaf e pop^iren 6e ic 
fcpiprenantjome ^ pif fam Romanipcum piriim fe aep pealne. Da clipot)e pe pipt)om •] cpsf. 
tjyoe. he b a •remunt5e «apa ef neppa -j f apa Depiraf nu apipjet^e popult) popja op minep 
DpihraSehiunr)epSamEarepumhaspt>onheopa f^S^nep C0ot5e. popfam Te pinb fa maspraa 
ealT>hlapopt5Lim. Da onran he pmeajan -] leopni- pceafan. Ljeraf hme epr hpeoppan ro mmiim 
ran on him j-elpum hu he j5pice 'Sam unpihrpipan iapum. Da eot)e pe pij-tjom neap, cpref Boeriup. 
cy-niHTe apeppan mihre. •] on pyhr ^eleappul- minum hpeoppienTJan jefohre. •] hir ppa mopolil 
pa anb on pihrpippa anpaib jebpmjan. 8ent5e ^ip^'^ hpeja upapst)e. at)pi3be fa minenep 
fa biTelhce spenbreppiru ro fam Eapepe ro COot)ep eajan. ant) hir ppan bhf urn popuim. 
tonpranrinopohm. fsp ip Upeca heah bupj ^ hpsfep hir oncneope hip poprepmotjop. mit> 
heopa cyneprol. pop fam pe Daj-epe psep heopa ^am fe Sa f COob pif bepent>e. 6a ^ecneop hir 
ealbhlapopt) cynnep. ba^bon hine f.-er he him ro rP'?^ ppeorele hip ajne mot)op. -p pasp pe pip- 
heopa Epiprent)ome ■] ro heopa ealopihrum je- ^^m fe •'r^ ^anje asp rybe ■] la^poe. ac hir on- 
pulrumebe. Da -f onrear pe paslhpeopa cyninj ^ear hip lape ppife roropenne •] ppif e robpo- 
Deobpic. «a hjer he hine jebpinjanon capcepne cenne mit) tjypijpa honbum. ■] hine fa ppan hu 
■] frp mne belucan. Da lur 6a jelomp -p je f jepupbe. Da ant)ppypt)e pe pipbom him 7 
appypSa psep on ppa m'celpe neapaneppe be- pa:be. •^ hip jmjpan htepbon hine ppa roropenne. 
com. fa yxr he ppa micle ppi6op on hip COot)e P^P- fa^J^ hi reohhot)on f hi hine eallne habban 
rebpepeb. ppa hip CDo» xp. ppi6on ro f im pceotoon. ac hi 3e3at5epu6 monipealb toypij on 
popult) pa f um unjepot) pa:p. -] he 6a nanpe ]p^'?^ poprp'upunja. -j on fam jilpe buran heopa 
ppoppe be innan fam capcepne ne jemunbe. ac hpelc epr ro hype bore jecippe:- 
he jepeoll nipol op t>une on fa plop. •] hine -phis' may perhaps be confidered as a fpecimen 
aprpehre ppife unpor. anb opmob hine pelpne of the Saxcn in its higheft ftatc of purity, for here 
pon^an pepan ^ fup pingenbe cpef , are fcarcciy any words borrowed from the Roman 




Of the follov/ing verfion of the gofpels the age 
is not certainly known, but it was probably writ- 
ten between the time of /IlfreJ and that of the Nor- 
man conqueft, and therefore may properly be in- 
ferted here. 

Tranflations fcldom afford juft fpecimehs of a 
language, and ieaft of all thofe in which a fcrupu- 
lous and verbal interpretation is endeavoured, be- 
caufe they retain the phrafeology and ftrufture of 

L UC^, Cap. I. 

TJ^ ORD^QD pe: pirot)lice maneji Jjohron jjapa 
jiiinja jiace 5e-ent)eby_pt>an pe: on uy ^epyl- 
]et)e f ynt:. 

' 2 Spa uy bershrun pz Se hir oj? pfiymSe 
Tcppon. aiib jjtjie j'pjiarce j^enaj- prejion. 

3 OOe j;e]7uhre [o_p-pylijt)e pjiom pjauma] 
jeojiniice eallum. [miS] enoebyptinej'j'e pjiiran 
fee. pu 'Se j'eluj'ra Theophilup 

4 ]ju oncnape f»apa popt)a yo'SfXfTn&jje. 
op ):'am 'Se j?u jel^ejiet) eapr:- 

5 On ^ejiooep Oajum lutJea cynmcjej-. pjep 
piim pacejit) on naman Zachajiiap op Sbian rune. 
3 hip pip psep op Sajionep Oohrjium. ant) hype 
nama pa?p Glizaberh:- 

6 SoSiice hij pasjxon buru pihtrpipe bepojaan 
Ifu'De. j.injentie on eallum hip bebot>um ■] jiihr- 
pipneppuni buran pjiohre:- 

7 Ant5 hij nEejOon nan beapn. pojifjam ^e 
eiizaberh p{ep unbej\ent)e. •] hy on hyjia Oagum 
buru jojiSeotJun:- 

8 SoSlice p3ep jepojiben pa. Zachapiap hyp pa- 
cept);iatiep bpeacon hip jeppixlepentiebyjiDneppe 
bepopan Eot)e. 

9 iEprep jeponan ptey paceptihaioep hlorep. 
he eot)e f he hip opppunje perre, Sa he on 
Cot5ep rempel eobe. 

ID Gall pepot) pxy polcep pasp ure 3ebit)t)ent)e 
on Jjjepeopppunjenman:- 

1 1 Da asryptie him Dpihrnep enjel prant)ent>e 
on pxy peopobep ppiSpan healpe. 

12 Di peapt) Zachapiap jetspepet) f S^f^' 
ont5e. ~] him ere onhpeap:- 

1 3 Da cpa;S pe enjel him ro. Ne onttpret) pu 
Se Zachapiap. popj;am Jjin ben ip jehypet). ■] 
j;in pip eiizaberh pe: punu cen^. ant) ]ju nempr 
hyp naman lohannep. 

14 ■] he byS pc ro jepean ■] ro blippe. •] 
maneja on hyp acennebneppe jepajniaS:- 

15 SuSIice he byS m.tpe bepopan Dpihrne. 
anb he ne topincSpin ne beop. •] lie biS -s^epyllet) 
on halijum Dapre. );onne jyr op hip motiop in- 

1 6 Snb maneja Ippahela beapna he jecypS ro 
Dpihrne iiypa Dobc. 

6 17 Snb 

the original tongue; yet they have often this con- 
venience, that the fame book, being tranflated in 
different ages, affords opportunity of marking the 
gradations of change, and bringing one age into 
comparifon with another. For this purpofe I have 
placed the Saxon verfion and that of Wickliffe, writ- 
ten about the year 1380, in oppofite columns, be- 
caufe the convenience of eafy collation feems greater 
than that of regular chronology. 

LUK, Chap. L 

"IN the dayes of Eroude kyng of Judee ther was a 
■*■ preft Zacarye by name : of the fort of Abia, and 
his wyf was of the doughtris of Aaron : and hir 
name was Elizabeth. 

2 An bothe weren jufte bifore God : goynge in 
alle the maundementis and juftifyingis of the Lord 
withouten playnt. 

3 And thei hadden no child, for Elizabeth was 
bareyn and bothe weren of greet age in her dayes. 

4 And it bifel that whanne Zacarye fchould do 
the office of prcfthod in the ordir of his courfe to 
fore God. 

5 Aftir the cuftom of the prefthod, he wente 
forth by lot and entride into the temple to encenfen. 

6 And at the multitude of the puple was with- 
out forth and preyede in the our of encenfying. 

7 And an aungel of the Lord appcride to him: 
and flood on the right half of the auter of en- 

8 And Zacarye feynge was afrayed : and dredc 
fcl upon him. 

9 And the aungel fayde to him, Zacarye drede 
thou not: for thy preier is herd, and Elizabeth 
thi wif fchal here to thee a fone: and his name fchal 
be clepid Jon. 

10 And joye and gladyng fchal be to thee: and 
manye fchulen have joye in his natyvyte. 

1 1 For he fchal be great bifore the Lord : and 
he fchal not drinke wyn ne fydyr, and he fchal be 
fulfild with the holy goft yit of his modir wombe. 

12 And he fchal converte manye of the children 
of Ifrael to her Lord God. 

13 And 


58 -] hype nehchebupaj- •} hyjie cu^an f je- 
hyptxjn. -p Dpihren hij^ nult>-heoprne)-)-e nut) 
hype m.TppJt)e -j hij mit) hype blij-)roDon:- 

59 Di <'n bam ehreo^an tjsje 1115 comon j) 
ciIt> ant) ncmt>on hir.e hij- jrrcCep 
naman Zachapiam:- 

60 Da ant5ppapot>e hi)' mot)op. Ne y& yo'Sty. 
ac he bib lohanner jenemnet):- 

61 Da cpstx)n.hi ro hype. Nijr nan on j:inpe 
ma j^e |-yppum naman jenemnet):- 

6a Da bicnobon hi ro hif pttiep. hysfc he 
poIt>e hyne jenemneDne beon:- 

63 pa ppar he5ebet)enum pex-bpebe. lohan- 
nejr hiy nama. 6a punOpoCon hij ealle:- 

64 Da peapS fona hiif muS ■] hij" runje je- 
openoo. •] he ]-ppasc. Dpihren blerpjenoe:- 

65 Di. peap'^ eje 5epopt)en opep ealle hypa 
nehchebupaj". ant) opep ealle Iut>ea munr-lant> 
p.Epon y^Y poptJ 5epib;ii£eppot)e. 

66 ■] ealle pa be hir jehyptx>n. on hypa heop- 
ran j-errun ■] cprebon. penp: Su hpsr byS jjejf 
cnapa. pirot)lice Dpihrnej" hant) pasp mit) him:- 

67 Ant) Zachapiap hiy )::ast)ep pasp mit> hale- 
jum tjapre jepyllet). •] be pirejotJe anb cyse.'S. 

68 Deb!erj-ut) py Dpihren Ippahela Got), pop- 
])jm ]:ehe jeneopuCe. "3 hip polcep alypetjneppe 

6g Snt) he up hcele hopn apxpbe on Dauit»ep 
hope hip cnihrep, 

70 Spa he pppsEC ])uph hip halejpa pirejena 
muS. |Ja Se op poplt)ep ppym Se ppprecon. 

71 •] he alypCe up op iipum peont)um. anb op 
ealpa Jjapa hant)a ^e up harebon, 

yi COilt)-heoprneppe ro pypcenne mit) upum 
paetjepum. ■] Temunan hip halejan cy'Sneppe. 

73 ^yne uy ro pyllenne jjone aS jje he upum 
pa;t)ep Sbpahame fpop. 

74 D.Er pe buraii eje. op upe peonDa hant)a 
alypebe. him )?eopian 

75 On halijneppe bepopan him eallum upum 
toajum:- • 

76 SnT) pu cnapa bipt: J)acp hehpran pireja 
jenemneb. J?u jaepr bepopan Dpihrnep anpyne. 

77 '1 o pyllene hip poke haele jepic on hypa ' 
pynna popTypneppe. 

78 Duph inno^ap upep Eot)ep milt)-heopr- 
neppe. on Jjam he up jeneoputje op eaprbasle 

79 Onlyhran J>am p& on )yprpiim "} on tieaSep 
pceabe pirraS. upe per ro jepeccenne on pibbe 

80 Soolice pe cnapa peox. •;] pasp on japre 
jeprpanjot). -] p«p on peprenum 00 jjone X)x-^ 
hyp ierypeOneppum on Ippahel:- 


54 And the neyghbouris and cofyns of hir 
herdcn that the Lord hadde magnyfied his mercy 
with hir, and ihci thankiden him. 

55 And it was doon in the eightithe day tl>ei 
camen to circunifide the child, .nrd thei clepiden 
him Zacarye by the name of his fad:r. 

56 And his modir anfweridc and fcide, nay, 
but he fchal be clepid Jon. 

57 And thci fciden to hir, for no man is in tht 
kyndrede that is dtpid this name. 

58 And thei bikcnydcn to his fadir, what he 
wolde that he were clepid. 

59 And heaxinge a poyntel wroot feyinge, Jon 
is his name, and allc men wondridcn. 

60 And annoon his mouth was openyd and his 
tunge, and he fpak and blcffide God. 

61 And drede was maad on all hir neighbouris, 
and all the wordis wercn puplifchid on aile the 
mounteynes of Judee. 

62 And alle men that hcrden puttiden in her 
herte, and feiden what manner child fchal this be, 
for the bond of the Lord was with him. 

63 And Zacarye his fadir was fulfiUid with the 
holy Goft, and profcciede and feide. 

64 Bleffid be the Lord God of Ifrael, for he has 
vifitid and maad redempcioun of his puple. 

6g And he has rered to us an horn of helthe in 
the hous of Dauith his child. 

66 As he fpak by the mouth of hife holy pro* 
phetis that weren fro the world. 

67 Helth fro oure enemyes, and fro the hond of 
alle men that hatiden us. 

68 To do merfy with oure fadris, and to have 
mynde of his holy teftament. 

69 The grete ooth that he fwoor to Abraham our 

70 To geve himfelf to us, that we without 
drede delyvered fro the hond of our enemyes ferve 
to him, 

71 In holynefTe and rightwifncfle before him, 
in alle our dayes. 

72 And thou child fchalt be clepid the profete of 
the highede, for thou fchalt go before the face of 
the Lord to make redy hife weycs. 

73 To geve fcicncc of heelth to his puple into 
remiffioun of her fynncs. 

74 By the inwardenefs of the merfy of oure God, 
in the which he fpringyng up fro on high hath 
vifued us. 

75 To g^v^ ^'ght to them that fitten in dark- 
reffis, and in fchadowe of dceth, to drefTe our feet 
into the weye of pecsj 

76 And the child wexide, and was confortid in 
fpiryt, and was in dcfert placis till to the day of his • 
fthcwing to Yfrael. 



Of the Siixoft poetry fome fpecimen is neceflary, 
though our ignorance of the laws of their metre and 
the quantities of their fyllables, which it would be 
very dillicult, perhaps impoflible, to recover^ ex- 
cludes us from that pleakire which the old bards 
undoubtedly gave to their contemporaries. 
■I The firfl: poetry of the Saxons was without rhyme, 
anJ confcqoently muil have depended upon the 
quantity of their fyllables ; but they began in time 
to imitate their neighbours, and clofe their verfes 
with correfpondent founds. 

The two paflages, whicli I have felcfted, contain 
apparently the rudiments of our prefent lyrick mea- 
fures, and the writers may be juftly confidered as 
the genuine anceftors of the Englijh poets. 

^e mai him fojte at)jiet)en, 

Da^r he Sanne ojre bitit)e ne mujen^ 

Uoji -^ bihmpeS dome. 

^s; If pi]" f bir ant> bore 

Ant) ber biuojien bome. 

DeaS com on Sij- mitielajit) 

DujaS 'Sxy Oeplej" ont>e, 

"RnXi j*enne ant» foj^e ant) ij'pinc. 

On J"e ant) on lont)e. 

Ic am eltiep. Sanne ic pe|", 

A pinrjie ■] ec a lope. 

Ic ealtii mope Sanne ic t)et)e, 

ODi pir ojlire ro bi mope. 
8e ■^ hine )-elue uopjer, 

Uop piue oj:ep uop chilt»e. 

J)e ]-al comen on euele jretie* 

Bure jot) him bi milt)e. 
Ne hopie pip ro hipe Yt\ity 

Ne pepe ro hip piue. 

Bi pop him pelue eupich man, 

Daep pile he bieS aliue. 
' Gupich man mit) j5 he haueS, 

ClDai bejjen heuepiche. 

Se Se leppe ~] pe oe mope, 

^epe aitiep iliche. 

^euene ant) epSe he oueppie^, 

^ip ejhen biS pulbpihr. 

Sunne ~] mone ■] alle preppen, 

BieS Sieprpe on hip lihre. 
^e por hper SencheS ant) hper DoJ>, 

Alle quike pihre. 

Nip no louepT) ppich ip xipr, 

Ne no kinj ppich ip t)pihre. 
^euene -] epSe -j all Sar ip, 

Biloken ip on hip hont)e. 

^e t)eS ai ■f hip pille ip. 

On pea ant) ec on lonCe. 
^e ip opt) alburen opt)e, 

T^nt) ent)e alburen eiit)e. 

pe one ip eupe on eche pret)e, 

Ulent>e pep Su pentJe. 

pe ip buuen up ant) bineSen, 
Biuopen ant) ec bihint). 
8e man •f jotiep pille t)eS, 
pie mai hine aihpap uint)e. 

eche pune he ihep'S, 
Snt) por eche tietje. 
pe Suph pixS echep iSanc, 
lUai hpar pel up ro ]\.€o&. 

8e man neupe nele t)on T;ot), 
Ne neupe jot) lip let)en. 
Gp t)eS •] t)om come ro hip t)upe, 
pe mai him pope at)pet)en. 

punjep ■] Suppr here •] chele, 
GcSe ant) all unhel'Se. 
£5uph t)eS com on ^ip mit)elapt), 
Hnt) oSep unipelSe. 

Ne mai non hepre hir ijjenche, 
Ne no runje relle. 
pu muchele pinum ant) hu uele, 
BieS inne helle. 

Louie Dot) mit) upe hiepre. 
!Snt) mit) all upe mihre. 
!Snt) upe emcpiprene ppo up pelp, 
8po up lepeS t)pihre. 

8ume Sep habbeS leppe mepjSe, 
Snt) pume Sep habbeS mope, 
ech eprep San -^ he t)et)e, 
eprep -^ he ppanc pope. 

Ne pel Sep bi bpet) ne pin, 
Ne oj;ep kennep epre. 
Dot) one pel bi echep lip, 
Snt) blipce ant) eche pepre. 

Ne pal Sap bi pcere ne pcputs, ■* 
Ne poplfcep pele none. 
"Kc pi mepjjje •^ men up bihar, 
"KW pall ben jot) one. 

Ne mai no mepjj^e bi ppo muchel, 
8po ip jotjep ipihSe. 
pi ip poj) pune ant) bpihr, 
Hnt» t)ai Dure nihre. 

E)s:\i ip pele bure pane, 
7?nt) pepre buren ippinche. 
8e ■f mai ant) nele Set)ep come, 
Sope hir pel uopSenche, 

Dep ip blipce buren rpeje, 
"Knt) lip buren t)eaSe. 
Der eupe pullen punie Sep, 
BliSe hi bie]) ant) eaSe. 

Dep ip jeujej^e buren eltie, 
!Snt) elt)e buren unheljje. 
Nip Sep popje ne pop non, 
Ne non unipelSe. 

Dep me pel t)pihren ipen, 
8po ape he ip mit) ipippe. 
pe one mai ant) pel al bien, 
Giijlep ant) mannep blipce. 



To ^ape blij-ce oj* bpinj 30T), 
Per pixett buren ence. 
Danrie he upe piula unbinr, 
Ojr lichamlice bent>. - 

Cpipr jeue uf lel)e fpich lijr, 
Snt) habbe j-pichiie ent)e. 
♦)cr pe moren Sit5ep cumeii, 
Danne pe hennej* pentje. 

About the year 1 150, the S.-ixoh began to take a 
form in which the beginning of the prefent Englijh 
may be plainly difcovcrcd ; this cliange I'eems not to 
have been the cffcdl of the Norman conqucft, for 
very few French words are found to have been in- 
troduced in the firft hundred years after it; the 
language mud therefore have been altered by caufes 
like thofe which, nottwithltanding the care of writers 
and focieties InQituted to obv'ute them, are even 
now daily making innovations in every living lan- 
guage. I have exhibited a fpecimen of the lan- 
guage of this age from the year 1 1 35 to 1 140 of the 
Saxon chronicle, of which the latter part was ap- 
parcritly written near the time to which it relates. 

Dip jsepe pop Jtc kmj 8rephne opep pjc ro 
Nopmant)!. ~\ Jjcp pep unt^ep-pan^en. popSi -f 
hi pent)en -^ he pciiltx ben alpuic aipe jje com y^Y' 
-\ pop he hat)t»e jer hip rjiepop. ac he ro t5elt) 
ir -] pcarepet) poriicc. ODicel hat)t>e ^cnpi kinj 
jatsenet) 30IT) -j pyluep. ant) na jot? ne t>it)e me 
pop hir paule );ap op. Da be kmj Srephne ro 
enjIa-IanO com \>a macot) lie hip jabepinj asr 
Oxene-popt). 1 bap he nam be bipcop Rojep op 
8epcp-bepi. ■] SlexanTsep oipcop op Lincoln. 
"] re Hancelep Rojep hipe neuep. •] t)it»s lelie 
in ppipun. ril hi japen up hepe caprlep. Da jje 
puikep unt5ep5£eron jJ he miltx man j^ap •] popre 
"3 jot). -} na jupcipe ne t)it)e. j^a t)it)en hi alle 
punt)ep. pi hat)ben him manpet) maket> ant) 
a^p puopen. ac hi nan rpeuSc ne heolt)en. alle 
he pspon pop ppopen. •] hepe rpeoSep pop- 
lopcn. pop ffupic pice man hip caprlep makete 
antj ajaioep him heolticn. ant) pylDen j^e lant) pull 
op caj-rU-p. ^1 puencren pui^c )?e ppccce men 
op I?'* lant) mit) caprcl-peopcep. j^a ))e caprltp 
papen makit). \i j:ylt)en hi mit) t)eou'ep ant)yuele 
mtn. Da namen hi J^a men J7e hi pentitn ^ am 
jot) he):t)en. ba& be r.ihrep ?.nt) be t).Tipp. capl- 
m n ■] pimmen. ant) t)it);n hcom in jpipun eprep 
jolt) ant) pyluep. -] pmcb heom un-rellcnt5!ice 
pininj. pop n p!Fpen nasupe nan maprypp ppa 
pinct) alpi- hi ptcpon. COe henjet) up bi |)c per 
ant) pmoket) hcom mit) pul pmoke. me henjet) 
"bi j)t- jjumbrp. o^ep bijie hcpet). -] ■ cnjen bpynijep 
on hep per. OQe bitie cnorret) prpen ji p aburon 
hepe iisuet). -j uupySen ro j5 ir TEt)e ro j? 
hxpnep. pi t)it)cn heom in quaprejxnc pap natipep 

•3 pnakep ■] pibep pscpon mne. ■] bpapen heom 
ppj. 8umc hi t)it)en in cpucer hup. ■^ ip in an 
cepre jJ pap pcopr •] napeu. •] un t)ep. •] t)it>e 
pcfeppe rranep fiep inne. •] ppenjt)e J)e man \>x^ 
inne. jJ ni bp^^con alle ^t limep. In mam op j)e 
caprk-p pa?pon lop -j jpT. -JJ ps.pon pachenrejep' 
■jj rpa o^ep J)pe men hatiben onoh ro bjepon 
onne. -f pap ppa macet) j5 ip pjeprnet) ro an 
beom. •] t)it)en an pcjepp ipen aburon }pi mannep 
l^pore ■] hip halp. -jJ he ne mihre nopit)eppapt)ep 
ne pirren. ne lien, ne plepen. oc bjepon at jJ ipen. 
COani ])upen hi bpapen mit) hunja?p. J ne canne. 
•] ne mai rellen alle j)e puntiep, ne alle fe pinep -f 
hi t)it)en ppecce men on hip lant). •] ■;p lapretoe |:'a 
XIX. pmrpe pile Srephne pap kinj. -\ asupe ir pap 
uueppe ant) uueppe. pi lasit)enj^iit)ep on j^e 
runep jeupeu pile. -] clepetjen ir renpepie. pa 
|)e ppecce men ne hat)t)en nan mopero jiuen. |ja 
p£uet)en hi ant) bpent)on alle ]?€ runep. -f pel pu 
mihrep papen all aoaeip pape pcult)ej-r j^u neupe 
pint)en man in rune pirrentje. ne lant) rilet). Da 
pap copn baspe. *] plec. ~\ ctepe. ■] burepe pop 
nan ne pjep o |)e lant). Ujpecce men prupuen op 
hunjsep. pume jcben on aelmep pe papen pum 
pile pice men. pum plujen ur op lantie. lUep 
nasupe jasr mape ppeccehet) on lant). ne nasupe 
he'^en men peppe ne t)it)en pan hi t)it)en. pop 
ouep piSon ne pop-bapen hi nouSep cipce. ne 
cypce-ijept). oc nam al |?e jot> f j^ap inne pap. 
~] bpentJcn pySen |7e cypce •] alrejst)epe. Ne hi 
ne pop-bapen bipcopep lant). ne abborep. ne 
ppeoprep. ac pasueben munecep. -3 clepckep. ■] 
afupic man o^ep |7e ouep myhre. Dip rpa men 
oSep jjpe coman piticnt) ro an run. al jje run- 
pcipe piujain pop heom. penben -f hi prepon 
psuepcp. De bipcopep -] lepet) meh heom cup- 
iftT>c a;upe. oc pap heom nahr j^ap op. pop hi 
pa?pon all pop-cupj-set) -3 pop-puopen -3 pojiiopen. 
map pjE me rilct)e. J)e epSe ne bap nan copn. pop 
]je lant) pap all popbon mit» puilce t)aEt)ep. -3 hi 
pnEt)en openlice -f Lpij-r p!ep. -3 hip halechen. 8uilc 
•3 mape Jeanne pe cunnen pajin. pe ]iolent)en xix. 
pinrpe pop upe pinnep. On al pip yucle rime 
hcolt) ClDaprm abbor hip abborpice xx. pinrep 
■3 halp Jsp. T VIII. t)aE'ip. mit) micel puinc. -3 
pant) |-e munekep. -3 re jej-rep al ■^ heom behouet). 
•3 heolb mycel capireb in rhe hup. ant) |7oS pe- 
£epe ppohre on |ie cipce -3 perre j?ap ro lanbep -3 
penrtp. -3 jottt) ir puy^c ant) Isr ir pepen. ant) 
bpohre htom inro ]:e neps mynprpe on p. Pcrpep 
niaype-t)a:i mib micel puprpcipe. f pap anno ab 
incapnarione Dom. mcxl. a combuprione loci 
XXIII. Knt) he pop ro Rome -3 ]i)^^ pa?p pasl 
unt)ep-p.in5fn ppam |7e Pape Gujenie. -3 bejjer 
rbape ppiuilejiep. an op alle \>c lanticp op pabbor- 
pice. -3 an oSep op ])e lanSep ])e lien ro \>t cipce- 
pican. -3 jip he lenj mopre liuen. aIpe he minr 



ro T)on op f>e hojibeji-pycan, "Knt) he bejjcr m j'pac pib Robbejit eojil ^ pib f»empejMce anb|-pofi 

lantjer -p jtice men heptien mit) yvjien-^pe. op heom aSaj-'iphe neujiema mib rekinjhij" bjio^eji 

U3il!elm CDalOuir pe heolo Rojinjham |;fe caprel polbe halben. "] ciijipbe alle fe men fe mib hitn 

he pan Eorinjham •] ej^run. -^ op pujo op Ulalr- heolben. anb psbe heom -p he polbe ifuen heom 

uile he pan ^f^iTlw^i). -3 Sranepij. •] lx. pof. up tUin-ceprji.. ■} bibe heom cumen |7ibe]i. Da 

op Stoepinjle £ek jasji. Snti he maket)e n anie hi |7asp inne pa^jxen |7a com f»e kinjep cuen .^ i 

munekep. -} planrct5e piniasjit). ■] maket>; manie hijie prpenjSe ■^ bepsc heom, -p pep. y^ey inne 

peojikep. -] pent5e |7e run berejie fian it asp pasp. micel hunjjep. Da hi ne lenj ne muhren jjolen. j^a 

anb p tp jot) munec •] joT) man. ■] popSi hi luuetien prali hi ur ~\ plu jen. •] hi piipSen pip piSuren "] 

Cot) anb TOiDe men. Nu pe pillen psejen pum tjel polecheben heom. anb namtn RotDbepr eopi op 

par belamp on Srephne kinjep rime. On hip DIou-ceprpe ant) lebben him ro Roue-ceprpe. ant> 

rime f»e Jut>eup op Nop-pic bohron an Epipren t)iben him j^ape m ppipun. anb re empepice pleh 

ciltJ bepopen Sprpen. ant> pinet)en him alle pe inro an mynprpe. Da peopt)en Sa pipe men be- 

ilce pininT -f upe Dpihrin pap pinet). ant) on lanj- rpyx. pe kinjep ppeonb ~] re eoplep ppeonb. ant) 

ppit)aei him on potie henjen pop upe Dpihrnep pahrlebe pua ■f me pculbe leren ur pe kinj op 

luue. ■] py^sn bypiet)en him. liUent)en -f ir ppipun pop f»e eopl. ■] reeopi pop f>e kinj. "] pua 

pcutee btn pop holen. oc upe Dpihrin arypet)e bit)en. 8i^en ^ep eprepparhleben f>e kmj-] Ran- 

•p he pap hall mapryp. ~\ ro munekep him namen. toolp eopi ar 8ran-popt» *] aSep ppopen ant) 

•] bebypiet) him hejiicc. in Se mynprpe. ■] he rpeuSep psepron f hep nou'Sep pculbe bepuiken 

maker |7up upe Dpihrin punt)eplice ant) mam- o^ep. -3 ir ne pop-prob nahr. pop pe kinj him 

paelt)!ice mipaciep. ■] harre he p. Ulillelm:- pi'Sen nam m ^amrun. J^uphe ])icci past). ■] bitjc 

On |3ip jafp com Dauit) kinj op Scorlant) mit) him in ppipun. ^ ep ponep he ler him ur fiuphe 

opmere parpt) ro piy lant) polDe pinnan piy lanti." •] pasppe pet)ro -p popepaptie -p he puop on halitiom. 

him com rojEeneplUillelmeoplopSlbamapljekinj •] jyplep panb. f he alle hip caprlep pcult)e iiuen 

at)t)eberehr 6uop-pic. ■] ro oScp a^uez men mit» up. Sume he lap up anb pume ne lap he nohr. 

pasu men -] puhren pit) heom. •] plemt)en pe king a;r anb bibe |janne pjeppe Sanne he hasp pculbe. Da 

re prant)apt». ■] plojen pG^e micel op hip jenje:- pap Gnjle-lanb puioe ro-belcb. pume helben mib 

Un f»ip jjep poloe pe kinj Srephne raecen Rot)- re kinj. -j pume mib f empepice. pop jja j^c king 

bepreoplop Dlouceprpe. jjekinjeppune^enpiep. pap in ppipun. fa penben pe eoplep "j re pice 

ac he ne mihre pop he papr ir pap. Da cprep hi men -p he neupe mape pculbe cumme ur. "j 

pe lenjren jjeprepebe pe punne •] re tsrei aburon pashrleben pyb ]?empepice. -j bpohren hipe inro 

nonrit) oejep. pi men eren "p me lihret)e canblep Oxen-popb. ant) lauen hipe pe bupch:- Da Se kinj 

ro a.'ren bi. ~] -p pap xiii. kr. Appil. paspon men pap ure. J7a hepbe f paejen. anb roc hip pcopb 

I'uiSe oppuntipet). Dejx eprep popt)-peopt)e Ujil- ■] bepasr hipe in pe rup. "3 me lasr hipe bun on 

elm ^pce-bipcop op Eanrpap-bypij. -j re king nihr op pe rup mib papep. -j pral ur •] peas pleh 

maket)e Teobalt) ^ffipce-bipcop, l^epap abbor in Jje ^ isebe on pore ro lUalinj-popb. Dasp eprep 

Bee. Dej\ eprep psx puiSe micel uueppe beruyx pes pepbe opep pas. •] In op Nopmanbi penben 

J^e kinj -j Ranbolp eopl op Useprpe nohr popSi alle ppa pe kinj ro pe eopl op Snjasu. pume hepe 

•p he ne jap him a! -p he cuSe axen him. alpe he Jjankep -] pume hepe un-j^ankep. pop he bepser 

tiitx; alle oSpe.ocjeppe femape lap heom J?e psppe heom ril hi aiauen up htpe caprlep. •] hi nan 

hi paepon him. De eopl heolb Lincol ajsenep pe helpe ne haepben op jje kinj. Da pepbe Gupracc 

kinj. ~] benam him al ■f he ahre ro hauen. -j re |je kinjeppuneroFpance. -jnamljekinjeppuprep 

kinj pop pitiep. ■] bcpasrre him -] hip bpoSep op Fpance ro pipe. pent)e ro bijxron Nopmant)i 

lUilielm t)2 R . . . ape in pd caprel. •] re eopl |7.cp Jjuph. oc he ppet)t)e lirel. ■] be jotJe pihre. 

prjel ur -] p^ptie eprep Rotibcpr eopl op Clou- pop he pap an yucl man. pop papepe he ... . l)it)e 

ceprpe. -3 bpohr him jjitsep mit> micel pepb. mape yuel Jeanne jot), he peuet)e pe lantiep •] Iasit)c 

anb puhren ppiSe on Eantielmappe-t)asi ajenep mic pon. hebpohre hippiproGnjle-lant). 

hcope lauept). ~j namen him. pop hip men him ~} t)it)e hipe in pe capre reb. Tot) pimman 

puykcn -j plujaen. ant) liet) him ro Bpiprope ant) pea? psep. oc pcse het)t)e lirel blippe mit) him. *] 

oitJcn flap in ppipun. "] . . . repep. Da pap all xpij^r ne polt)e f he pcult)e lanje pixan. -j paspb 

Gnjlc-lant) prypet) map ])an aep ysey. ant) all yuel t)eb ant) hip moticpbelen. -jreeoplopSnjEupjept) 

fxy in lant)e. Deji eprep com pe kinjep t)ohrep t)et). •] hip pune ^enpi roc ro pe pice. "Knb re cuen 

^enpi'p p: hepbe ben Gmpepic on Tvlamanie. ■] nu op Fpance ro-t)s:lbe ppa pe kinj. "] peas com ro pe 

pasp cunrepfe in T^njou. •] com ro Lunt)ene. -j re lunje eopl ^enpi. •] he roc hipe ro pipe. -3 al Peirou 

Luntsenippce pole hipe polt)e ra;cen •] ycx pleh. T mit» hipe. Da pepbe he mit) micel pspb inro 

poplep pap micel:- Deji eprep be bipcop op Gnjle-lanb. ■] pan caprlep. -] re km j pepbe ajencp 

Ujin ceprpe ^enpi. pe kmjcp bpg^cp Srephnep. him micel mapepepS. Tfo^pjEfepepurcnhinohr. 

Vol. I. c oc 


oc |-cpbcn Jtc ^pce biprop -j re ]>\ye men be- 
rpux hcom. •] makcbc jJ pahrcfrc kinj pculbe 
btii laui j\b •} kinj pile he liutbe. •] aprep hij- bsi 
p;)pe ^i npi kin J. •} he helbe him poji pabeji ■] he 
nim poji pune. ant> pib -] psehre pcultJe ben bcrpyx 
hconi -] on al Gnjlc lanO. i5ip ant) re oSpe 
jrojimiapbrp Jjtr hi makcben poojien ro halbcn 
pc kinj •} re eojl'. ant) re bipcop. •] re eojilrp. 
-J picciren alle. Da pap pe eopl untjejxpanjcn 
^r lUin ceprjie ar.b ser L.unbene mib miccl 
pujirpcipe. anb alle t)iT)en him man-pcb. ant) 
puoptrn pe paip ro halt>en. ant) hir papb pone 

giSc job paip pua -p ncujie pap hejie. Da pap 
ki('5 prjvtrnjcjie Jjanne he seuejar hep pap. •] re 
f opt pepbe oucp pas. •] al pole him luuebe. pop he 
XnX)c got) jupripe -j maktt)e paip:- 

Nearly about this time, the following pieces of 
poetry fecm to have been written, of which 1 have 
inferted only (hort fragments ; the firft is a rude 
attempt at the prefent meafure of eight fyllables, 
and the fccond is a natural introduftion to Robert 
of Gloucejier, being compofed in the fame meafure, 
which, however rude and barbarous it may feem, 
taught the way to the AUxandrines of the French 

■p* U R in fee bi wefr fpaynge. 

•*• If a lont) ihorc cokaygne. 

Dcr nif lont) unt)er heuennchc. 

Of wel of gotJnif hir iliche. 

Doy paraDif be miri anD briyr. 

Eokaygn if of fairir fiyr. 

Whar if fer in parat)if. 

Bor graffe ant) flure anD grenerif. 

Doy Jjer be loi ant) grcr t)urc. 

Der nif mer bore frurc. 

Dcr nif halle bure no bench. 

Bor wanr man if furfro quench. 

Beb per no men bur rwo. 

^ely ant) cnok alfo. 

Oinghch may hi go. 

Whar |?er woni|) men no mo. 

In cokaygne if mer ant) t)rink. 

Wi])ure care how ant) fwink. 

De mtr if rrie |)e brink fo clere: 

To none ruflin ant) fopper. ' 

I figge for fo|) boure were. 

Der nif lont) on er|?e if pere. 

Unt)cr hcuen nif lont) i wifle. 

Of fo mochil loi ant) blifle. 

Dcr if mam fwerc fiyre. 

Al if l)ai nif ))er no niyre. 

Der nif barer no)'er frrif. 

Nif ptr no t>ej7 ac eucr lif. 

Dcr nif lac of mer no clojr. 

Der nif no man no woman wrolr. 

Der nif ferpenr wolf no fox. 
^orf no capil. kowe no ox. 
Dcr nif fchepe no fwine no gore. 
No non horwyla got) ir wore. 
Noficr harare nober frot)'*. 
De lant) if ful of o])er got>e. 
Nif f^er flei fie no lowfc. 
In clo|) in roune bet) no houfe. 
Der nif tounnir flere no hawje. 
No non vile worme no fnawile. 
No non frorm rem no wint>e. 
Der nif man no woman blint)e. 
Ok al if game loi anr gle. 
Wel if him pax: J7er mai be. 
Der be)) riverf grer ant) fine. 
Of oile mclk honi ant) wine. 
Wanr feruij) jjer ro nojjing. 
Bor ro fiyr ant) ro waufling. 


r^ LD E anr yonge i preir ou oure folief for ro 

^^ iere. 

Dencher on gob ])ar yef ou wir oure funnef ro 

^ere mai reilen ou. wit) wort)ef feire ant) fwere. 
De vie of one meitian. waf horen COaregrere. 

;^ire fat)er waf a parriac. af ic ou reilen may. 
In aunrioge wif echef i Se fajic lay. 
Deve gotJcf anr t)oumbe. he fervet) nitt anr t)ay. 
So t)et)en mony ojpere. picc finger weilawey. 
Theot)ofius wafif nome. on crift Ae levet>e he 

pe levet)e on pt falfe got)ef. Sar peren wit) hontoen 

Do jjar chilt) fcult^e chnftine ben. ic com him well 

in |?outt. 
€ bet) wen ir were ibore. ro t)tpt ir were ibpoutt. 
De mot)er waf an hejjene wif pax hire ro wyman 

Do ^ar chilD ibore waf. nolt)e ho hir furfare. 
^o rent)e ir inro afye. wib meflagerf ful yare. 
To a nopice far hire wifte. anr ferre hire ro 

De nonce |)ar hire wifte. chilt)ren aheuet)e feuene. 
De eitte|)e waf maregrere. crifref may of heuene. 
Talef ho am rolt»e. ful feire anr ful euene. 
Wou ho ])olct)en marrirt)om. fern Laurence anr 

feinre Sreuene. 

In thefe fragments, the adulteration of the Saxon 
tongue, by a mixture of the Norman^ becomes 
apparent ; yet it is not lb much changed by the 
admixture of new words, which might be imputed 
to commerce with the continent, as by changes 
of its own forms and terminations \ for which no 
reafon can be given. 



Hitherto the language ufed in this illand, how- 
ever different in fucccffive time, may be called 
Saxon; nor can it be expeded, from the nature of 
things oradually changing, that any time can be 
afiigned, when the Saxon may be faid to ceafe, and 
the Englilh to commence. Rokrt of Gloucejltr 
however, who is placed by the criticks in the thir- 
teenth century, fecms to have ufed a kind of in- 
termediate diction, neither Saxon nor Englijh ; in 
his work therefore we fee the tranfition exhibited, 
and, as he is the firft of our writers in rhyme, of 
whom any large work remains, a more cxtenfive 
quotation is extraded. He writes apparently in the 
fame mcafure with the foregoing authour of St. 
Margarite, which, polifhrd into greater exadnefs, 
appeared to our anceftors fo fuitable to the genius 
of the Englijh language, that it was continued 
in ufe almoft to the middle of the feventeenth 

/^F fe batayles of Denemarch, J^at hii dude in 

^-^ \ys londe 

J>at worft were of alle ojjere, we mote abbe an 

Worft hii were, vor ojrere adde fomwanne ydo, 
As Romeyns & baxons, & wel wufte J^at lond 

Ac hii nc kept yt holde nojt, bote robby, and 

And deftrue, & bernc, & fle, & ne coujje abbe non 

And bote lute yt nas wor]?, |?ey hii were ouercome 

Vor myd flypes and gret poer as preft effone hii 

Kyng Adelwolf of ]py% lond kyng was tuenty jer. 
|7e Deneys hym ryuor |7an hii dude cr. 
Vor in ^e al our vorft jer of ys kynedom 
Myd j^re & frytty flypuol men her prince hyder 

And at Sou]?hamtone aryuede, an hauene by SouJ^e. 
Anojjer gret oft jjulke tyme aryuede at Portef- 

}jc kyng nufte wejjer kepe, at delde ys oft atuo. 
J7e Denes adde j^e mayftrc. \o al was ydo. 
And by Eftangle and Lyndcfeye hii wende vorb atte 

And fo hamward al by Kent, & (lowe & barnde 

Ajen wynter hii wende hem. anojjer jer eft hii 

And deftrude Kent al out, and L.ondone nome. 
jjus al an ten jer J?at lond hii brojte j^er doune, 
*So fiat in \ic te|je jer of |)e kynge's croune, 
Al byfou|3e hii come alond, and f'et folc of Somer- 

foru J?e byflbp Alcfton and j^et folc of Dorfete 

Hii come & fmytc an batayle, & Jjere, Jf>oru Code's 

fe Deneys were al bynej^e, & J^e lond folc adde J^e 

And more prowelTe dude ]jo, fan J>e kyng my^te 

jjeruore gode lond men ne be]? nojt al verlore. 
\>c kyng was |?e boldore ]?o, & ajen hem fe more 

And ys foure godes fones woxe vafte y nou, 
Edclbold and Adelbryjt, Edelred and Alfred, 
jpys was a ftalwarde tern, & of gret wyfdom & red. 
And kynges were al foure, & defendede wel Jjys 

An Deneys dude flame ynou, J^at me volwel vond. 
Is fyxte)7e jere of j^e kynge's kynedom 
In eldeftc lone Adelbold gret oft to hym nome. 
And ys fader alfo god, and ofiere heye nfen al fo. 
And wende ajenj^ys Deneys, j^a't muche wo adde 

y do. 
Vor myd tuo hondred flypes 8c an alf at Temfe 

mou]j hii come. 
And Londone, and Kancerbury, and ojjer tounes 

And fo vor|) in to Soj^ereye, & floweSc barnde vafte, 
fere fe kyng and ys fone hem mette atte lafte. 
fere was batayle ftrong ynou yfmyte in an frowe. 
f e godes kynjtes leye adoun as gras, wan medef 

Heueden, (fat were of yfmyte,) & oferlymes alfo, 
Flete in blode al fram fe grounde, ar f e batayle were 

Wannef at blod ftod al abrod, vas fer gret wo y nou. 
Nys yt reufe vorto hure, fat me fo vole flou ? 
Ac our fuete Louerd atte lafte fl'ewede ys fuete grace. 
And fende fe Criftyne Englyfl^e men f e mayftrye in 

fe place. 
And fe hefcne men of Denemarch bynefe were 

Nou nas fer jut in Denemarch Criftendom non ; 
fe kyng her after to holy chyrche ys herte fe morfe 

And tefejede wel & al ys lond, as hii ajte, we! y 

Seyn Swythyn at Wyncheftre byflTop fo was, 
And Alcfton at Syrebourne, fat amendede muche 

fys cas. 
f e kyng was wel f e betere man f oru her beyre red, 
Tuenty wynter he was kyng, ar he were ded. 
At Wyncheftre he was ybured, as he jut lyf fere. 
Hys tueye fores he jef ys lond, as he byjct ham ere, 
Adelbold, the eldore, fe kynedom of Kftfex, 
And fuffe Adelbryjc, Kent and Wcftfex. 
Eyjtc hondred jer yt was and feuene and fyfty al fo. 
After fat God anerfe com, fat fys dcde was ydo. 
Bofe hii wufte by her tyme wel her kynedom. 
At f e vyfte jer Adelbold out of fys lyue nome. 



At Sfyrcbourne he was ybured, & ys broker Adel- 

His kynedotn adde after hym, as lawe was and ryjt. 
By ys daye pe verde com of )je hej^ene men wel prout. 
And Hamteflyrc and deftrude Wyncheftre al out. 
And |jat lond folc of namteflTyre her red ]jo nome 
And of Barcflyre, and fojte and pc ffrewen ouer- 

AdelbryTC was kyng of Kent jeres folle tene. 
And of Wcftfex bote vyue, fo he dcyde ych wenc. 

A DEL RED was after hym kyng y mad in J?e 
**• place, 

Eyjtehondred&feuene&fyxty as in|jejerof grace. 
pc vorfte jer oi ys kynedonf J^e Deneys pycke com. 
And robbedc and deftrude, and cytes vafte nome. 
Mayftrcs hii addeof her oft, as yt were dukes, tueye, 
Hynguar and Hubba, J^at flrewen were beye. 
In Eft Angle hii byleuede, to reft hem as yt were, 
Myd her oft al pe wynter, of pe vorft jerc. 
feojjerjerhiidudehemvor]?, &ouerHombercomc, 
And flowe to grounde & barnde, &Euerwyk nome. 
fer was batayle ftrong y nou, vor yflawe was )jere 
Ofryc kyng of Hombcrlond, & monye jjat with hym 

|?o Homberlond was j?us yflcnd, hii wende & tounes 

So Jjat atte lafte to Eftangle ajen hym come, 
^cr hii barnde & robbcde, and j^at folc to grqunde 

And, as wolues among ffep, reulych hem to drowe. 
Seynt Edmond was )70 her kyng, & jjo he fey Jjac 

deluol cas r 

fat me morjjrede fo jjat folc, & non amendemcntnas. 
He ches leuere to deye hymfulf, Jjat fuch forwe to 

He dude hym vorjj among hys fon, nolde he no)?yg 

Hii nome hym & fcourged hym, & fujjjje naked 

hym bounde 
To a tre, & to hym flbte, & made hym mony a 

fat J?e arewe were on hym jjo fycce, f>at no ftede 

nas byleuede. 
Atte lafte hii martred hym, and fmyteof ys heued. 
pc fyxte 3;cr of pe crounement of Alderecl be kyng 
A nywe oft com into fys lond, gret)7oru allc fyng. 
And anon to Redynge robbedc and flowe. 
be king and Alfred ys broker nome men ynowe, 
Mette hem, and a batayle fmyte vp Aftefdoune, 
fer was mony moder chyld, fatfonelay jjerdoune. 
be batayle ylalte vorte nyi^t, and fer were aflawe 
Vyf dukes of Dcnemarch, ar hii wolde wyf drawe. 
And mony foufend of ofer men, & fo gonne hii 

to fle; 
Ac hii adde alle ybc affcnd, gyf fe nyjt madde y be. 

Tueye batayles her after in pc fuif jere 

Hii fmyte, and at boj^e fe hefene mayftres were." 

pc kyng Aldered fone )jo fen wey of def nome. 

As yt vel, pe vyfty jer of ys kynedom. 

At Wymbourne he was ybured, as God jef fat cas, 

fc gode Alfred, ys brof er, after hym kyng was. 

A LFRED, fys noble man, as in f e jer of grace 
■^ he nom 

Eyjte.hondred & fyxty & tuelue fe kynedom. 
Arft he adde at Rome ybe, &, vor ys grete wyfdom, 
fe pope Leon hym bleflfede, fo he f uder com. 
And f e kynge's croune of hys lond, fat in fys lond 

Tut ys: 
And he led hym to be kyng, ar he kyng were ywys. 
An he was kyng of Engelond, of alle fat fer come, 
fat vorft f us ylad was of f e pope of Rome, 
An fuffe ofer after hym of fe erchebyflbpes echon. 
So fat hyuor hym pore kyng nas fer non. 
In f e Souf fyde of Temefe nyne batayles he nome 
Ajen fe Deneys fe vorft jer of ys kynedom. 
Nye Ter he was f us in fys lond in batayle & in wo. 
An oTte fypt aboue was, and bynef e oftor mo ; 
So longe, fat hym nere by leuede bote f re flTyren in 

ys hond, 
Hamteflfyre, and WylteflTyre, and Somerfete, of al 

ys lond. 
A day as he wery was, and afuoddrynge hym nome 
And ys men were ywend auyflfef , Seyn Cutbert to 

hym com. 
" Icham," hcfeyde, "-Cutbert, to fe ycham ywend 
" To brynge f e gode tytynges. Fram God ychani 

" Vor fat folc of fys lond to fynne her wylle al 

" And jut nolle herto her fynnes byieue 
" foru me & ofer halewen, fat in fys lond were 

ybore ; 
" fan vor jou byddef God, wanne we bef hym 

" Hour Louerd myd ys cyen of milce on fe lokef 

" Andfy poer fe wole jyue ajen, fat fou aft ney 

" And fat fou fer of fof yfe, fou fl*alt abbe 

" Vor fym men, fat bef ago to day auyflynge, 
" In lepes & in coufles fo muche vyls hii ifolde 

hym brynge, 
" fat ech man wondry flfal of fo grec cacchynge. 
*' And fe mor vor fe harde vorfte, fat fe water 

yfrore hys, 
*' fat be more ajen fe kunde of vyflTynge yt ys. 
" Of ferueyt welajenGod, andylefmeys mefl"3ger, 
*' And fou flail fy wylle abyde, as ycham ytold 





As |?ys kyng herof awoc, and of |?ys fyjte jjojte, 
Hys vyflTares come to hym, & io gret won of fyfs 

hym brojte^ 
pit wonder yt was, & namelyche vor pe weder was 

fo colde. 
j-o lyuede J3e god man wel, pn Seyn Cutbert adde 

In Deuenyfiyre |5er after aryiiede of Deneys 
bre and tuenty ffypuol men, all ajen pe peys, 
be kynge's brojjer of Denemarcli tiuc of oft was. 
Oure kynge's men of Engelond mette hem by cas, 
And fmyte j^er an batayle, and her gret due flowe. 
And ey jte hondred & fourty men, & her caronyes 

to drowe. 
po kyng Alfred hurde j;ys, ys herte gladede )jo, 
f>at lond folc to hym come fo j^ycke fo yt myjte go, 
Of Somerfcte, of Wyltefiyre, of Hamteffyre jjcrio, 
Euere as he wende, and of ys owe folc ai fo. 
So jjat he adde poer ynou, and atte lafte hii come. 
And a batayle at Edendone ajen pe Deneys nome. 
And flowe to grounde, & wonne pe mayftre of the 

pe kyng & ys grete duke bygonne hem to jeldc 
To pe kyng Alfred to ys wylle, and oftages toke, 
Vorto wende out of ys lond, jyf he yt wolde loke ; 
And jut ]?erto, vor ys loue, to auonge Criftendom. 
Kyng Gurmund, pe hexte kyng, vorft jjer to come. 
Kyng Alfred ys godfader was. & ybaptyfcd ek |7er 

fretty of her hexte dukes, and muchc of j^at folc fiere 
Kyng Alfred hem huld wyf> hym tuelf dawes as he 

And fuj)]7e he jef hem large jyftcs, and let hym 

Hii, )7at nolde Criftyn be, of lande flcve {jo. 
And byjonde fte in France dude wel muche wo. 
jut |7e (Irewen come ajcn, and muche wo here wrojte. 
i\c|jekyng Alfred atte iafteto flame hem euere brojte. 
Kyng Alfred was pt wyfofl: kynj, ]7at long was 

Vor l^ey mefegge Jjelawes be)? in worre tyme vorlore, 
Nas yt nojt fo hiis daye. vor |7ey he in worre were, 
Lawes he made ryjtuoUore, and ftirengore ]?an er 

Clerc he was god ynou, and jut, as me tellej? me. 
He was more- j^an ten jer old, ar he couj^e ys abece. 
Ac ys gode moder otte fmale jyftes hym tok, 
Vor to byleue ojjer pie, arKi loky on ys boke. 
So j:iat by por clergyc ys rvjt lawes he wonde, 
pu ncuere er nere y mad, to gouerny ys lond. 
And vor pc worre was fo muche of J^e lu|7er Deneys, 
pe men of J?ys fulue lond were of j^c worfe peys. 
And robbedc and flowe oj^ere, jjeruor he byuondc, 
[;at Jjer were hondredcs in eche contreye of ys lond. 
And in ech toune of pe hondred a te^^ynge were alfo, 
And J)at ech man wvjioute gret lond in tej'ynge were 

Vol. 1. 

And jjat ech man knewe o|»er J^at in te|5ynge were. 
And wufte fomdei of her flat, jyf me pa vp hem here. 
So ftreyt he was, j^at ptf me ledde amydde weyes 

Seluer, jjat non man ne dorfte yt nyme, |7ey he yt 

Abbeys he rcrde mony on, and mony fliudes ywys. 
Ac Wyncheftrye he rerde on, jjat nywe munftre 

ycluped ys. 
Elys lyf eyTte and tuenty jer in ys kynedom ylafl;e. 
After ys dep he wos yburcd at Wynciftcllre atte lafte. 

Sir John Maudeville wrote, as he himfelf informs 
us, in the fourteenth century, and his work, which 
comprifing a relation of many different particulars, 
confequcntly required the ufe of many words and 
phrafes, may be properly fpecified in this place. 
Of the following quotations, I have chofen the firft, 
bccaufc it fliows, in fome meafure, the ftate of Eu- 
ropean fcience as well as of the Engli/h tongue ; and 
the fecond, becaufe it is valuable for the force of 
thought and beauty of exprefllon. 

TN that lond, ne in many othere bezonde that, 
•^ no man may fee the fterre tranfmontanc, that 
is clept the fterre of the fee, that is unmevable, 
and that is toward the Northe, that we clepen 
the lode fterre. But men feen another fterre, the 
contraric to him, that is toward the Southe, that 
is clept Antartyk. And right as the fchip men 
taken here avys here, and governe hem be the lode 
fterre, right fo don fchip men bezonde the parties, 
be the fterre of the Southe, the which fterre ap- 
percthc not to us. And this fterre, that is toward 
the Northe, that wee clepen the lode fterre, ne 
apperethe not to hem. For whiche caufe, men may 
wel pcrceyve, that the lond and the fee ben of 
rownde fchapp and forme. For the partie of the 
firmament fchewethe in o contrce, that fchewethc 
not in another contrce. And men may well preven 
be experience and foty le compaflTement of wy tt, that 
zif a man fond paflTages be fchippes, that wolde go 
to ferchen the world, men myghte go be fchippc 
alie aboutc the world, and aboven and benethen. 
The v/hiche thing I prove thus, aftre that I have 
fcyn. For I have been toward the parries of Bra- 
ban, and beholden the Aftrolabre, that the fterre 
that is clept the rranfmontayne, is 53 degrees highc. 
And more forthcre in Almayne and Bewme, it 
hathe 58 degrees. And more forthe toward the 
parties feptemtrioneles, it is 62 degrees of hcghte, 
and certvn mynutes. For I my lelf have mefured 
it by the Aftrolabre. No*/ fchulle.ze knowe, that 
azen the Tranfmontayne, is the tother fterre, that 
is clept Antartyke-, as I have feyd before. And 
tho 2 fterres ne mecven neverc. And be hem 
f turnechs 


tiirnethe alle the firmamcnr, righte as dothe a wheel, 
that turneche be his axille tree: fo that tho fterres 
bercn the firmament in 2 egallc parties; fo that it 
hathe als mochel aboven, as it hath benethcn. Aftre 
this, I have gon toward the parties meridionales, 
that is toward the Southe : and I have founden, 
that in Lybye, men fccn firft the fterre Antartylc. 
And lb ter I have gon more in tho contrees, that I 
have f'ounde that tterrc more highe ; fo that to- 
ward the highe Lybye, it is 18 degrees of hcghte, 
and certeyn rrtinutcs (of the whiche, 60 minutes 
maken a degree) after goynge be fee and be londe, 
toward this contree,'of that 1 have fpoke, and to 
other yles and londes bezonde that contree, I have 
founden the fterre Antartyk of 33 degrees of 
heghte, and mo mynutes. And zif 1 hadde had 
companye and fchippynge, for to go more bezonde, 
1 trowe wcl in certyn, that wee fcholde have feen 
alle the roundnefle of the firmament alle aboute. 
For as I have fcyd zou be forn, the half of the 
firmament is betwene tho 2 fterres : the whiche 
Kalfondellc I have feyn. And of the other halfon- 
delle, I have feyn toward the Northe, undre the 
Tranfmontane 62 degrees and 10 mynutes ; and 
toward the partie meridionalle, I have feen undre 
the Antartyk 3^ degrees and 16 mynutes : and 
thanne the halfondelle of the firmament in alle, ne 
holdcthe not but 180 degrees. And of tho 180, I 
have feen 62 on that o part, and 33 on that other 
part, that ben 95 degrees, and nyghe the halfondelle 
of a degree •, and fo there ne faylethe but that I 
have feen alle the firmament, faf 84 degrees and 
the halfondelle of a degree ; and that is not the 
fourthe p.)rt of the firmament. For the 4 partie of 
the roundnefle of the firmament hole 90 degrees : 
fo there faylethe but 5 degrees and an half, of the 
fourthe partie. And alfo I have feen the 3 parties 
of alle the roundntfle of the firmament, and more 
zit 5 degrees and an half. Be the whiche I feye 
zou certrynly, that men may envirowne alle the 
erthe of alie the world, as wel undre as aboven, 
and turnen azen to his contree, that hadde com- 
panye and fchippynge and conduyt: and alle wcyes 
he fcholde fynde men, londes, and yles, als wel as 
in this contree. For zee wyten wclle, that ihei 
that ben toward the Antartyk, thei ben ftreghte, 
feet azen feet of hem, that dweilen undre the Tranf- 
montane j als wel as wee and thei that dwellyn 
undre us, ben feet azenft feet. For alle the parties 
of fee and of lond han here appofiiees, habirablcs 
or trepiflfiblcs, and thei of this half and bezond 
half. And wytethe wel, that afire that, that I 
may parccyve and comprehendt-, the londes of 
Preftre John, cmperour of Yndc ben undre us. 
For in goynge from Scotlonu or from Hnglond to- 
ward Jc-rufalem, men gon upward alwcys. For 
oure lond is in th«- lowe partie of the crihe, toward 

the Weft: and the lond of Preftre John is the lov/e 
partie of the erthe, toward the Eft : and thei harj 
there the day, whan wee have the nyghte, and alfo 
highe to the contrarie, thei han the nyghte, whan 
wee han the day. For the erthe and the fee ben of 
round forme and fchapp, as I have feyd beforn. 
And than that men gon upward to o coft, men goa 
dounward to another coft. Alfo zee have herd me 
feye, that Jerufalcm is in the myddes of the world; 
and that may men preven and Ichewen there, be a 
fpere, that is pighte in to the erthe, upon the hour 
of mydday, whan it is equenoxium, that i'chewcche 
no fchadwe on no fyde. And that it fcholde bea 
in the myddes of the world, David wytnefTethe it 
in the Pfautre, where he feythe, Deus operatus eft 
falute in medio terre. Thanne'thci that parten fro 
the parties of the Weft, for to go toward Jcrufa- 
lem, als many iorneyes as thei gon upward for ta 
go thidre, in als many iorneyes may. thei gon fra 
Jerufalem, unto other confynyes of thefuperficialtie 
of the erthe bezonde. And whan men gon bezonde 
tho iourneycs, towarde Ynde and to the foreyn yies, 
alle is envyronynge the roundnefle of the erthe and 
of the fee, undre oure contrees on this half. And 
therfore hathe it befallen many tymes of o thing, 
that I have herd cownted, whan I was zong ; how 
a worthi man departed fometyme from oure con- 
trees, for togoferche the world. And fo he pafted 
Ynde, and the yles bezonde Ynde, where ben mo 
than 5000 yles : and fo longe he wente be fee and 
lond, and fo enviround the world be many feyfons,. 
that he fond an yle, where he herde fpeke his owne 
langage, callynge on oxen in the plowghe, fuchc 
wordes as men fpekcn to beftes in his own contree: 
whereof he hadde gret raervayle: for he knevve 
not how it myghte be. But I feye, that he had 
gon fo longe, -be londe and be fee, that he had- 
envyround alle the erthe, that he was comen azer\ 
cnvirounynge, that is to feye, goynge aboute, un- 
to his pwne marches, zif he woide have pafled 
torthe, til he had founden his contree and bis owne 
knouleche. But he turned azen from thens, from 
whens he was come fro ; and fo he lofte moche 
peynefiille labour, as him felf feyde, a gret while 
aftre, that he was comen horn. For it befclle aftre, 
that he wente in to Norweye-, and there tempelt of 
the fee toke him; and he arryved in an yle; and 
whan he was in that yle, he knew wel, that it wa» 
the yle, where he had herd fpeke his owne lan- 
gage before, and the callynge of the oxen at the 
plowghe: and that was poftible thinge. But how 
it femethe to lymple men unlerned, that men ne 
mowc not go undre the erthe, and alfo that men 
fcholde fallc towarde the hevene, frotn undre! But 
that may not be, upon lefie, than wee mowe f.iile 
toward hevene, fro the erthe, where wee ben. Fof 
;.ro what partie of the erthe, that naen du?!ie, 



outher aboven or benethen, it femethe alweyes to 
hem that duellen, that thei gon more rights than 
ony other folk. And righte as it femethe to us, 
that thti ben undre us, righte fo it femethe hem, 
that wee ben undre hem. For zif a man myghte 
falle fro the erthe unto the firmament; be grettere 
rrfoun, the erthe and the fee, that ben fo grete and 
fo hevy, fcholde fallen to the firmament: but that 
may not be: and therfore feithe oure Lord God, 
Non timeas me, qui fufpendi terra ex nichilo? And 
alle be it, that it be poflible thing, that men may 
fo envyronne al!e the world, natheies of a looo 
perfones, on ne myghte not happen to returncn in 
to his contrce. For, for the grecnefle of the erthe 
and of the fee, men may go be a looo and- a lOoo 
other weyes, that no man cowde reyde him pcrfitely 
toward the parties that he cam fro, but zif it were 
be aventure and happ, or be the grace of God. 
For the erthe is fulle large and fulle gret, and holt 
in roundneffe and aboute envyroun, be aboven and 
be benethen 20425 myles, aftre the opynyoun of 
the old wife aftronomeres. And here feyenges I 
repreve noughie. But aftre my lytylle wyt, it 
femethe me, favynge here reverence, that it is 
more. And for to have bcttere underftondynge, I 
fcye thus, be ther ymagyned a figure, that hathe a 
gret compas; and aboute the poynt of the gret 
compas, that is clept the centre, be made another 
litille compas: than aftre, be the gret compafs de- 
vifed be lines in manye parties ; and that alle the 
lynes meeten at the centre •, fo that in as many 
parries, as the grete compas fchal be departed, 
in als manye, fchalle be departed the litille, that 
is aboute the centre, alle be it, that the fpaces 
ben Icfle. Now thanne, be the gret compas repre- 
fentcd for the firmament, and the litille cornpas 
reprcfented for the erthe. Now thanne the firma- 
ment is devyfed, be aftronomeres, in 12 fignes ; 
and every figne is devyfed in 30 degrees, that is 
360 degrees, that the firmament hathe aboven. 
Alfo, be the erthe devyfed in als many parties, as 
the firmament; and let every partye anfwere to a 
degree of the firmament: and wytethe it wel, that 
afire the audoures of aftronomye, 700 furlonges of 
erthe anfweren to a degree of the firmament ; and 
tho ben 87 miles and 4 furlonges. Now be that 
here multiplyed be 360 fithes; and then thei ben 
315000 myles, every of 8 furlonges, aftre myles of 
oure coniree. So moche hathe the erthe in round- 
neffe, and of heghte enviroun, aftre myn opynyoun 
and myn undirftondynge. And zee Ichulieundir- 
ftonde, that aftre the opynyoun of olde wife philofo- 
phrcs and aftronomeres, oure contrce ne Irelond ne 
Wales nc Scotlond ne Norweye ne the other yies 

coHiynge to hem, ne ben not in the fuperficyalte 
cownted aboven the erthe; as it fchewethe be alle 
the bokes of aftronomye. For the fuperficialtee nf 
the erthe is departed in 7 parties, for the 7 planetes: 
and tho parties ben clept cly mates. And oure par- 
ties be not of the 7Xlymates: for thei ben defcend- 
ynge toward the Weft. And ajfo thofe yles of 
Ynde, which beth evene azenft us, beth noghc 
reckned in the clymates : for thei ben azi-'nft us, 
that ben in the lowe contree. And the 7 clymates 
ftrecchen hem envyrounynge the world. 

II. And I John Maundevylle knyghteabovefeyd, 
(alle thoughe I be unworthi) that departed from 
ou.e contrees and paflTcd the fee, the zeer of grace 
1322. that have pafltfd manye londes and manye 
yles and contrees, and cerched manye fulle ftraunge 
places, and have ben in many a fulle gode ho- 
nourable companye, and at many a fairc dede of 
amies, (alle be it that 1 dide none myle'f, for myn 
unable infuffifince) now I am comen horn (mawgrce 
my lelf) to rcfte : for gowces, arteiykes, that me 
diftreynen, tho diffynen the ende of my labour, 
azenft my wille (God knowethe.) And thus tak- 
ynge folace in my wrecched rcfte, rccordynge the 
tyme paffed, I have fulfilled tlicife thinges and 
pucte hem wryten in this boke, as it wolde come 
in to my mynde, the zeer of grace 1356 in the 34 
zeer that I depjrtede from oure contrecs. Wher- 
fore I preye to alle the redcres and hereres of tnis 
boke, zif it plcfe hem, that thei wolde preycn to 
God for me : and J fchalle preye for hem. And 
alle tho that feyn for me a. Pater nofter, with ar» 
Ave Maria, that God forzeve me my fynnts, I 
make hem partneres and graunte hem part of alle 
the gode pilgrymages and of alle the gode dedes, 
that I have don, zif ony be to his plefance : and 
noghte only of tho, but of alle that evere I fchalle 
do unto my lyfes ende. And I befeche Almyghty 
God, fro whom alle godcntfle and grace comethe 
fro, that he vouchefaf, of his excellent mercy and 
habundant grace, to fulle fyUe hire foules with infpi- 
racioun of theHolyGoft, in makynge defence of alle 
hire goftly enemycs here in erthe, to hire falvacioun, 
botheof body andfoule; toworfchipeandthankynge 
of him, that is three and on, with outen begy nny nge 
and withouten endynge; that is, with outen qua- 
litee, good, and with outen quantytee, gret ; that 
in alle places is prefent, and alle thinges contenyn- 
ynge ; the whichc that no goodneffe may amende, 
ne non evelle empeyre; that in perfeyte trynytee 
lyvethe and rcgnethe God, be alle worldes and be 
alle cymes. Amen, Amen, Amen. 



The fifft of our authours, who can be properly 
ijiid to have written Englijh, was Sir John Govoer^ 
who, in his Confejfton of a Lover, calls Chaucer his dif- 
ciplc, and may therefore be confidercd as the father 
of our poetry. 

"VJOWE for to fpeke of the commune, 
■^ It is to drcde of that fortune, 
Whiche hath befalle in fondryc londes: 
But ot'te for dcfaute of bondes 
All fodcinly, er it be wift, 
A tunne, when his lie arift 
Tobreketh, and renncth all aboute, 
Whi.hc els (liulde nought gone out. 

And eke full ofte a littcll Ikarc 
Vpon a banke, er men be ware. 
Let in the ftrcme, whiche with gret peine. 
If any man it Ihall rcftreine. 
Where lawe failleth, errour groweth. 
He is not wife, who that nc trowcth. 
For it hath proucd oft er this. 
And thus the common clamour is 
In euery londe, where people dwelieth: 
And eche in his complainte tellethj 
How that the worlde is mifwent, 
And thervpon his argument 
Yeueth euery man in fondrie wife: 
But what man wolde him fclfe auife 
His confcience, and nought mifufe, 
He maie well at the firft excufe 
His god, whiche euer ftant in one. 
In him there is detaute none 
So muft it ftand vpon vs felue. 
Nought only vpon ten ne twelue. 
But plcnarly vpon vs all. 
For man is caufe of that fliall fall. 


ALAS! 1 wepyngamconllrained to begin verfe 
*^ of forowfull matter, that whilom in florifhyng 
ftudie made delitable ditees. For lo ! rendyng 
mufes of a Poctes cditen to me thingcs to be 
writcn, and dreric teres. At lade no drede ne 
might overcame tho inufes, ihat thci ne werren fel- 
lowcs, and foloweden my waic, that is to faie, 
when I was exiled, thei that weren of my youth 
whilom wclfull and grene, comforten now forow- 
full wcirdcs of me olde man : for clde is comcn 
unwarely upon mc, haflcd by the harmes that I 
have, and forowc hath commaunded his age to be 
in mc. Heres hore arcn fhad overtimcliche upon 
my hed : and the flackc fkinne irembleih of mine 
cmptcd bodie. Thilke dtth of men is wclefuil, 
that he ne comcth not in ycrcs that be fwete, but 
5 comcth 

The hiftoryof our language is now brought to the 
point at which the hiftory of our poetry is generally 
fuppofed to commence, the time of the illuftriou« 
Geoffry Chaucer, who may, perhaps, with great juf- 
tice, be ftiled the firft of our verfifiers who wrote 
poetically. He does not, however, appear to have 
defervcd all the praifc which he has received, or all 
the cenfure that he has fufFered. Dryden, who, 
miftaking genius for learning, in confidence of his 
abilities, ventured to write of what he had not ex- 
amined, afcribes to Chaucer the firft refinement of 
our numbers, the firft produftion of eafy and natural 
rhymes, and the improvement of our language, by 
words borrowed from the more polilhed languages 
of the continent. Skinner contrarily blames him in 
harftj terms for having viiiatcdhis native fpeech by 
'whole cartloads of foreign words. But he that reads 
the works of Cower will find fmooth numbers and 
eafy rhymes, of which Chaucer is fuppofed to have 
been the inventor, and the Frorch words, whether 
good or bad, of which Chaucer is charged as the 
importer. Some innovations he might probably 
make, like others, in the infancy of our poetry, 
which the paucity of books does not allow us to dif- 
cover with particular exadnefs ; but the works of 
Ccmer and Lydgate fufficiently evince, that his dic- 
tion was in general like that of his contemporaries : 
and fome improvements he undoubtedly made by 
the various difpofitions of his rhymes, and by the 
mixture of different numbers, in which he feems to 
have been happy and judicious. I have fcleftcd 
feveral fpecimens botii of his profe and verfe ; and 
among them, part of his tranflation of Boetius, to 
which another vcrfion, made in the time of queen 
Mary, is oppolcd. It would be improper to quote 
very ff.aringly an author of fo much reputation, or 
to make very large extradts from a book fo gene- 
rally known. 

C O L V I L E. 

T That in tyme of profperite, and floryfhing 
-^ ftudye, made plcaHiunte and delegable dities, 
or verfes : alas now beyng heauy and fad ouer- 
throwen in aduerfuie, am compelled to fele and taft 
hcuines and greit. Beholde the mufes Poeticall, 
that is to laye : the pleafure that is in poetes 
verfes, do appoynt me, and compel mc to writ 
thefe verfes in meter, and the forowfull verfes do 
wet my wretched face with very watcrye teares, 
yffuinge out of my eyes for forowe. Whiche mufes 
no icare without doute could ouercome, but that 
they wold folow me in my iourney of exile or ba- 
niflimcnt. Soniecyme the ioye of happy and lufly 
delegable youth dyd comfort me, and nowe the 
rourfe of forowfull olde age caufeth me to reioyfe. 
For hafty old age vnloked for is come vpon me 



comcth to wretclies often icleped : Alas, alas ! 
with how defe an ere deth cruell turneth awaie fro 
wretches, and naieth for to clofe wepyng eyen. 
While fortune unfaithful! favoured me with light 
godes, that forowfull houre, that is to faie, the 
deth, had almofte t'rente myne hedde : but now 
for fortune cloudie hath chaunged her decevable 
chere to mewarde, myne unpitous life drawech 
along ungreable dwellynges. O ye my frendes, 
what, or whereto avaunted ye me to ben welfuU ? 
For he that hath fallin, (lode in no ftedfaft degre. 

with al her incommodities and euyls, and forow 
hath commaunded and broughteme into the fame 
old age, that is to fay : that forowe caufcth me to 
be oide, before my time come of olde age. The 
hoer heares do growe vntimely vpon my heade, 
and my reuiled (kynne trembleth my flefh, cleane 
confumed and wafte with forowe. Mannes death 
is happy, that cometh not in youth, when a man 
is luftye, and in pleafure or welth: but in time of 
aduerfitie, when it is often defyred. Alas Alas 
how dull and deffe be the eares of cruel death vnto 
men in mifery that would fayne dye : and yet re- 
fufythe to come and (hutte vp thcyr carefuU wep- 
yng eyes. Whiles that falfe fortune fauoryd me 
with her tranfitorye goodcs, then the howre of 
death had alnioft oucrcome me. That is to fay 
deathe was redy to opprefTe me when I was in pro- 
fperitie. Nowe for by caufe that fortune beynge 
turned, from profperitie into aduerfuie (as the clere 
day is darkyd with cloudes) and hath chaungyd her 
deceyuable countenaunce : my wretched life is yet 
prolonged and doth continue in dolour. O my 
ftendes why haue you fo often bofted me, fayinge 
that I was happy when I had honour pofleflions 
riches, and authoritie whych be tranfitory thynges. 
He that hath fallen was in no ftedefaft degre. 

TN the mene while, that I ftill record thcfc thynges 
■*• with my felf, and marked my wepelie complainte 
with office of poin(n:c!l : I faugh (londyng aboven 
the hight of myn hed a woman of full grcte reve- 
rence, by femblaunt. Her eyen brennyng, and 
clere, feyng over the common m'.ght of menne, 
with a lively colour, and with fothe vigour and 
ftrength that it nc might not be nempned, all were 
it fo, that fhc were full of fo grete age, that menne 
wouKirn not trowcn in no manere, that Ihe were of 
our elde. 

The ftature of her was of dourous Judgemente, 
for fometyme flie conftrained and (hronke her felven, 
like to the common mefure of menne : And fome- 
tyn-e it femed, that fhe touched the heven with 
the hight of her hedde. And when flie hove her 
hedde higher, fhe perced the felf heven, fo that the 
fight of menne lokyng was in ydell : her clothes 
wer maked of right dclie thredes, and fiibtel craft 
of perdurable matter. The whiche clothes (he had 
woven with her owne handes, as 1 kncwe well after 
by her felf declaryng, and fhewyng to me the 
beautie : The whiche clothes a darknefle of a for- 
leten and difpifed eldc had dufked and darked, as 
it is wonte to darke by fmoked Images. 

In the nethereft hemme and border of thefe 
clothes menne reddc iwoven therein a Grekifhe A. 
that fignifieth the life adive, and above that letter, 
in the hieft bordure, a Grekifhe C. that fignifieth 
the life contemplatife. And betwene thefe two 

Vol. I. letters 

Y\7"HYLES that I confiderydde pryuylye with 
' my felfe the thynges before fayd, and defcry- 
bed my wofuU complaynte after the maner and 
ofFyce of a wrytter, me thought I fawe a woman 
ftand oucr my head of a reuerend countenaunce, 
hauyng quycke and glyflcryng clere eye, aboue 
the common forte of men in lyuely and delegable 
coloure, and ful of ftrength, although fhe femed fo 
olde that by no meanes fhe is thought to be one of 
this oure tymc, her ftature is of douteful know- 
ledge, for nowe fhe fhewethe herfclfe at the corn- 
men length or ftatur of men, and other whiles fhe 
femeth fo high, as though flie touched heuen with 
the crown of her hed. And when (he wold ftretch 
fourth her hed hygher, it alfo perced thorough 
heauen, fo that mens fyghte coulde not attaine to 
behold her, Her veftures or cloths were perfyt of 
the finyfte thredes, and fubtyll workemanfliyp, and 
of fubliaunce permanent, whych vefturs fhe had 
wouen with her own hands as I perceyued after by 
her owne faiynge. The kynde or beawtye of the 
whyche veftures, a certayne darkenes or rather ig- 
noraunce of oldenes forgotten hadde obfcuryd and 
darkened, as the fmoke is wont to darken Images 
that ftand nyghe the fmoke. In the lower parte of 
the faid veftures was read the greke letter P. wouen 
whych fignifyeth praftife or aftyffe, and in the 
hygher parte of the veftures the greke letter T. 
whych ettandeth for theorica, that fignifyeth fpecu- 
lacion or contemplation. And betwene both the 
[ g ] fayd 


letters there were ken degrees nobly wrought, in 
mancr of lad^icrs, by whiche degrees mcnne might 
climben from the ncthercfl: letter to the uppercrt: 
nathclcne handes of fomc men hadden kerve that 
clothe, by violence or by ftrcngth, and evcriche 
marine of 'hem had borne awaic Ibche ptrces, as he 
might getten. And forfothe this forlaied woman 
bare fmalc bokes in her right hande, and in her left 
hand fhe bare a fcepter. And when flie fawe thefe 
Pocticall miifes approchyng about my bed, and 
endityng wordes to my wtpynges, (he was a litle 
amoved, and glowed with cruell cycn. Who (q^ 
fhe) hath fuffcrcd approchen to this fike mannc 
ihcfe commen ftrompettes, of which is the place 
that mcnne callen Theatre, the whiche onely ne 
iffwagen not his forowcs with renrwdies, but thei 
would feden and norifhe hym with fwete venime ? 
forfothe, that ben iho that with thornes, and 
prickynges of talentesof affeccions, whiche thatben 
nothyng fruftuous nor profitable, diftroicn the 
Corne, plcntuous of fruiites of refon. For thei 
holden hcrtes of men in ufage, but thei ne deliver 
no folke fro maladie. But if ye mufes had with- 
drawcn fro me with your flatteries any unconnyng 
and unprofitable manne, as ben wont to finde com- 
menly emong the peple, I would well fuffre the 
lafle grcvoufly. For why, in foche an unprofitable 
man myn ententes were nothyng endamaged. But 
ye withdrowen fro me this man, that hath ben 
nourifhed in my ftudies or fcoles of Eleaticis, and 
of Academicis in Grece. But goeth now rather 
awaie ye Mermaidens, whiche that ben fwete, till 
it be at the laft, and lufFreth this man to be cured 
and hcled by my mufes, that is to fay, by my note- 
full fciences. And thus this companie of mufes 
iblamed caften wrothly the chere dounward to the 
yerth, and Ihewing by rcdnelTc ther fhame, thei 
pafTeden forowfully the threlholde. And I of whom 
the fight piounged in teres was darked, fo that I ne 
might not know what that woman was, of fo Im- 
perial audthoritie, I woxe all abalhed and ftonied, 
and caft my fight doune to the yerth, and begin 
ftill tor to abide what fhe would doen afterward. 
Then came flie nere, and fct'her doune upon !.he 
uttereit corner of my bed, and fhe beholdyng my 
chere, 'hat was caft to the yerth, hevie and grevous 
of wei-yng, complained with thefe wordes (that I 
fliall fainc) the periurbacion of my thought. 

fayd letters were fcne ccrtayne degrees, wrought 
after the maner of ladders, wherein was as it were 
a paflage or waye in lleppes or degrees from the 
lower part wher the letter P. was which is vnder- 
ftand from pradtys or aftyf, unto the hygher parte 
wher the letter T. was whych is vnderfland fpecu- 
!acion or contemplacion, Neucrthcles the handes 
of fome vyolente perfones had cut the faydc veftures 
and had taken awaye certayne pecis thereof, fuch 
as euery one coulde catch. And fhe her lelre dyd 
bare in her ryght hand litcl bokes, and in her lefce 
hande a fcepter, which forefayd phylofophy (when 
fhe faw the mufes poetycal prefent at my bed, fpck- 
yng forowfull wordes to my wepynges) beyng angry 
iayd (with terrible or frownynge countenaunce) who 
fuffred thefe crafty harlottes to com to ihys fycke 
man ? whych can help hym by no means of hys 
griefe by any kind of medicines, but rather increaie 
the fame with fwete poyfon. Thefe be they that 
doo dyftroye the fertile and plentious commodytyes 
of reafon and the fruytes therof wyth their pryck- 
ynge thornes, or barren affecles, and accuftome or 
fubdue mens myndes with fickenes, and heuynes, 
and do not delyuer or heale them of the fame. But 
yf your flatterye had conueyed or wythdrawen from 
me, any vnlernyd man as the comen forte of people 
are wonte to be, I coulde haue ben better con- 
tentyd, for in that my worke fbould not be hurt or 
hynderyd. But you haue taken and conueyed 
from me thys man that hath ben broughte vp in the 
fludyes of Arif^otel and of Plato. But yet get you 
hence maremaids (that feme fwete untyil you haue 
brought a man to deathe) and fuffer me to heale 
thys my man wyth my mufes or fcyences that be 
holfome and good. And after that philofophy had 
fpoken thefe wurdes the fayd companyeof the mufys 
poeticall beyng rebukyd and fad, cafle down their 
countenaunce to the grounde, and by blulTyng con- 
feffed their fhamfaftnes, and went out of the dores. 
But I (that had my iyght dull and blynd wyth 
wepyng, fo that 1 knew not what woman this was 
hauing foo great audthoritie) was amalyd or afto- 
nyed,and lokyng downeward, towarde ehe grounde, 
I began pryvylye to look what ihyng fhe would 
faye ferther, then fhe had fa id. Then fhe ap« 
proching and drawynge ncre vnto me, fat downe 
vpon the vttermoll part of my bed, and lokyng 
vpon my face fad with weplng, and declynyd 
toward the earth for Ibrow, bewayied the trouble of 
my minde wyth thde layinges folowynge. 



The condufions of the Astrolabie. 
This book (written to his fon in the year of our 
Lord 1391, and in the 14 of King Richard II.) 
ftandeth fo good at this day, efpecially for the 
horizon of Oxfcrd, as in the opinion of the 
learned it cannot be amended, fays an Edit, of 

T Y T E L Lowys my fonne, I perceve well by 
■■-' certaine evidences thync abylyte to lerne fcy- 
ences, touching nombres and proporcions, and 
alfo well conlydre I thy bcfye prayer in efpecyal 
to lerne the tretyfe of the alfrolabye. Than for 
as moche as a philofophcr faithe, he wrapeth hym 
in his frende, that condilcendeth to the ryghc- 
full prayers of his frende : therfore I have given 
the a I'ufficient aftrolabye for oure orizont, com- 
powned after the latitude of Oxenforde : upon the 
•whiche by mediacion of this lytell tretife, I pur- 
pole to teche the a certaine nombre of conclufions, 
pcrtainynge to this fame inllrumcnt. 1 lay a cer- 
taine nombre of conclufions for thre caufcs, tUe 
firft caule is this. Trufte wel that al the conclufions 
that have be founden, or ells pofliblye might be 
founde in fo noble an inftrument as in the aftro- 
labye, ben unknowen perfitely to anye mortal man 
in this region, as 1 iuppofe. Another caule . 
this, that foihely in any cartes of the aftrolabye 
that I have yff ne, ther ben fome conclufions, that 
wol not in al thinges perfourme ther beheftes: and 
fome of 'henj ben to harde to thy tender age of 
ten yere to conceve. This tretife divided in five 
partes, wil 1 fhewe the wondir *lighi rules and 
naked wordes in Engliftie, for Latine ne canft 
thou nat yet but fmale, my litel fonne. But ne- 
verthclerTe luffifcth to the thefe trewe conclufyons 
in Engliftic, as wel as fufHfeth to thefe noble 
clerkes grekes thefe fame conclufyons in greke, 
• and to the Arabines in Arabike, and to Jewes 
in Hebrewe, and to the Latin folke in Latyn: 
whiche Latyn folke had 'hem firfte out of other di- 
vers langages, and write 'hem in ther owne tonge, 
that is to faine in Latine. 

And God wote ihat in all thefe langages and in 
manyc mo, have thef^ conclufyons ben fufficientlye 
lerned and taught, and yet by divers rules, right 
as divers pathes ledcn divers folke the right waye 
to Rome. 

Now wol I pray mekely every perfon difcrete, 
that redcth or hereth this lityl tretife to have my 
rude ententing cxcufed, and my fupcrfluite of 
wordes, for two caufcs. The firft caufe is, for 
that curious eniiityng and harde fentences is ful 
hevy at ones, for foch a childe to lerne. And the 
feconde caufe is this, that fothely me femeth better 
to writen unto a childe twife a gode fentence, than 


he foriete it ones. And, Lewis, if it be fo that I 
(hewe the in my lith Engliftie, as trew conclu- 
fions touching this mater, and not only as trewe 
but as many and fubtil conclufions as ben yftiewed 
in latin, in any comon tretife of the aftrolabye, 
conne me the more thanke, and praye God fave the 
kinge, thaf is lorde of this langage, and all that 
him faith bereth, and obeieth everiche in his de- 
gree, the more and the lafle. But confydreth 
well, that I ne ufurpe not to have founden this 
werkc of my labour or of myne engin. I n'ame 
but a leude compilatour of the laboure of olde 
aftrologiens, and have it tranllated in myn engliftie 
onely for thy dodrine : and with this fwerde ftial 
1 ftene e.^vy. 

The firft party. 

The firft partye of this tretife ftial reherce the 
figures, and the membres of thyne aftrolaby, by- 
caufe that thou ftialte have the greter knowinge of 
thine owne inftrument. 

The feconde party. 

Th feconde partye ftial teche the to werken the 
very praftike of the forefai i conclurn>ns, as fer- 
forthe and alfo narowe as may be fnewed in ft> 
fmale an inftrument portatife aboute. For wel 
wote every aftrologien, thai fmalleft frailions ne 
wol not be ftiewe i in fo i'mal an inftrument,, as in 
fubtil tables caculcd for a caufe. 

The Prologue of the Testament of LOVE. 

■jV/TANY men there ben, that with eres openly 
^^■^ fprad fo moche fwalowen the delicioufnefte of 
jeftes and of ryme, by queint knittinge coloures, 
that of the godenefle or of the badneffe of the fen- 
tence take they lilel hede or els none. 

Sothelye dulle witte and a thoughtfuUe foule fo 
fore have mined and grafted in my fpirites, that 
foche craft of enditingc woll nat ben of mine 
acquaintaunce. And for rude wordes and boiftous 
percen the herte of the herer to the inreft point, and 
planten there the fentence of thinges, fo that with 
litel helpe it is able to fpring, this boke, that no- 
thynge hath of the grete flode of wytte, ne of 
fcmelyche colours, is dolven with rude wordes and 
boiftous, and fo drawe togiSer to maken the catch- 
ers therof ben the more redy to hent fentence. 

Some men there ben, that painten with colours 
riche and fome with wers, as with red inke, and 
foine with coles and chalke : and yet is there gode 
matter to the leude peple of thylke chalkye pur- 
trcyture, as 'hem thinketh for the time, and after- 


ward the fyght of the better colours yeven to 'hem 
more joyc tor the firft leudncflTe. So foihly this 
Icude clowdy occupacyon is not to prayfe, but by 
the leude, for comenly leude leudeneflc commend- 
eth. Eke it (hal ycve fight that other precyous 
thynges fhall be the more in reverence. In Latin 
and French hath many foveraine wittes had grete 
dclyte to endite, and have many noble thinges ful- 
fildc, but ccrtes there ben fome that fpeken ther 
poifye mater in Frenche, of whiche fpcche the 
Frenche men have as gode a fantafye .as we 
have in hcryng of Frenche mens Engliflie. And 
many termes there ben in Englyfhe, whiche 
unncth we Englifhe men connen declare the 
knowkginge : howe fhould than a Frenche man 
borne ? loche tcrmcs connejumperc in his matter, 
but as the jay chatcreth Englifhe. Right fo truely 
the underftandyn of Englifhmen woll not ftretche 
to the privie termes in Frenche, what fo ever we 
boften of ftraunge langage. Let then clerkes en- 
■ditcn in Latin, for they have the propertie of 
fcience, and the knowinge in that facultie: and 
lette Frenche men in iher Frenche alfo enditen ther 
queint termes, for it is Jcyndcly to ther mouthes ; 
and let us (hewe our fantafies in fuch wordes as we 
lernedcn of our dame's tonge. And although this 
boke be lytel thank worthy for the leudnefTe in 
travaile, yet foch writing exiten men to thilke 
thinges that ben neceffarie ; for every man therby 
may as by a perpetual myrrour fcne the vices or ver- 
tues of other, in whyche thynge lightly may be 
conceved to cfchue perils, and neceffarics to catch, 
after as aventures have fallen to other peplc or 

Certcs the foverainft thinge of defirc and mod 
creture refonable, have or els (huld have full ap- 
petite to ther perfeccyon : unrefonable beftes 
mowcn not, fithe rcfon hath in *hem no workinge : 
ihan refonable that wol not, is compari'bned to un- 
refonable, and made lyke 'hem. Forfothe the molt 
foveraine and finall pcrfeccion of man is in know- 
-yngc of a fothe, withouten any entent dccevable, 
and in love ot one very God, that is inchaungeable, 
*hat is to knowe, and love his creator. 

Nowe principally the menc to brynge in know- 
leging and lovynge his creatour, is the confidera- 
<yon of thynges made by the creatour, wher through 
by thylke thinges that ben made, underltandynge 
here to our wyttes, arne the unlcne pryvities of 
God made to us fyghtfuU and knowinge, in our 
contcmplacion and underftondinge. Tnele thinges 
than forfothe moche bringen us to the ful know- 
leginge fothe, and to the parfyte love of the maker 
ot htvenly thynges. Lo! David laith: thou hade 
dclitcd mc in makinge,as who faith, to have deiite 
in the tunc how God hat lent me in confideracion 
of thy inakinge. Whcrof Ariftotle in the boke 

de Animalibus, faith to naturell philofophcrs : it is 
a grete likynge in love of knowinge ther cretourc: 
and alfo in knowinge of caufes in kindelye thynges, 
conQdrid forfothe the formes of kindelye thinges 
and the fhap, a gret kyndely love we fliulde have 
to the werkman that 'hem made. The crafte of a 
werkman is fhewed in the werk. Herefore trulie 
the philofopliers with a lyvely ftudie manie noble 
thinges, righte precious, and worthy to memoryc, 
writen, and by a gret fwet and travaille to us leften 
of caufes the properties in natures of thinges, to 
whiche therfore philofophers it was more joy, more 
lykinge, mere herty lull in kindely vertues and 
matters of refon the perfeccion by bufy ftudy to 
knowe, than to have had all the trefour, al the 
richeflTe, al the vainctglory, that the pafled empe- 
rours, princes, or kinges hadden. Therfore the 
names of 'hem in the boke of perpetuall memorie 
in vertue and pece arne writen -, and in the con- 
trarie, that is to faine, in Styxe the foule pitte of 
helle arne thilke prefled that foch godenes hated. 
And bicaufe this boke fliall be of love, and tha 
prime caufes of ftering in that doinge with paf- 
fions and dilefes for wantinge of defire, I wil that 
this boke be clcped the teftament of love. 

But nowe thou reder, who is thilke that wirtnot 
in fcorne laughe, to here a dwarle or els halfe a 
man, fay he will rende out the fwerde of Hercules 
handes, and alfo he fhulde fet Hercules G;ides a 
mile yet ferther, and over that he had power of 
ftrengch to pull up the fpere, that Alifander the 
noble might never wagge, and that paflmge al 
thinge to ben mayfter of Fraunce by might, there 
as the noble gracious Fdwarde the thirde for al his 
grete prowelTe in viftories nc might al yet conquere? 
Certes I wote well, ther fiiall be made more 
fcorne and jape of me, that I fo unwortheiy clothed 
altogither in the cloudie cloude of unconning, wil 
putten me in prces to fpeke of love, or els of the 
caufes in that matter, fuhen al the grettefl; clerkes 
han had ynough to don, and as who faith gathered 
up clene tofornc 'hem, and with ther fharp fithes of 
conning al mowen and made cherof grete rekes and 
noble, ful of al plenties to fede me and many an 
other. Envye forfothe commendeth noughte his 
refon, that he hath in hain, be it never fo trulty. 
And although thefe noble repers, as gode work- 
men and worthy ther iiier, han al draw and bounde 
up in the Iheves, and made many fhockcs, yet have 
1 enfample to gaScr the fmale crommes, and fullin 
ma walet of tho that fallen from the bourde among 
the fmalle houndes, notwithftanding the travaile of 
the almoigner, that hath draw up m il)e cloth al 
the remilfiiles, as trenchours, and the relefe to 
bere to the almeire. Yet alfo have 1 ieve of the 
noble hulbande Boece, although I be a (Iraunger 
of conningc to come after his dodrinc, and thefe 




grete workmen, and glene my handfuls of the 
Ihedynge after ther handes, and yf me faile ought 
of my ful, to encrefe my porcion with that I fhal 
drawe by privy ties out of fhockes-, a flye fervaunte 
in his owne heipe is often moche commended 5 
knowynge of trouthe in caufcs of thynges, was 
more hardier in the firfte fechers, and fo fayth 
Ariftotle, and lighter in us that han folowed after. 
For ther pafTing ftudy han freflied our wittes, and 
oure underftandynge han excited in confideracion 
of trouth by fliarpenes of ther refons. Utterly 
thcfe thingcs be no dremcs ne japes, to throwe to 
hoc^tres, it is lifelych mete for children of trouth, 
and as they me betiden whan I pilgramed out of 
my kith in wintere, whan the wether out of mefure 
was bolftous, and the wyld w.ynd Boreas, as his 
kind afketh, with dryingc coldes maked the wawes 
of the ocean fe fo to arife unkindely over the com- 
mune bankes that it was in point to fpill all the 

The Prologues of the Canterbury Tales of 
CHAUCER, from the MSS. 

XX/HEN that Aprilis with his (houris fote, 
^ ^ The drought of March had percid to the rote. 
And iiathid every veyn in fuch licpur, 
Of which vcrtuc engendrid is the flour. 
When Zephyrus eke, with his fwete brcth 
Enfpirid hath, in every holt and heth 
The tender croppis ; and that the yong Sunn 
Hath in the Kamm his halve cours yrunn : 
And fmale foiriis makin melodye. 
That Qepin alle night with opin eye, 
(So prickith them nature in ther corage) 
Then longin folk to go on pilgrimage : 
And palmers for to fekin ftrange ftrondes, 
To fervin hallowes couth in fondry londes: 
And fpeciaUy fro every fhir'is end 
Of England, to Canterbury they wend. 
The holy blisfull martyr for to fckc. 
That them hath holpin, whan that they were feke. 

Befell that in that fefon on a day 
In Southwerk at the Tabberd as I lay, 
Redy to wcndin on my pilgrimage 
To Canterbury, with devote corage. 
At night wer come into that hoftery 
Wcle nine and twenty in a cumpany 
Of lundrie folk, by aventure yfall 
In felafhip ; and pilgrimes wer they all: 
That toward Canterbury wouldin ride. 

The chambers and the ftabiis werin wide, 
[And well we werin efid at the beft : 
And fhortly whan the funne was to red. 
So had I ipokin with them everych one. 
That I was of ther felalhip anone j 

Vol. I. 

And made forward erli for to rife. 

To take our weye, ther as I did devife. 

But nathlefs while that I have time and fpace, 
Er' that I farther in this tale pace, 
Methinkith it accordaunt to refon. 
To tell you alle the condition 
Of ech of them, fo as it femid me. 
And which they werin, and of what degree. 
And eke in what array that they wer in : 
And at a knight then woll I firft begin. 

The Knight. 

A knight ther was, and that a worthy man, 
That fro the time that he firft began 
To ridin out, he lovid Chevalrie, 
Trouth and honour, fredome and curtefy. 
Full worthy was he in his lordis wcrre. 
And thereto had he riddin nane more ferre 
As well in Chriftendom, as in Hethnefs j 
And evyr honoured for his worthinefs. 

At Aleflandre' he was whan it was wonj 
Full oft timis he had the bord begon 
Abovin alle naciouns in Pruce -, 
In Lettow had he riddin, and in Luce, 
No Chriften-man fo oft of his degree 
In Granada •, in the fege had he be 
Of Algezir, and ridd in Belmary ; 
At Leyis war he, and at Sataly, 
Whan that they wer won ; and in the grete fee 
At many'a noble army had he be : 
At mortal battails had he ben fiftene. 
And foughtin for our feith at Tramefcne, 
In liftis ihrys, and alwey flein his fo. 

This ilke worthy knight hath ben alfo 
Sometimis with the lord of Palathy, 
Ayens anothir hethin in Turky j 
And evirmore he had a fov'rane prize ; 
And though that he was worthy, he was wife j 
And of his port as mtke as is a maid. 
He nevir yet no villany ne faid 
In all his life unto no manner wight: 
He was a very parfit gentil knight. 
But for to tellin you of his array. 
His hors wer good ; but he was nothing gay j 
Of fuftian he werfd a gipon, 
Alle bcfmottrid with his haburgeon. 
For he was late ycome from his viage, 
And wcnte for to do his pilgrimage. 

The House of FAME. 

The Firft Boke. 

"XT O W herken, as I have you faied, 
■*-^ What that I mette or I abraied, 
Of December the tenith daie. 
When it was night, to flepe 1 laie, 



Right as I was wontc for to docn. 
And fill aQcpe wondir lone. 
As he that was weiie forgo 
On pilgrimage milis two 
To the corps of fainft L.eonarde, 
To makin lith that erll was harde. 

But as mc flcpt mc mette I was 
Within a temple' imadc of glas, 
In whiche there wcrin mo images 
Of golde, ftandyng in fondric lbge», 
Sette in mo riche tabirn-icles. 
And with perrc mo pinnacles. 
And mo curious portraituris, 
And qucint manir of figuris 
Of goldc worke, then 1 fawc CTir. 

But certainly 1 n'ift ncvir 
Where that it was, but well wift I 
It was of Venus rcdily 
This temple, for in purtrciture 
1 fawe anone right her figure 
Nakid yfletyng in a fe. 
And alfo on her hedde parde 
Her rofy garUnd white and redde. 
And her combe for to kcmbe her hcddc. 
Her dovis, and Dan Cupido 
Her blinde fonne, and Vulcano, 
That in his face ywas full broune. 

But as I romid up and doune, 
I founde that on the wall there was 
Thus writtin on a table* of bras. 

I woll now fyng, if that I can. 
The armis, and alio the man. 
That firll came through his deftine 
Fiigitific fro Troye the countre 
Into itaile, with full mochc pine. 
Unto the ftrondis of Lavine, 
And tho began the ftoric' anone. 
As I (hall tellin you ecbone. 

Firll fawe I the dilUuccion 
Of Troie, thorough the Grcke Sinon, 
With his falTc untrue forfwcryngcs. 
And with his chere and his Icfynges, 
That made a hori'e, brought into Troye, 
By whiche Trojans lofte all their joye. 

And aftir this was graved, alas ! 
How llions calhll aHailed was. 
And won, and kyng Friamus llain. 
And PoJites his ionre certain, 
Difpitoutly of Dan Pyrrhus. 

And next that fawc I howc Venus, 
When that (he fawe the caftill brcnde, 
Doune from hevin (he gan difccnde. 
And bade her fonne ^neas He, 
And how he fled, and how that he 

Efcapid was from all the pre?, 
And toko his fathrc*, old Anchifes, 
And bare hym on his backe awaie. 
Crying alas and wclawale ! 
The whiche Anchifes in his hande. 
Bare tho the godJis of the lande 
I mene thilke that unbrcnnid were. 
Then fawe 1 next that all in fere 
How Creufa, Dan /Eneas wife. 
Whom that he lovid all his life. 
And her yong fonne clepid Julo, 
And eke Afcanius alio, 
Fleddin eke, with full dreric chere. 
That it was pile for to here. 
And in a foreft as thei went 
How at a tournyng of a went 
Creufa was ilollc, alas ! 
That rede not I, how that it was 
How he her fought, and how her ghofte 
Bad hym to flic the Grekis hofte. 
And faied he mufl: into Itaile, 
As was his deftinie, fauns faile. 
That it was pitic for to here. 
When that her fpirite gan appere. 
The wordis that Ihe to hym laied. 
And for to kepc her fonne hym praied. 
There fawe I gravin eke how he 

His fathir eke, and his meine 

With his Ihippis began to faile 

Toward the countrey of Itaile, 

As llreight as ere thei mightm go. 
There fawe I eke the, cruill Juno, 

That art Dan Jupiter his wife. 

That hsft ihated all thy life 

Mercilefs all the Trojan blode, 

Rennin and crie as thou were wodc 

On j^olus, the god of windcs. 

To blowin out of alie kindes 

So loude, that he (hould ydrenche 

Lorde, and ladie, and grome, and wenche 

Of all the Trojanis nacion. 

Without any* of their falvacion. 
There fawe I foche tempell arife. 

That every herte might agrife. 

To fe it painiid on the wall. 
There lawe I eke grawin withall, 

Venus, how ye, my ladie dere, 

Ywcpyng with full wofuU cherc 

Yprayid Jupiter on hie. 

To lave and kepin that navie 

Of that dere Trojan ^neas, 

Sithins that he your fonne ywas. 



Gode counfallc of Chaucer. 

17 L I E fro the prcfe and dwell with fothfallnefle, 
■*■ Suffife unto the gode though it be Jmali, 
For horde hath hate, and climbyiig tikilneirc, 
Prtce hath cnvie, and wcle it brent oer ail, 
Savour no more4bcn the bchovin fhall. 

Rede well thy felf, that othir folkc canft rede. 
And trouthe the ihall delivir it 'is uodrcdc. 
Paine the not cche crokid to rcdrefle. 

In truft of her that tournith as a balle, 
Crete reft ft.jndith in litil bulincfle. 
Beware alio to fpurne ag^in a nalle. 
Strive not as doith a crockc with a walle, 
Dcmirh thy felf that demill othir's dcde. 
And trouthe the fhall deliver it 'is no drede. 
That the is fcnt rcceve in buxomentfll- •, 

The wralUyng of this worlds aikith a fjU ; 
Here is no home, here is but wildirncflV, 
For'.he pilgrim, forthe o befl: out of thy flail, 
Loke up on high, and thanke thy God of all, 
Wcivith thy luile and let thy gholl the lede. 
And trouthe the fhall delivir, it 'is no drede. 

Balade of the village without paintyng. 

'T' H 1 S wrctchid world'is tranfmutacion 
■*• As wcle and wo, nov/e pore, and now honour. 
Without ordir cr due difcrecion 
Govirnid is by fortun'is crrour. 
But nathelefle the lacke of her favour 

Nc male not doc me fyng though that I die, 
J'ay tout perdu, mon temps & mon labcur 
For finally fortune I doc defie. 
Yet is me left the fight of my rcfoun 

To knowin frende fro foe in thy mirrour. 
So moche hath yet thy tournyng up and doun, 
I taughtin me to knowin in an hour, 
But truily no force of thy reddour 

To hym that ovir hymfelf hath maiftrie,. 
My fuffifaunce yflial be my fuccour. 
For finally fortune I do defie. 
O Socrates, ihou ftedfalt champion. 

She nc might nevir be thy turmcntour. 
Thou nevir dreddilt her oppreffion, 

Ne in her chcrc foundin thou no favour, 
Thou knewe wcle the difccipt of her colour. 

And that her mofte worfliip is for to lie, 
1 knowe her eke a falfe dilTimulour. 
For finally fortune I do defie. 

The anfwerc of Fortune. 

No man is wretchid but hymfelf it wene. 
Me that yhaih hymfelf hath fuffifaunce. 

Why faiert thou then I am to the fo kene, 
1 hat hath ihyfclf out of my govirnaunce ? 

Sale thus grant mercie of thin iiabundauncr,. 

That thou hafl lentor this, thou (lialt not llrivej. 
What wort thou yet how 1 the woll avauncc? 
And eke thou hall thy beflc frende alive. 
1 have the taught divifion bctwene 

Frende of effcde, and frende of countinaunce. 
The nedith not the galle of an hine. 

That curith eyin derke for ther penaunce, 
Now feeft thou clere that wcr in ignoraunce. 
Yet holt thine anker, and thou maicfl arive 
There bountie bereth the key of my fubftauncc, 
And ckc thou hartc thy befte frende alive. 
How many have I refufed to fuftene, 

Sith I have the follrid in tliy pltfaunce ? 

Wolt thou thcrn make a (latute on thy quene, 

That I fhall be aie at thine ordinaoncc? 

Thou born art in my reign of variaunce, 

About the vi'hde with othir muft thou drive 
My loie is bet, then wickc is thy grevaunce. 
And ckc thou haft thy befte frende alive. 

The anfwere to Fortune. 
Thy lore I dampne, it is adverfitie. 

My frcnd maill thou not revin blind goddefle, 
That I thy frendis knowe I thanke it the, 
Take 'hem again, let 'hem go lie a preftc-. 
The nigardis in kepyng ther richcfTe 

Pronoftike is thou wolt ther toure afTailf, 
Wicke appetite comcth aie before fickenclle. 
In gcncrall this rule nc maie not failc. 

Thou pinchift at my mutabilitie. 

For I the lent a droppe of my richcfte. 
And now me likith to withdrawin me. 
Why fliouldirt thou my roialtie opprclle ? 
The fe maie ebbe and fl>)win more and lefTc, 

Thewclkin hath might to ftiine, rain, and haile. 
Right fo muft I kithin my brotilnefti?. 
In generall this rule ne maie not faile. 

The PlaintiiTe. 
Lo, the' execucion of the majcftie, 

That all purveighith of his rightwifencfTe, 
That fame thyng fortune yclcpin ye; 
Ye blinde beftia full of leudenefs ! 
The hevcn hath propirtie of fikirnefs. 

This worldc hath evir reftlefTe travailc. 
The laft dale is the ende of myne cntrcfTe, 
In generall this rule nc maie not failc. 

Th' cnvoye of Fortune. 
Princes I praie you of your gentilncfTe, 

Let not this man and me thus crie and plain. 
And I fhall quitin you this bufinelTe, 

And if ye lifte rcleve hym of his pain, 
Praie ye his bcft frende of his nobltnefTc 
1 hat to fome bettir ftate he maie attain. 



Lyigale was a rrtonk of 5«ry. who wrote about 
the fame time with Chaucer. Out of his prologue 
to his third book of The Fall of Princes a few 
(lanzas are fclefted, which, being compared with 
the ftylcof his two contemporaries, will fhow that 
our language was then not written by caprice, but 
was in a fettled (late. 

T IKE a pilgrime which that goeth on foote, 
•*-* And hath none horfe to releue his trauayle, 
Whote, drye and wery, and may finde no bote 
Of wel cold whan thruft doth hym aflayle. 
Wine nor licour, that may to hym auayle. 
Tight fo fare I which in my bufinefle, 
No fuccour fynde my rudenes to redrefTe. 

1 meane as thus, I haue no frcfh licour 
Out of the conduices of Calliope, 
Nor through Clio in rhetorike no floure. 
In my labour for to refrefh me : 
Nor of the fufters in noumber thrife three. 
Which with Cithera on Parnafo dwell, ' 

They neuer me gaue drinke once of their wel. 

Nor of theyr Ipringes clere and chriftaline, 
' That fprange by touchyng of the Pegafe, 
Their fauour lacketh my making ten lumine 
I fynde theyr bawme of fo great fcarcitie. 
To tame their tunnes with fome drop of plentie 
For Foliphemus tTirow his great blindnes, 
Hath in me derked of Argus the brightnes. 

Our life here fliort of wit the great dulnes 
The heuy foule troubled with trauayle. 
And of memorye the glafyng brotelnes, 
Drede and vncunning haue made a ftrong batail 
With werines my fpirite to affayle. 
And with their fubtil creping in mod queint 
Hath made my fpirit in makyng for to feint. 

And ouermore, the ferefull frowardnes 
Of my ftepmother called obliuion. 
Hath a baftyil of foryetfulnes, 
To ftoppe the paflagc, and Ihadow my reafon 
That I might haue no clere direccion. 
In tranflatinf^ of new to quicke me, 
Stories to write of olde antiquite. 

Thus was I fet and ftode in double werre 
At the metyng of fearefiil wayes tweyne. 
The one was this, who cuer lift to lere, 
"Whereas good wyll gan me conftrayne, 
Bochas taccomplifli for to doe my payne. 
Came ignoraunce, with a menace of drede, 
My penne to reft I durft not procedc. 

Fortefcue was chief juftice of the Common Plea's, 
in the reign of king Henry W. He retired in 
147 1, after the battle of Tcwkefbury, and pro- 
bably wrote mod of his works in his privacy. 
The following pafla^e is fclectcd from his book 

of the' Difference between an abfolute and limited Mo- 

TJYT may peraventure be marvelid by fome men, 
■*■•■• why one Realme is a Lordlhyp only Royally 
and the Prynce thereof rulyth yt by his Law, callid 
Jus Regale ; and another Kyngdome is a Lordfchip, 
Royalland Polilike, and the Prince thereof rulyth by 
a Lawe, callyd Jus Politicum^ Regale-, fythen thes 
two Princes bcth of egail Aftate. 

To this dowte it may be anfwcryd in this man- 
ner; The firft Inftitution of thes twoo Rcalmys, 
upon the Incorporation of them, is the Caufe of 
this diverfyte. 

When Nembroth by Might, for his own Glorye, 
made and incorporate the firft Realme, and lub- 
duyd it to hymfelf by Tyrannye, he would not 
have it governyd by any other Rule or Lawe, 
but by his own Will ; by which and for th' ac- 
complifliment thereof he made it. And therfor, 
though he had thus made a Realme, holy Scripture 
denyyd to cal hym a Kyng, ^da Rex dicitur a Re- 
^ende; Whych thyng he dyd not, but oppreflyd 
the People by Myght, and therfor he was a Ty- 
rant, and callid Primus Tyranmrum, But holy 
Writ callith hym Robuftus Venator coram Deo. For 
as the Hunter takyth ttie wyld befte for to fcleand 
eatehymj fo Nembroth fubduyd to him the People 
with Might, to have their fervice and their goods, 
ufing upon them the Lordfchip that is callid Domi- 
vium Regale tantum. After hym Bclus that was 
callid firft a Kyng, and after hym his Sone Nynus, 
and after hym other Panyms ; They, by Example 
of Nembroth, made them Realmys, would not 
have them rulyd by other Lawys than by their own 
Wills. Which Lawys ben right good under good 
Princes; and theirKyngdoms a then moftrefemblyd 
to the Kyngdome of God, which reynith upon Man, 
rulyng iiim by hys own Will. Wherfor many 
Cryftyn Princes ufen the fame Lawe; and therfor it 
is, that the Lawys fay en, ^od Principi placuit Legis 
habet vigorem. And thus I fuppofe firft beganne in 
Realmy-s, Dominium tantum Regale. But afterward, 
whan Mankynd was more manfuete, and better dif- 
pofyd to Vertue, Grete Communalties, as was the 
Felifhip, that came into this Lond with Brute, 
wyllyng to be unyed and made a Body Politike 
callid a Realme, havyng an Heed to govcrne it ; as 
after the Saying of the Philofophcr, every Com- 
munahie unyed of many parts muft needs have an 
Heed ; than they chole the fame Brute to be their 
Heed and Kyng. And they and he upon this In- 
corporation and Inftitution, and onyng of themfclf 
into a Realme, ordeynyd the fame Realme fo to be 
rulyd and juftyfyd by fuch Lawys, as they al would 
aflcnt unto ; which Law therfur is callid Politicum; 
and bycaufe it is mynyftrid by a Kyng, it is callid 




Regale. Dominium Poliiicum dicitur quafi Regimen, 
flurium Scientia,Jive Confiiio tnimfiratum. The Kyng 
of Scotts reyniih upon his People by this Lawc, 
videlicet, Regimine Politico fc? Regali. And as Dio- 
dorus Syculus faith, in his Boke de prifcis Hijloriis, 
The Realme of Egvpre is rulid by the fame Lawe, 
and therfor the Kyng therof chaungith not his 
Lawes, without the Aflent of his People. And in 
like forme as he faith is ruled the Kyngdome of 
Saba, in Felici Arabia, and the Lond of Libie; 
And alfo the more parte of al the Realmys in 
Afrike. "Which manner of Rule and Lordfljip, the 
fayd Diodorus in that Boke, prayfith gretely. For 
it is not only good for the Prince, that may thereby 
the more fewerly do Jurtice, than by his owne Ar- 
bitriment ; but it is alfo good for his People that 
receyve therby, fuch Jullice as they defyer them- 
feif. Now as me feymth, it ys fhewyd opinly 
ynough, why one Kyng rulyth and re_ynith on his 
People Dominio tantum Regali, and that other rey- 
nith Dominio Politico ^Regali: For that one Kyng- 

dome beganne, of and by, the Might of the Prince, 
and the other beganne, by the Defter and Inftitu- 
tion of the People of the fame Prince. 

Of the works of Sir Thomas More it was necefTary 
to give a larger fpecimcn, both becaufe our lan- 
guage was then in a great degree formed and 
fettled, and becaufe it appears from Ben Jonjon, 
that his works were confidered as models of pure 
and elegant ftyle. The tale, which is placed firft» 
becaufe earlicft written, will Ihow what an atten- 
tive reader will, in perufing our old writers, often 
remark, that the familiar and colloquial part of 
our language, being diffufed among thofe clafles 
who had no ambition of refinement, lOr affedlation 
of novelty, has fuHered very little change. There 
is another reafon why the extrads from this author 
are more copious : his works are carefully and cor- 
rectly printed, and may therefore be better f ulled 
than any other edition of the Engltjh books of that, 
or the preceding ages. 

A merry iefl how a fergeant would 
Icarne to playe the frere. Writ- 
ten by maifter Thomas More in 
hys youth. 

"IXT'YSE men alway, 

" Affyrmc and fay. 

That beft is for a man : 
For to apply, 

The bufincs that he can. 
And in no wyfe, 
To enterpryfe. 

An other faculte. 
For he that wyll. 
And can no fkyll. 

Is neuer lyke to the. 
He that hath lafte. 
The hofiers crafte. 

And falleth to making fhone, 
The fmythe that (hall, 
To payntyng fall. 

His thrift is well nigh done. 
A blacke draper. 
With whyte paper. 

To goe to writyng fcole," 
An olde butler, 
Becum a cutler, 

I wene fhall proue afole. 
And an olde trot. 
That can I wot, 

Nothyng but kylTc the cup. 
With her phifick, 
Wil kepe on ficke, 

Tyll (he have foufed hym vp. 

Vol. I. 

A man of lawe. 
That neuer fawe. 

The wayes to bye and fell, 
Wenyng to ryfe. 
By marchaundife, 

I wi(h to fpede hym well, 
A marchaunt eke. 
That wyll goo feke. 

By all the meanes he may, 
To fall in fute, 
Tyll he difpute. 

His money cleane away, 
Pletyng the lawe. 
For euery ftrawe. 

Shall proue a thrifty man, 
With bate and ftrifc, 
But by my life, 

I cannot tell you whan. 
Whan an hatter 
Wyll go fmattcr 

In philofophy. 
Or a pedlar. 
Ware a medlar. 

In theology. 
All that enfufc, 
Suche craftes new. 

They driue fo farre a caft, 
That euermore. 
They do therfore, 

Befhrewe themfelfe at laft. 
This thing^was tryed 
And verefyed. 

Here by a fergeaunt late. 


That thriftly was. 
Or he coulde pas, 

Rapped about the pate, 
Whyle that he would 
See how he could, 

A little play the frere : 
Now yf you wyll, 
Knowe how it fyll, 

Take hede and ye (hall here. 
It happed fo. 
Not long ago, 

A thrifty man there dyed. 
An hundred pounde. 
Of nobles rounde. 

That had he layd a fide : 
His fonne he wolde. 
Should haue this golde. 

For to beginne with all : 
But to fuffife 
His chylde, well thrife. 

That money was to fmal. 
Yet or this day 
1 have hard fay. 

That many a man certefle, 
Hath with good cafl, 
Be ryche at laft. 

That hath begonne with lefle. 
But this yonge manne, 
So well beganne, 

His money to imploy. 
That certainly. 
His policy. 

To fee it was a joy. 



For left fum blaft, 
Myght ouer raft. 

His (hip, or by mifchauncc, 
Men with fum wile, 
Myght hym begyle. 

And mini(h his fubftaunce, 
For to put out. 
All mancr dout. 

He made a good puruay. 
For euery whyt. 
By his owne wyr, 

And toke an other way : 
Firft fayrc and wele, 
Therof much dele. 

He dygged it in a pot, 
But then him thought. 
That way was nought. 

And there he left it not. 
So was he faine. 
From thence agayne. 

To put it in a cup. 
And by and by, 

He fupped it fayre vp. 
In his owne brcft. 
He thought it bcft. 

His money to cnclofe, 
Therv wift he well, 
"What euer fell, 

He coulde it neuer lofe. 
He borrowed then, 
Of other men, 

Money and marchaundife : 
Neuer payd it. 
Up he laid it. 

In like maner wyfe. 
Yet on the gere. 
That he would were,' 

He reight not what he fpent. 
So it were nyce. 
As for the price. 

Could him not mifcontent. 
"With lufty fporte, 
And with rclort, 

Of ioly company, 
In mirth and play. 
Full many a day. 

He liU'.d merely. 
And men had fworne. 
Some man is borne. 

To haue a lucky howre. 
And fo was he. 
For fuch dcgrc, 

He gat and fuche honour. 
That without dour, 
"Whan he went our, ^ 

A fergcaunt well and fayrc, 

Was redy ftrayte. 
On him to wayte. 

As fone as on the mayre. 
But he doubtlefTe, 
Of his mckcnefrc. 

Hated fuch pompc and pride. 
And -would not go, 
Companicd fo. 

But drewe himfelf a fide. 
To faint Kaiharin?, 
Strei^ as a line. 

He gate him at a tyde. 
For deuocion. 
Or promocion. 

There would he nedcs abyde. 
There fpent he f^ft, 
Till all were paft. 

And to him came there meny. 
To afke theyr debt. 
But none could get. 

The valour of a peny. 
With vifage ftout, 
He bare it our, 

Euen vnto the harde hedge, 
A month or twaine, 
Tyll he was fayne. 

To lay his gowne to pledge. 
Than was he there. 
In greater feare. 

Than ere that he came thither. 
And would as fayne. 
Depart againe. 

But that he wift not whither. 
Than after this. 
To a frende of his, 

He went and there abode, 
Where as he lay. 
So fick alway. 

He myght not come abrcde. 
It happed than, 
A marchaunt man. 

That he ought money tro. 
Of an officere, 
That gan enquere. 

What him was bcft to do. 
And he anfwerde. 
Be not aferde. 

Take an accion thcrfore, 
I you belicrte, 
I ftiall hym rcfte. 

And than carc for no more. 
I feare qviod he. 
It wyll not be. 

For he wyll not come out. 
The fergc,!unt faid. 
Be not afra\d. 

It ftiall be brought about. 

In many a game, 
Lyke to the fame, 

Haue I bene well in vre. 
And for your fake. 
Let me be bake. 

But yf I do this cure. 
Thus part they both. 
And foorth then goth,. 

A pace this officere. 
And for a day. 
All his array. 

He chaunged with a frcre. 
So was he dight, 
That no man might, 

Hym for a frere deny. 
He doppcd and dooked. 
He fp>ike and looked. 

So religioofly. 
Yet in a glafle. 
Or he would pafie. 

He toted and he peered,' 
His harte for pryde, 
Lepte in his fyde. 

To fee how well he freeied. 
Than forth a pace. 
Unto the place. 

He goeth withouten ftiame 
To do this dede. 
But now take hede. 

For here begynneth the game. 
He drew hym ny. 
And foftely, 

Streyght at the dore he knocked : 
And a damfeil, 
That hard hym well. 

There came and it vnlocked. 
The frere fayd. 
Good fpede fayre mayd. 

Here lodgeth fuch a man, 
It is told me : 
Well fyr quod flie. 

And yf he do what than. 
Qiiod he mayftrefTe, 
No harm doutieffe : 

It longeth for our order. 
To liurt no man. 
But as we can, 

Euery wight to forder. 
With hym truly, 
Fayne fpeake would I. 

Sir quod flie by my fay. 
He is fo fike. 
Ye be not lyke. 

To fpeake with hym to day. 
Qiiod he fayrc may. 
Yet I you prjy. 

This muclr at my defire, 



Vouchefafe to do, 
As go hym to. 

And fay an auften frere 
Would with hym Tpeke, 
And matters breake. 

For his auayle certayn. 
Quod fhe I wyll, 
Stonde ye here ftyll, 

Tyll 1 come dovvne agayn. 
Vp is (he go. 
And told hym fo, 

As fhe was bode to fay. 
He miftruftyng, 
No maner thyng, 

Sayd mayden go thy way. 
And fetch him hyder. 
That we togyder. 

May talk. A downe (he goth 
Vp fhe hym brought. 
No harme (he thought. 

But it made fome foike wrothe, 
This officere. 
This fayned frere. 

Whan he was come aloft, 
He dopped than, 
And grece this man, 

Religioudy and oft. 
And he agayn, 
Ryght glad and fayn, 

Toke hym there by the hande. 
The frere than fayd. 
Ye be difmayd. 

With trouble I underllande. 
In dede quod he. 
It hath with me, 

Bene.better than it is. 
Syr quod the frere. 
Be of good cherr. 

Yet (hall it after this. 
But I would now, 
Comen with you, 

In counfayle yf you pleafe, 
Or ellys nac 
Of matters that. 

Shall fet your heart at cafe. 
Downe went the mayd. 
The marchauni fayd. 

No fay on gentle frere, 
Of thys tydyng. 
That ye me bryng, 

I tong full fore to here. 
Whan there was none, 
But they alone, 
The frere with cuyll gracp, 

Sayd, I reft the. 
Come on with me. 

And out he toke his mace : 
Thou (halt obay. 
Come on thy way, 

I have the in my douche. 
Thou goeft not hence. 
For all the penfe 

The mayre hath in his pouche. 
This marchaunt there. 
For wrath and fere,. 

He waxyng welnygh wood, 
Sayd horlbn thefe, 
Witli a mifchefc. 

Who hach taught thee thy good. 
And with his filb, 
Vpon the lyft, 
e. He gaue hym fuch a blow. 
That backward downe, 
Almoft in fowne. 

The frere is ouerthrow. 
Yet was this man. 
Well fearder than. 

Left he the frere had flayne. 
Till with good rappes. 
And heuy clappes. 

He dawde hym vp agayne. 
The frere toke harte. 
And vp he ftarte. 

And well he layde about, 
And fo there goth, 
Bctwene them both. 

Many a lufty clout. 
They rent and tcre, 
Eche others here. 

And claue togyder faft, 
Tyll with luggyng. 
And with tuggyng. 

They fell downe bothe at laft. 
Than on the grounde, 
Togyder rounde. 

With many a fadde ftroke. 
They roll and rumble. 
They turne and tumble. 

As pygges do in a poke. 
So long aboue. 
They heus and (houe, 

Togider that at laft. 
The mayd and wyfc. 
To breake the ftrife, 

Hyed ihem vpward fafl-. 
And whan they fpye, 
The captaynes lye. 

Both wahring on the place. 

The freres hood. 
They pulled a good, 

Adowne about his face. 
Whyle he was blynde. 
The wenche behynde. 

Lent him leyd on'^he flore, 
M;'.ny a ioule. 
About the noule. 

With a great batyldore. 
The wyfe came yet. 
And with her fete. 

She holpe to kepe him downe. 
And with her rocke. 
Many a knocke. 

She gaue hym on the crowne. 
They layd his mace. 
About his face. 

That he was wood for payne : 
The fryre frappe, 
Gate many a fwappe, 

Tyll he was full nygh flayne. 
Vp they hym life. 
And with yll thrift, 

Hedlyng a long the ftayre, 
Downe they hym threwe. 
And fayde adewe, 

Commcnde us to the mayre. 
The frere arofe. 
But I fuppofe, 

Amafed was his hed. 
He Pnoke his eares. 
And from grcte feares. 

He thought hym well yfled. 
Qiiod he now loft. 
Is all this coft. 

We be neuer the nere. 
Ill mote he be. 
That caufcd me. 

To make my felf a frere. 
Now mafters all. 
Here now I ftiall, 

Ende there as I began. 
In any wyfe, 
1 would auyfe. 

And counfayle euery man, 
His owne craft vfe. 
All newe rcfufe. 

And lyghtly let them gone: 
Play not the frere. 
Now make good chere. 

And welcome euerych one. 

[ij 2 

A ruful 


A ruful lamentacion (writcn by maftcr Thomas 
More in his youth) of the dcth of quene Elifa- 
beth mother to king Henry the eight, wife to 
king Henry the feucnth, and the cldeft doughter 
to king Edward the fourih, which quene Elifa- 
bcth dyed in childbed in February in the yere of 
our Lord 1503, and in the 18 yere of the raigne 
of king Henry the feucnth. 

/^ Y li that put your truft and confidence, 

^^ In worldly ioy and frayle profperiie. 

That fo lyue here as ye (hould neuer hence, 

Remember death and loke here vppon me. 

Enfaumple I thynke there may no better be. 

Your felfc wottc well that in this realme was T, 

Your quene but late, and lo now here I lye. 
Was I not borne of olde worthy linage ? 

Was not my mother quecne my father kyng ? 

Was I not a kinges fere in marriage ? 

Had I not plenty of euery plcafaunt thyng ? 

Mercifull god this is a ftraunge reckenyng : 

Rychcffc-, honour, welth, and aunceftry. 

Hath me forfaken and lo now here I ly. 

If worfhip myght haue kept me, I had not gone. 

If wyt myght haue me faued, I neded not fere. 

If money myght haue holpe, I lacked none. 

But O good God what vayleth all this gere. 

When dtth is come thy mighty mefTangcre, 

Obey we muft there is no remedy. 

Me hath he fommoned, and lo now here I ly. 
Yet was I late promifed otherwyfe. 

This yere to liue in welth and delice. 

Lo where to commeth thy blandifhyng promyfe, 

O falfe aftrolagy and deuynatrice. 

Of goddes fecretes makyng thy felfe fo wyfe. 

How true is for this yere thy prophecy. 

The yere yet lafteth, and lo now here I ly. 
O bryttil welth, as full of bitternefle. 

Thy fingle pleafure doubled is with payne. 

Account my forow firft and my diftrefTe, 
In fondry wyfe, and recken there agayne. 
The ioy that I haue had, and I dare fayne. 
For all my honour, endured yet haue ly, 
More wo than welth, and lo now here 1 ly. 

Where are our cartels, now where are our towers. 
Goodly Rychmonde foiie arc thi)U gone from me, 
Al Weftminfter that coftly worke of yours, 
Myne owne derc lorde now (hall I neuer fee. 
Almighty god vouchefafe to graunt that ye. 
For you and your children well may edety. 
My paly.e bylded is, and lo now here I ly. 

Adew myne owne dcre fpoufe my worthy lorde, 
The faithfull loue, that dyd vs both combyne. 
In mariagc and peafable concorde. 
Into your han.ies here 1 clcane refyne. 
To be beftowed vppon your children and myne. 
Erft wer you father, and now muft ye fupply. 
The mothers part alfo, for lo now here 1 ly. 

Farewell my doughter lady Margerete. 
God wotce full oft it greucd huh my mynde, 
That ye fliould go where we fliould feldome metCt 
Now am 1 gone, and haue left you behynde. 
O mortall folke that we be very blyndc. 
That we leaft feare, full oft it is moft nyc. 
From you depart I fyrft, and lo now here I ly. 

Farewell Madame my lordes worthy mother. 
Comfort your fonne, and be ye of good chere. 
Take all a worth, for it will be no nother. 
Farewell my doughter Katherine late the fere, 
To prince Arthur myne owne chyld fo dere. 
It booteth not for me to wepe or cry. 
Pray for my foule, for lo now here I ly. 

Adew lord Henry my louyng fonne adew. 
Our lorde encreafe your honour and eftate, 
Adew my doughter Mary bright of hew, 
God make you vertuous wyfe and fortunate. 
Adew fwete hart my litle doughter Kate, 
Thou (halt fwete babe fuche is thy defteny. 
Thy mother neuer know, for lo now here I ly. 

Lady Cicyly Anne and Katheryne, 
Farewell my welbeloved fillers three, 

lady Briget other fifter myne, 

Lo here thcende of worldly vanitee. 
Now well are ye that earthly foly fiee. 
And heuenly thynges loue and magnify. 
Farewell and pray for me, for lo now here I ly, 

A dew my lordes, a dew my ladies all, 
A dew my faithful feruauntes euerych one, 
A dew my commons whom 1 neuer fliall, 
See in this world wherfore to the alone. 
Immortal! god verely three and one, 

1 me conimende. Thy infinite mercy. 
Shew to thy feruant, for lo now here I ly. 

Certain meters in Englilh written by mafter Thomas 
More in hys youth for the boke of fortune, and 
caufed them to be printed in the begynnyng of 
that boke. 

The wordes of Fortune to the people. 

TV/TINE high eftate power and audtoritie, 
■^ ■*■ If \e ne know, enferche and ye (hall fpye. 
That riche{re, worfhip, welth, and dignirie, 
Joy, reft, and peace, and all thyng fynally. 
That any pleafure or profit may come by. 
To mannes comfort, ayde, and fuftinaunce. 
Is all at my deuyfe and ordinaunce. 

Without my fauour there is nothyng wonne. 
Many a matter haue I brought at laft, 
To good conckifion, that fondly was begonne. 
And many a purpofe, bounden fure and taft 
With wife prouifion, I haue ouercaft. 
Without good happe there may no wit fufEfe. 
Better is to be fortunate than wyfe. 



And therefore hath there fome men bene or this. 
My deadly foes and written many a boke. 
To my diiprayfe. And other caufe there nys. 
But for me hft not fiendly on them loke. 
Thus lyke the fox they fare that once iorfoke, 
The pleafaunt grapes, and gan for to defy them, 
Becaufe he Icpt and yet could not come by them. 

But let them write thcyr labour is in vayne. 
For well ye wote, myrth, honour, and ticheffe. 
Much better is than penury and payne. 
The nedy wretch that iihgereth in diftrefle. 
Without myne helpe is euer comfortlefle, 
A wery burden odious and loth. 
To all the world, and eke to him felfe both. 

But he that by my fauour may afcende. 
To mighty power and excellent degree, 
A common wele to gouerne and dcfendc, 
O in how blift condition ftandeth he: 
Him felf in honour and fclicite, 
And ouer that, may forther and increafe, 
A region hole in ioyfull reft and peace. 

Now in this poynt there is no more to fay, 
Eche man hath of him fclf the gouernaunce. 
Let euery wight than folowe his owne way. 
And he that out of pouertee and mifchaunce. 
Lift for to liue, and wyll him fclfe cnhaunce. 
In wealth and richefle, come forth and wayie on 

And he that wyll be a beggar, let hym be. 

Thomas More to them that truft in Fortune. 

'T'HOU that art prowde of honour (hape or kynne, 
"*• That hepeft vp this wretched worldes treafure. 
Thy fingers ftirined with gold, thy tawny fkynne. 
With freftj apparyle garnilhed out of meafure. 
And weneft to haue fortune at thy plcafure, 
Caft vp thyne eye, and loke how flipper chaunce, 
llludeth her men with chaunge and varyaunce. 

Sometyme ftie lokcth as louely fayre and bright, 
As goodly Ucnus mother of Cupydc. 
She becketh and ftie fmileth on eucry wight. 
But this chere fayned, may not long abide. 
There comcth a cloude, and farewell all our pryde. 
Like any ferpcnt ftie beginneth to fwell. 
And looketh as fierce as any fury of hell. 

Yet for all that we brotle men are fayne, 
(So wretched is our nature and fo blynde) 
As foone as Fortune lift to laugh agayne, 
With fayre countenaunce and difceitfull mynde. 
To crouche and knele and gape after the wynde. 
Not one or twayne but thoufandes in a rout, 
Lyke fwarmyng bees come flickeryng her aboute. 

Then as a bayte ftie bryngeth forth her ware, 
Siluer, gold, riche perle, and precious ftone; 
On whiche the mated people gafe and ftare. 
And gape therefore, as dogges doe for the bone, 
l^criune ac them laughctb, and in her trone 

Amyd her treafure and waueryng rychefle, 
Prowdly ftie houeth as lady and emprefic. 

Faft by her fyde doth wery labour ftand. 
Pale fere alfo, and forow all bewept, 
Difdayn and hatred on the other hand. 
Eke reftles watchefro flepe with trauayle kept. 
His eyes drowfy and lokyng as he flept. 
Before her ftandeth daunger and enuy. 
Flattery, dyfceyt, mifchitfe and tiranny. 

About her commeth all the world to begge. 
He afl<e:h lande, and he to pas would bryng. 
This toye and that, and all not worth an cgge: 
He would in loue profper aboue all thyng: 
He kneleth downe and would be made a kyng: 
He forceth not fo he may money haue, 
Though all the worlde accompt hym for a knauc. 

Lo thus ye fee diucrs heddes, diuers wittes. 
Fortune alone as diuers as they all, 
Vnftable here and there among them flittesr 
And at auenture downe her giftcs fall. 
Catch who fo may ftie throweth great and fmall 
Not to all men, as commeth fonne or dewe. 
But for the moft part, all among a fewe. 

And yet her brotell giftes long may not laft. 
He that ftiegaue them, loketh prowde and hyc. 
She whirlth about and pluckth away as faft. 
And geueth them to an other by and by. 
And thus from man to man continually. 
She vfeth to geue and take, and flily tofle. 
One man to wynnyng of an others lofte. 

And when ftie robbeth one, down goth his pryde. 
He wepeth and wayleth and curfeth her full fore. 
But he that receueth it, on that other fyde. 
Is glad, and blefth her often tymes therefore. 
But in a whyle when ftie loueth hym no more» 
She glydeth from hym, and her giftes to. 
And he her curfeth, as other fooles do. 

Alas the folyfti people can not ceafe, 
Ne voyd her trayne, tyll they the harme do fele. 
About her alway, befely they preace. 
But lord how he doth thynk hym felf full wele. 
That may fct once his hande vppon her whele. 
He holdeth faft: but vpward as he flieth. 
She whippeth her whele about, and there he lyeth. 

Thus fell Julius from his mighty power. 
Thus fell Darius the worthy kyng of Perfe. 
Thus fell Alexander the great conquerour. 
Thus many mo then I may well reherfe. 
Thus double fortune, when flie lyft reuerfe 
Her flipper fauour fro them that in her truft. 
She fieeth her wey and leyeth them in the duft. 

She fodeinly enhaunceth them aloft. 
And fodeynly mifcheueth all the flocke. 
The head that late lay eafily and full loft. 
In ftede of pylows lyeth after on the blocke. 
And yet alas the moft crucll proude mocker 
1 he deynty mowth that ladyes kifled haue. 
She bryngeth in the cafe to kyCfe a knaue. 



In chaungyngof her courfe, the chaunge {hcwth 
Vp ftartth a knaue, and downe there faith a knight, 
The beggar ryche, and the ryche man pore is. 
Hatred is turned to loue, loue to defpyght. 
This is her fporr, thus proueth fhe her myght. 
Great bode flie maketh yf one be by her pov/cr, 
Wclthy and wretched both within an howre. 

I'oucrtec that of her giftcs wyl nothing take, 
"Wyth mery chere, looketh vppon the prece. 
And feeth how fortunes houlhold goeth to wrake. 
Faft by her ftandeth the wyfe Socrates, 
Arriftippus, Pythagoras, and many a Icfe, 
Of olde philofophcrs. And eke agaynft the fonnc 
Btrkyth hym poors Diogenes in his tonne. 

With her is Byas, whofe countrey lackt defence, 
And whylom of their foes ftode fo in dout. 
That eche man hartely gan to cary thence. 
And afked hym why he nought caryed out. 
1 bere quod he all myne with me about: 
Wiledom he ment, not fortunes brotle fees. 
For nought he counted his that he might leefe. 

Heraclitus eke, lyft felowfliip to kepe 
With glad pouertee, Democritus alio: 
Of which the fyrfl: can neuer ceafe but wepe, 
To fee how thick the blynded people go, 
"With labour great to purchafe care and wo. 
That other laughcth to fee the foolyfh apes, 
How earneftly they walk about theyr capes. 

Of this poore fcft, it is comen vfage, 
Onely to take that nature may foftayne, 
Binilhing cleane all other furplufage. 
They be content, and of nothyng complayne. 
No nygarde eke is of his good lo fayne. 
But they more ple^fure haue a thoufande folde, 
'1 he i'ecrete draughtes of nature to beholde. 

Set fortunes lervauntes by them and ye wull, one is free, that other euer thrall. 
That one content, that other neuer full, 
'I'hat one in furetye, that other lyke to fall. 
"Who lyrt to adiiile them bothe, parceyue he (hall. 
As great difference between them as we fee, 
Betv.ixte wretchcdnes and fciicite. haue I fhewed you bothe: thefe whiche ye 


Stately fortune, or humble poucrtec: 
That is to fay, nowe lyeth it in your fyft. 
To take here bondag'e, or free liberiee. 
But in thys poynte and ye do after me, 
Dr.iw you to fortune, and labour her to pleafe, 
If that ye thynke your fclfe to well at eafe. 

And fyrft vppon the louely (hall (he fmile, 
And frcndlv on the caft her wandering eyes 
Embrace the in her armes, and for a whyle, 
Put the and kepe the in a foolcs paradifc: 
And foorth with all whit fo thou lyft deuife. 
She wyll the graunt it liberally perhappes : 
But for all that beware of after clappcs. 

Recken you neuer of her fauoure fure: 
Ye may in clowds as eafily trace an hare. 
Or in drye lande caufe fiflies to endure. 
And make the burnyng fyrc his hcate to fpare. 
And all thys worlde in compace to forfare, 
As her to make by craft or engine (lable. 
That of her nature is euer variable. 

Serue her day and nyght as reuerently, 
Vppon thy knees as any feru^unt may. 
And in conclufion, that thou flialt winne thereby 
Shall not be worth thy fervyce I dare fay. 
And looke yet what Ihe geueth the lo day. 
With labour wonne (he (hall happly to morow 
Plucke it agayne out of thyne hand with forow. 

Wherefore yf thou in furetye lyft to ftande. 
Take pouerties parte and let prowde fortune go-, 
Receyue nothyng that commeth from her hande. 
Loue maner and vertue: they be onely tho. 
Whiche double fortune may not take the fro. 
Then may ft th6u boldly defye her turnyng chaunce : 
She can the neyther hynder nor auaunce. 

But and thou wylt nedes medie with her treafure/ 
Truft not therein, and fpende it liberally. 
-Beare the not proude, nor take not out of meafure. 
Bylde not thyne houfe on heyth vp in the (kye. 
Nonne falleth farre, but he that climbeth hye. 
Remember nature fent the hyther bare. 
The gyftes of fortune count them borowed ware. 

Thomas More to them that fcke Fortune. 

WHO {o delyteth to prouen and aCfay, 
Of waveryng fortune the vncertayne lot, 
If that the aunfwere pleafe you not alway. 
Blame ye not tne: for I commaunde you nor. 
Fortune to truft, and eke full well ye vvor, 
I haue of her no brydle in my lift, 
She rcnneth loofe, and turnetn where (lie lyft. 

TheroUyngdyfe inwhomeyourluckedothltande. 
With whole vnhappy chaunce ye be fo wroth. 
Ye knowe your felfe came neuer in myne hande. 
Lo in rjiis ponde be fydie and frogges both. 
Caft in your nette : but be you liefe or lotiie. 
Hold you content as fortune lyft ailyne: 
For it is your owne fylhyng and not myne. 

And though in one chaunce fortune you oftcnd. 
Grudge not there at, but beare a mery face. 
In many an other Ihe (hall it amende. 
There is no manne fo farre out of her grace. 
But he Ibmetyme hath comfort and folace: 
Ne none agayne fo farre foorth in her fauour. 
That is full fatisfyed with her behauiour. 

Fortune is llately, folemne, prowde, and hye: 
And rychelTe geueth, to haue feruyce therefore. 
The nedy begger catcheth an halfpeny. 
Some manne a thoufande pounde, fome lefie feme 

But for all chat (he kepcth euer in (lore. 



From euery manne fome parcell of his wyl!. 
That he may pray therfore and ferue her ftyll. 

Some manne hath good, but-chyldren hath he 
Some manne hath both, but he can get none health. 
Some hath al thre, but vp to honours trone, 
Can he not crepe, by no maner of ftelth. 
'J"o fome fhe fendt-ih, children, ryches, welthe. 
Honour, woorfhyp, and reuerence all hys lyfe: 
But yet fhe pynchech hym with a fhrewde wyfe. 

Then for afmuch as it is fortunes guyfe. 
To graunt to manne all thyng that he wyll axe. 
But as her felfe lyft order and deuyfe, 
Toth eucry manne his parte diuide and tax, 
1 counlayle you eche one trufTe vp your packes. 
And take no thyng at all, or be content. 
With fnche rcvvarde as fortune hath you fent. 

All thynges in this boke that ye fhall rede. 
Doe as ye lyft, there Jhall no manne you bynde. 
Them to beleue, as furely as your crede. 
But notwithltandyng certes in my mynde, 
I durft well fwere, as true ye (hall them fynde. 
In euery poynt eche anfwere by and by. 
As are the iudgementes of aftronomye. 


The Defcripcion of Richard the thirde. 

ICHARDE the third fonne, of whom we 
nowe entrcate, was in witte and courige egall 
with cither of ihem, in bodye and prowefle farre 
vnder them bothe, little of ftature, ill fetured of 
limmes, croke backed, his left (boulder much 
higher than his right, hard fauoured of vifage, and 
fuch as is in ftates called warlye, in other menne 
otherwife, he was malicious, wrathfull, cnuious, 
and from afore his binh, euer frowarde. It is for 
trouth reported, that the duches his mother had fo 
much a doe in her trauaile: that fhee coulde not 
bre deliuered of hym vncutte, and that he came 
into the world with the feete forwarde, as menne 
bee borne outwarde, and (as the fame runneth) alfo 
not vntothed, whither menne of hatred reporte 
aboue the trouthe, or elles that nature chaungcd 
her courfe in hys beginninge, whiche in the courfe 
of his lyfe many thinges vnnaturallye committed. 
None euill captaine was hce in the warre, as to 
whiche his difpoficion was more metcly then for 
peace. Sundrye viftories hadde hee, and fomme- 
time ouerthrowes, but neuer in defaulte as for his 
owne parfone, either of hardineffe or polytike order, 
free was hee called of dyfpence, and fommcwhat 
aboue hys power liberall, with large giftes hee get 
him vnftedfarte frendelhippe, for whiche hee was 
fain to pil and fpoyle in other places, and get him 
p ...u a t-ijtrt-d, Hee was dole and fecrete, a deepe 
< T, lowlye of'couiiteynaunce, arrogant of 

heart, outwardly coumpinable where he inwardf ly 

hated, not letting to kifle whome he thoughte to 
k\l!: difpitious and crucll, not for euill will alway, 
but after for ainbicion, and either for the I'uretie arvd 
encreafe of his eftate. Frende and foo was muche 
what indificrent, where his aduauntage grew, he 
fpared no mans deathe, whofe life withltoode his 
purpofe. He flewe with his owne handes king 
Henry the fixt, being piiloner in the Tower, as 
menne ccnftantly fayc, and that without com- 
maundemcnt or knoweledge of the king, whiche 
woulde vndoubtedly yf he had entended thatthinge^ 
haue appointed that boocherly office, to foirie other 
then his owne borne brother. 

Somme wife menne alfo weene, that his drift 
couertly conuayde, lacked not in helping furth his 
brother of Clarence to his death: whiche hee refifted 
openly, howbcit fomwhat (as menne deme) more 
faintly then he that wer hartely minded to his 
welth. And they that thus dcnic, think that he 
long time in king Edwardes life, forethought to be 
king in that cafe the king his brother (whole life 
hee looked that euil dyete Ihoulde (horten) flioulde 
happen to deceafe (as in dede he did) while his 
children wer yonge. And thci deme, that for thys 
intente he was gladde of his brothers death the 
duke of Clarence, whofe life muft nedes haue hin- 
dered hym (o entendynge, whither the fame duke 
of Clarence hadde kepte him, true to his nephew 
the yonge king, or enterprifed to be kyng him- 
felfe. But of al this pointe, is there no certain tie, 
and whofo diuineih vppon conicdhures, maye as wel 
fliote to farre as to fliort. Howbcit this h -ue I by 
credible informacion learned, that the felfe nighte 
in whiche kynge Edwarde died, one Myftlebrooke 
longe ere mornynge, came in greate hafte to the 
houle of one Pottyer dwellyng in Reddecroffe ftrete 
without Crepulgate : and when he was with haftye 
rappyng quickly Ictten in, hee fhcwed vnto P?ttyer 
that kynge Edwarde was departed. By my trouthe 
mjfhne quod Pettier then wyll my mayfter the duke 
of Gloucefter bee kynge. What caufe hee hailde foo 
to thynke hirde it is to faye, whyther hce being to- 
ward him, anye thynge knewe that hee fuche tnynge 
purpofed, or otherwyfe had anye inkclyngc thereof: 
for hce was not likelye to fpeake it of noughte. 

But nowe to recurne to the courfe of this hyftorye, 
were it that the duke of Gloucefter hadde of old 
fore-minded this conclufion, or was nowe at erfte 
thereunto moued, and putte in hope by the occa- 
fion of the tender age of the younge princes, his 
nephues (as opportunitye and lykcly hoode of fpede, 
putteth a manne in cdurage of -that hee neuer en- 
tended) certayn is it that hee contriued theyr de- 
ftruccion, with the vfurpacion of the regal dig- 
nitye vppon hymfelfe. And for as muche as hee 
well wifte and holpe to mayntayn, a long continued 
grudge and hearce brennyngc bccwcnc the quenes 
5 kinrpd 


kinred and the kinges blood eyther partye enuying 
others authorityc, he nowe thought that their dc- 
uifion ihoulde bee (as it was in dcdc) a fortherlye 
begynnynge to the purfuite of his intente, and a 
lure ground for the foundacion of al his building 
yf he might firlle vnder the pretext of reucngynge 
of olde diipleafure, abufe the anger and ygnorauncc 
of the tone partie, to the deftruccion of the tother: 
and then vvynne to this purpofe as manye as he 
coulde: and thofe that coulde not be wonne, myght 
be lode ere they looked therefore. For of one 
thynge was hee certayne, that if his entente were 
perceiued, he fhold loone haue made peace bee- 
twene the bothe parties, with his owne bloude. 

Kyngc Edwarde in his life, albeit that this dif- 
cencion beetwene hys frendes fommewhat yrked 
hym : yet in his good healthe he fommewhat the 
Icflc regarded it, becaufe hee thought whatfocuer 
bufines fliouldc falle betwene them, hymfelfe 
Ihould alwaye bee hable to rule bothe the parties. 

But in his laft ficknefie, when hee receiued his 
natural! ftrengthe foo fore cnfebled, that hee dyf- 
payred all recouerye, then hee confyderynge the 
youthe of his chyldren, albeit hee nothynge lefle 
miftrufted then that that happened, yet well for- 
fcynge that manye harmes myghtc growe by theyr 
debate, whyle the youth of hys children ihoulde 
lackc difcrecion of themfclf, and good counfayle of 
their frendes, of whiche either party (hold coun- 
fayle for their owne commodity and rather byplea- 
faunte aduyfe toowynne themfelfe fauour, then by 
profitable aduertifemente to do the children good, 
he called fome of them before him that were at 
variaunce, and in efpecyall the lorde marques Dor- 
fette the quenes fonne by her fyrlle houfebande, 
and Richarde the lorde Haftynges, a noble man, 
than lorde chaumberlayne agayne whome the quene 
fpecially grudged, for the great fauoure the kyng 
bare hym, and alio for that ihee thoughte hym fe- 
cretclye familyer with the kyngc in wanton coom- 
panye. Her kynred alio bare hym fore, as well 
for that the kynge hadde made hym captayne of 
Calyce (whiche oflke the lorde Ryuers, brother to 
the quene, claimed of the kinges former promyfe) 
as for diuerfe other great giftes whiche hee receyued, 
that they loked for. \Vhen thefe lordes with di- 
ueiTc other of bothe the parties were comaie in 
prefence, the kynge liftinge vppe himfelfe and 
vnderfettc with pillowcs, as it is reported on this 
wyfe fayd vnto them, My iordcs, my dere kinf- 
menne and alies, in what plighte I lye you fee, and 
I feele. By whiche the lelTc whyle I lookc to 
lyue with you, the more depelye am I moued to 
care in what cafe I leaue you, for fuch as 1 leauve 
you, fuche bee my children lyke to fynde you. 
"Whiche if they (houlde (that Godde forbydde) 
fynde you at varyaunce, myght happe to fall thtm- 

felfe at warrc ere their difcrecion woulde ferue to 
fette you at peace. Ye fee their youthe, of whiche 
I recken the onely furetie to refte in youre con- 
cord. For it fuffifeth not that al you loue them, 
yf eche of you hate other. If they wer menne, 
your faithfulneffe happelye woulde fuflife. But 
childehood mull be maintained by mens authoritye, 
and flipper youth vnderpropped with elder coun- 
fayle, which neither they can haue, but ye geue it, 
nor ye geue it, yf ye gree not. For wher eche la- 
boureth to breake that the other maketh, and for 
hatred of eche of others parfon, impugneth eche 
others counfayle, there muft it nedes bee long ere 
anye good conclufion goe forwarde. And alfo 
while either partye laboureth to be chiefe, flattery 
(hall haue more place then plaine and faithful! ad- 
uyfe, of whyche mufte needes enfue the euyll bring- 
ing vppe of the prynce, whofe mynd in tender 
youth infedl, (hal redily fal to mifchief and riot, and 
drawe down with this noble relme to ruine: but if 
grace turn him to wifdom, which if God fend, 
then thei that by euill menes before pleafed him 
beft, (hal after fall fartheft out of fauour, fo that 
cuer at length euil driftes dreue to nought, and 
good plain wayes profper. Great variaunce hath 
ther long bene betwene you, not alway for great 
caufes. Sometime a thing right wel intended, our 
mifconftruccion turneth vnto worfe or a fmal dif- 
pleafure done vs, eyther our owne affeccion or euil 
tongues agreueth. But this wote I well ye neucr 
had fo great caufe of hatred, as ye have of loue. 
That we be al men, that we be chrillen men, this 
(hall I leave for prechers to tel you (and yet 1 wote 
nere whither any prechers wordes ought more to 
nioue you, then his that is by and by gooyng to 
the place that thei all preache of.) But this (hal I 
defire you to remember, that the one parte of you 
is of my bloode, the other of myne alies, and eche 
of yow with other, eyther of kinred or afhnitie, 
which fpirytuall kynred of affynyty, if the facra- 
mentes of Chriftes churche, beare that weyghte 
with vs that would Godde thei did, flioulde no 
IcfTe moue vs to charitye, then the refpeifle of 
fleihlye confanguinitye. Oure Lorde forbydde, that 
you loue together the worfe, for the felfe caufe that 
you ought to loue the better. And yet that hap- 
pcneth. And no where fynde wee fo deadlye de- 
bate, as amonge them, whyche by nature and lawe 
moltc oughte to agree together. Such a peftilcntc 
ferpente is ambicion and defyre of vainc glorye and 
foueraintye, whiche amonge ftatcs where he once 
entreth crepeth foorth fo farre, tyll with deuifion 
and variaunce hee turneth all to mifchiefe. Firfte 
longing to be nexte the befl, aftcrwarde egall with 
the belle, and at lafte chiefe and aboue the befte. 
Of which immoderate appetite of woorfliip, and 
thereby of debate and diflencion what lofle, what 




forowe, what trouble hathe within thefe feweyeares 
growen in this realme, I praye Godde as wel for- 
geate as wee wel remember. 

Whiche thinges yf I coulde as wel haue forefene, 
as I haue with my more payne then pleafure proucd, 
by Goddes bleffed Ladk (that was euer his bthe) 
1 woulde neuer haue won the courtefye of mennes 
knees, with the lofle of foo many heades. But fithen 
thynges pafled cannot be gaine called, muche oughte 
wee the more beware, by what occafion we haue 
taken foo greate hurte afore, that we eftefoones fall 
not m that occafion agayne. Nowe be thofe griefes 
pafled, and all is (Godde be thanked) quiete, and 
Jikelie righte wel to profper in wealthfull peace 
vnder youre cofeyns my children, if Godde fende 
them life and you loue. Of whiche twoo thinges, 
the lefTe lofle wer they by whome thoughe Godde 
dydde hys pleafure, yet fhoulde the realme alway 
finde kinges and paraducnture as good kinges. But 
yf you among your felfe in a childcs reygne fall at 
debate, many a good man fhall perifli and happcly 
he to, and ye to, ere thys land finde peace again. 
VVherfore in thefe lafl: wordes that euer 1 looke to 
fpeak with you : 1 exhort you and require you al, 
for the loue that you haue euer borne to me, for 
the loue that I haue euer borne to you, for the loue 
that our Lord beareth to vs all, from this time for- 
warde, all grieues forgotten, eche of you loue 
other. Whiche I verelye trufte you will, if ye any 
thing earthly regard, either Godde or your king, 
affinitie or kinrcd, this realme, your owne coun- 
trey, or your owne furcty. And therewithal the 
king no longer enduring to fitte vp, laide him 
down on his right fide, his face towarde them: and 
none was there prefent that coulde refrain from 
weping. But the lordcs recomforting him with as 
good wordes as they could, and anfwcring for the 
time as thei thought to ftand with his pleafure, 
there in his prefence (as by their wordes appercd) 
eche forgaue other, and ioyned their hands toge- 
ther, when (as it after appeared by their dedes) 
their hearcs wer far a fonder. As fone as the king 
was departed, the noble prince his fonne drew to- 
ward London, which at the time of his deceafe, 
kept his houfliold at Ludlow in Wales. Which 
countrey being far of from the law and recourfe to 
iuftice, was begon to be farre cute of good wyll 
and waxen wild, robbers and riucrs walking at li- 
bcrtic vncorreded. And for this encheafon the 
prince was in the life of his father fcnte thither, to 
the cnde that the authoritie of his prefence fliould 
refraine euill difpofed parfons fro the holdnes of 
their former outerages, to the gouernaunce and or- 
dering of this yong prince at his fending thyther, 
was there appointed Sir Anthony Woduile lord 
Kiucrs and brother vnto the quene, a right ho- 
nourable man, as valiaunte of hande as politike in 

Vol. 1. 

counfaylc Adioyned wer there vnto him other of 
the fame partie, and in effcft euery one as he was 
nereft of kin vnto the quene, fo was planted next 
about the prince. That drifte by the quene not 
vnvvifely deuifed, whereby her bloode mighte of 
youth be rooted in the princes fauour, the duke of 
Gloucefler turned vnto their defl:ruccion, and vpon 
that groLinde fet the foundacion of all his vnhappy 
building. For whom foeuer he perceiued, either 
at variance wi?h them, or bearing himfelf their fauor, 
hee brake vnto them, forne by mouth, fom by 
writing or fecret melfengers, that it neyther was 
reafon nor in any wife to be fuffered, that the yong 
king their mafl:cr and kinfmanne, (hoold bee in the 
handcs and cuftodye of his mothers kinred, fe- 
quefl:red in maner from theyr compani and at- 
tendance, of which eueri one ought him as faith- 
ful fcruice as they, and manye of them far more 
honorable part of kin then his mothers fide : 
whofe blood (quod he) fauing the kinges pleafure, 
was ful vnmetely to be matched with his; whiche 
nowe to be as who fay remoued from the kyng, 
and the leflTe noble to be left aboute him, is (quod 
he) neither honorable to hys magefl:ie, nor vnto 
V5, and alfo to his grace no furety to haue the 
niightieftof his frendes from him, and vnto vs no 
little ieopardy, to fuffer our welproued cuil willers, 
to grow in ouergret authoritie with the prince in 
youth, namely which is lighte of beliefe and fone 
perfvvadcd. Ye remember 1 trow king Edward 
himfelf, albeit he was a manne of age and of dif- 
crecion, yet was he in manye thynges ruled by the 
bende, more then (lode cither with his honour, or 
our profite, or with the commoditie of any manne 
els, except onely the immoderate aduauncemcnt of 
them felfc. Whiche whither they forer thidled 
after their owne weale, or our woe, it wer hard I 
wene to geflJe. And if fome folkes frendfliip had 
not holden better place with the king, then any re- 
fpe6b of kinred, thei might peraduenture eafily 
haue be trapped and brought to confufion fomme 
of vs ere this. Why not as eafily as they haue 
done fome other alreadye, as neere of his royal 
bloode as we. But our Lord hath wrought his wil, 
and thanke be to his grace that peril is paite. Howe 
be it as great is growing, yf wee fuffer this yonge 
kyng in oure enemyes hande, whiche without his 
wyttyng, might abufe the name of histommaun- 
dement, to ani of our vndoing, which thyng God 
and good prouifion forbyd. Of which good pro- 
uifion none of vs hath any thing the lefl"e ncde, for 
the late made attonemente, in whiche the kinges 
pleafure hadde more place then the parties wilies. 
Nor none of vs I beleue is fo vnwyfe, oucrfone to 
trufte a newe frende made of an olde foe, or to 
think that an houerly kindnes, fodainely contradl in 
one houre continued, yet fcant a fortnight, Ihold 
Lk] be 


be df per fetlcd in their ftomackcs : then a long 
accuflomed malice many yercs rooted. 

With thefe wordes and writynges and fuche other, 
the duke of Gloucefter lone fet a fyre, them that 
were of thcmfclf cihe to kindle, and in efpeciall 
twayne, Edwardc duke of Buckingham, and Rich- 
arde lordc Haftinges and chaumbcrlayn, both men 
of honour and of great power. The cone by longe 
fucceflion from his anceftrie, the tother by his office 
and the kinges fauor. Thefe two n^Jyearing cche 
to other fo muchc loue, as hatred bothe vnto the 
quenes parte : in this poynte accorded together 
wyth the duke of Gloacefter, that they wolde 
vtterlye amoue fro the kinges companye, all his 
mothers frendes, vnde'rthe name of their enemycs. 
Vpon this concluded, the duke of Gloucefter vnder- 
ftandyng, that the lordes whiche at that tyme were 
aboute the kyng, entended to bryng him vppe to 
his coronacion, accoumpanied with fuchc power of 
theyr frendes, that ic fhoulde bee harde for hym to 
brynge his purpofe to paflc, without the gathering 
and great aflemble of people and in maner of open 
■warre, whereof the ende he wide was doubtous, 
and in which the kyng being on their fide, his part 
fhould haue the face and name of a rebellion: he 
fecretly therefore by diuers meanes, caufed the 
quene to be perfwaded and brought in the mynd, 
that it neither wcr nede, and alfo fhold be ieopard- 
ous, the king to come vp ftrong. For where as 
nowe euery lorde loued other, and none other thing 
ftudyed vppon, but aboute the coronacion and ho- 
noure of the king : if the lordes of her kinred 
(hold aflemble in the kinges name muche people, 
thei Ihould geue the lordes atwixte whome and 
them haddc bene fommetyme debate, to fcare and 
fufpedle, Icfte they fhoulde gather thys people, not 
for the kynges faucgarde whome no manne em- 
pugned, but for theyr dcftruccion, hauying more 
rcgarde to their old variaunce, then their newe at- 
tonement. For whiche caufe thei fhoulde aflemble 
on the other partie muche people agayne for their 
defence, whofe power (he wyfte wel farre ftretched. 
And thus (hould all the realme fall on a rore. And 
of al the hurte that therof fhould enfue, which was 
likely not to be litle, and the moft harme there like 
to fal wher (he left would, al the worlde woulde 
put her and her kinred in the wyght, and fay that 
thei had vnwyfelye and vntrewlye alfo, broken the 
amitie and peace that the kyng her hufband fo pru- 
denttlye made, betwene hyskinne and hers in his 
death bed, and whiche the other party faithfully 

The quene being in this wife perfwaded, fuche 
woorde lent vnto her fonne, and vnto her brother 
being aboute the kynge, and ouer that the duke of 
Gloucefter hymltlfe and other lordes the chiefe of 
hys bende, wrote vnto the kyhge foo rcuercntlye. 

and to the queenes frendes there foo louyngelye, 
that they nothyngeearthelye my ftruftynge, broughtc 
the kynge vppe in greate hafte, not in good fpede, 
with a fober coumpanye. Nowe was the king in 
his waye to London gone, from Northampton, 
when thefe dukes of Gloucefter and Buckynghann 
came thither. Where remained behynd, the lordc 
Riuers the kynges vncle, entendyng on the mo- 
rowe to folow the kynge, and bee with hym at 
Stonye Stratford miles thence, earcly or 

hee departed. So was there made that nyghte 
muche frendely chere betwene thefe dukes and the 
lorde Riuers a greate while. But incontinente after 
that they wereoppenlye with greate courtelye de- 
parted, and the lorde Riuers lodged, the dukes 
fecretelye with a fewe of their mode priuye frendes, 
fette them downe in counfayle, wherin they fpent a 
great parte of the nyght. And at their rifinge in the 
dawnyng of the day, thei fent about priuily to their 
feruantes in the innesand lodgynges about, geuinge 
them commaundemente to make them felfe fhortely 
readye, for their lordes wer to horfebackward. 
Vppon whiche melTages, manyeof their folke were 
aitendaunt, when manye of the lorde Riuers fer- 
uantes were vnreadye. Nowe hadde thefe dukes 
taken alfo into their cuftodye the kayesof the inne, 
that none flioulde pafTe foorth without theyr li- 

And ouer this in the hyghe waye toward Stonye 
Stratforde where the kynge laye, they hadde bee- 
ftowed certayne of theyr folke, that fhoulde fcnde 
backe agayne, and compell to retourne, anye manne 
that were gotten oute of Northampton toward 
Stonye Stratforde, tyll they fhould geue other 
lycence. For as muche as the dukes themfelfe en- 
tended for the (hewe of theire dylygence, to bee the 
fyrfte that (houldc that daye attende vppon the 
kynges highnelTe oute of that towne : thus bare 
they folke in hande. But when the lorde Ryuers 
vnderflrode the gates clofed, and the wayes on cueryc 
fide befette, neyther hys fcruauntes nor hymfelf fuf- 
fcred to.gooute, parceiuyng well fo greaie a thyng 
without his knowledge not begun for noughte, 
comparyng this maner prefent with this laft nightcs 
chere, in lb few houres fo gret a chaunge maruel- 
ouflye mifliked. How be it fithe hee coulde not 
geat awaye, and keepe himfelfe clofe, hee woulde 
not, lefte he fhoulde feeme to hyde himfelfe for 
fbme fecret feare of hys owne faulte, whereof he 
faw no luch caufe in hym felf : he determined vppon 
the furetie of his own confcience, to goe boldelye 
to them, and inquire what this matter myghte 
mcane. Whome as foone as they fa we, they be- 
ganne to quarrell with hym, and faye, that hee in- 
tended to fette diftaunce beetweenc the kynge and 
them, and to brynge them to confulion, but it 
fhoulde not lye in hys power. And when hee be- 
6 ganne 


ganne (as hee was a very well fpoken manne) in 
goodly wife to excufe himfclf, they taryed not the 
cndc of his aunfwere, but fhortely tooke him and 
putte him in warde, and that done, foorthwyth 
•wente to horfebacke, and tooke the waye to Stonye 
Stratforde. Where they founde the kingc with his 
companie readye to leape on horfebacke, and departe 
forwarde, to leaue that lodging for them, becaufe it 
was to ftreighte for bothe coumpanies. And as 
fone as they came in his prefence, they lighte 
adowne with all their rompanie aboute them. To 
whome the duke of Buckingham faide, goe afore 
gentlemenne and yeomen, kepe youre rowmes. 
And thus in goodly arraye> thei came to the kinge, 
and on theire knees in very humble wife, faiued his 
grace; whiche receyued them in very ioyous and 
amiable maner, nothinge eirthlye knowing nor 
miftrullinge as yet. But euen by and by in his 
prefence, they piked aquarell to the lorde Richarde 
Graye, the kynges other brother by his mother, 
fayinge that hee with the lorde marqu.s his brother 
and the lorde Riuers his vncle, hadde coumpafled 
to rule the kinge and the realme, and to fette vari- 
aunce among the ftates, and to fubdcwe and de- 
ftroye the noble blood of the realm. Toward the 
accoumplifhinge whereof, they fayde that the lorde 
Marques haddt- entered ioto the Tower of London, 
and thence taken out the kinges treafor, and fent 
menne to the fea. All whiche thinge thcfc duke* 
wille well were done for good purpoles and neceflari 
by the whole counfaile at London, fauing that 
fommewhat thei muft fai. Vnto whiche woordes, 
the king aunfwcred, what my brother Marques hath 
done I cannot faie. But in good faith I dare well 
aunfwere for myne vncle Riuers and my brother 
here, that thei be innocent of any fuch matters. 
Ye my liege quod the duke of Buckingham thei 
haue kepte theire dealing in thefe matters farre fro 
the knowledge of your good grace. And foorth- 
with thei arretted the lord Richarde and Sir Thomas 
Waughan knighte, in the kinges prefence, and 
broughte the king and all backe vnto Northampton, 
where they tooke againe further counfaile. And 
there they fent awaie froni the kinge whom itpleafed 
them, and fette newe feruantes aboute him, fuche as 
lyked better them than him. At whiche dealinge 
hee wepte and was nothing contente, but it booted 
nor. And at dyner the duke of Gioucefler fente a 
dilhefrom hisowne table to the lord Riuers, prayinge 
him to bee of goodchere, all fhould be well inough. 
And he thanked the duke, and prayed the meflenger 
to bcare it to his nephewe the lorde Richarde with 
tlie fame meffage for his comfort, who he thought 
had more nede of coumfort, as one to whom fuch 
aducrfitie was ftraunge. But himfclf had been al 

his dayes in vre therewith, and therfore coulde 
beare it the better. But for al this coumfortable 
courtefye of the duke of Gloucefter he fent the 
lord Riuers and the lorde Richarde with Sir Tho- 
mas Vaughan into the Norrhe countrey into.diuers 
places to prifon, and afterward al to Pomfrait, 
where they were in conclufion beheaded. 

A letter written with a cole by Sir Thomas More 
to hysdougnxermaiftresMAR GAR etRoper, with- 
in a whyle after he was prifoner in the Towre. 

■jVyiYNE own good doughter, our lorde be 
■^^^ thanked I am in good helthe of bodye, and 
in good quiet of minde : and of worldly thynges I 
no more defyer then I haue. I bcfeche hym make 
you all mery in the hope of heauen. And fuch 
thynges as I fomewhat longed to talke with you all, 
concerning the worlde to come, our Lorde put theim 
into your myndes, as I trufte he dothe and better to 
by hys holy fpirite : who blefie you and preferue 
you all. Wrnicn wyth a cole by your tender louing 
father, who in hys pore prayers forgetteth none of 
you all nor your babes, nor your nurfes, nor your 
good hufbandes, nor your good hufbandes Ihrewde 
wyues, nor your fathers flirewde wyfe neither, nor 
our other frendes. And thus fare ye hartely well 
for lacke of paper. 

Thomas More, knight. 

Two fliort ballettes which Sir Thomas More made 
for hys paftyme while he was prifoner in the 
Tower of London. 

Lewys the loft louer. 


Y flatering fortune, loke thou neuer fo fayre. 
Or neuer fo plefantly begin to fmile. 
As though thou wouldft my ruine all repayre, 
During my life thou fhalt not me begile. 
Truft (hall 1 God, to entre in a while. 
Hys hauen or heauen fure and vniforme. 
Euer attcr thy calme, loke I for a (lorme. 

Dauy the dycer. 

1" O N G was 1 lady Luke your feruing man, 

And now haue loft agayne all that 1 gat, 
Wherfore whan I thinke on you nowe and than, 
And in my mynde refiicmber this and that. 
Ye may not blame me though 1 beftirew your cat. 
But in fayth I bleflc you agayne a ihoufand times. 
For lending me now fome laylurc to make rymes. 

At the fame time with Sir Thomas Mere lived 

Skelten, the poet laureate oi Henry Vlll. from whofc 

L^] 2 works. 


works it fcems proper to infcrt a few ftanzas, though 
he cannot be faid lo have attained great elegance of 

The prologue to the Bougc of Courte. 

TN Auturnpne whan the fonne in vjrrgyne 

■*■ By radyante hete enryped hath our corne 

When Luna full of mutabylytc 

As Emperes the dyndcme hath worof 

Of our pole artyke, fmylynge halfe in fcorne 

At our foly and our v: Itedfaftnefle 

The tinnc whan Mars to warre hym dyd dres, 

I callynge to mynde the grcate auftorytc 
Of poeces olde, whiche full craftely 
Vnder as couerte termes as coulde be 
Can touche a trouth, and cloke fubtylly 
With fresfhe vtteraunce full fentcncyoully 
Dyuerfe in ftyle feme fpared not vycc to wryte 
Some of mortalitie nobly dyd cndyte 

Whereby I rede, thcyr renome and theyr fame 
May neuer dye, but eucrmore endure 
I was fore moued to a forfe the fame 
But ignoraunce full foone dyd me dyfcure 
And (hewed that in this al^c I was not fure 
For to illumine (he fayd I wjs to duUe 
Aduyfynge me my penne awaye to pulle 

And not to wryte, for he fo wyll atteync 
Excedyng ferther than his connynge is 
His heed maye be harde, but feble is brayne 
Yet haue I knowen fuche er this 
But of rcproche furely he maye not mys 
That clymmeth hycr than he may fotinge haue 
What and he flyde downe, who (hall him faue ? 

Thus vp and downe my mynde was drawen and 
That I ne wyfte what to do was befte 
So fore enwered that I was at the lafte 
Enforfed to flepe, and for to take fome refte 
And to lye downe as foone as I my drefte 
At Harwyche porte flumbrynge as I hye 
In myne hoftes houfe called powers keye. 

Of the wits that flourilhed in the reign of 
Henry VIII. none has been more frequently cele- 
brated than the earl of Surry ; and this hiftory would 
therefore have been imperfed without fome fpeci- 
mens of his works, which yet it is not eafy to diftin- 
gui(h from thofe of Sir Thomas li^yat and others, 
with which they are confounded in the edition that 
has fallen into my hands. The three firft are, I 
believe, i'wrr/s \ the re(l, being of the fame age, 
are fcxfted, (bme as examples of different meafurcs, 
and one as the oldett Compofition whi.h I have 
found in blank verfe. 

Defcription of Spring, wherein echc thing rcnewcs, 
fave only the lover. 

'T' H E foote feafon that bud, and bloome fourth 
"'■ bringes, 

With grcne hath cladde the hyll, and eke the vale. 
The Nighringall with fethcrs new flie finges j 
The turtle to her mate hath told the talc : 
Somer is come, for every fpray now fpringes. 
The hart hath hunge hys olde head on the pair. 
The bucke in brake his winter coate he flyngcs ; 
The (ifhes flete with newc repayred fcale : 
The adder all her Hough away (lie flynge?. 
The fwift fwallow purfueth the flyes fmalle. 
The bufy bee her honey how (he mynges i 
Winter is worne that was the flourcs bale. 
And thus I fee among thefc pleafant thynges 
Eche care decayes, and yet my forrow fpryiifres. 

Defcripcion of the reftlefs eftate of a lover. 


HEN youth had led me half the race. 
That Cupides fcourge had made me runnej 
I looked back to meet the place. 
From whence my weary courfe begunne : 

And then I faw howe my delyre 
Mifguiding me had led the waye, 
Myne eyne to greedy of theyre hyre, 
Had made me lofe a better prey. 

For when in fighes I fpcnt the day, 
And could not cloake my grief with game ; 
The boyling fmokedyd ftill bewray. 
The prelent heat of fecret flame : 

And when fait teares do bayne my breaft. 
Where love his plealent traynes hath fown. 
Her beauty hath the fruytcs oppreft. 
Ere that the buddes were fpron gc and blowne. 

And when myne eyen dyd Hill purfue. 
The flying chafe of theyre requefl: ; 
Theyre greedy looks dyd oft renew. 
The hydden wounde within my brefte. 

When every loke thefe cheekes might ftayne. 
From dcdly pale to glowing red ; 
By outward fignes appeared playne. 
To her for heipe my harte was fled. 

But all to late Love learneth me. 
To paynt all kynd of Colours new ; 
To blynd theyre eyes that elfe fliould fee 
My fpeckled chekes with Cupids hew. 

And now the covert brc(t I clame. 
That worfhipt Cupide fecretely j 
And nourifhed hys facred flame. 
From whence no blairing fparks do flye. 



Defcripcion of the fickle AfFedions, Pangs, and 
Sleightes of Love. 

CUCH wayward wayes hath Love, that moft part 

•^ in dilcord 

Our willes <io (land, whereby our hartes but fel- 

dom do accord : 
Decyte is hysdelighte, and to begyle and mocke 
The fimple hartes which he doth ftrike with fro- 

ward divers ftroke. 
He caufeth th' one to rage with golden burning 

And doth alay with Leaden cold, again the others 

Whofe gleames of burning fyre and eafy fparkes of 

In balance of unequal weyght he pondereth by ame 
From eafye ford where 1 tnyghte wade and pafs full 

Heme withdrawes and doth me drive, into a depe 

dark hell: 
And me witholdes where I am calde and offred place. 
And willes me that my mortal foe 1 do befcke of 

Grace j 
He lettes me to purfue a conqueft welnere wonne 
To follow where my paynes were loft, ere that my 

fute begunne. 
So by this means i know how foon a hart may turne 
From warre to peace, from truce to ftryfe, and fo 

agayne returne. 
I know how to content my fclf in others luft. 
Of little Ituffe unio my Iclf to weave a webbe of 

truft : 
And how to hyde my harmes with fole dyflembling 

Whan in my face the painted thoughtes would out- 
wardly appeare. 
I knot* how that the bloud forfakes the face for 

And how by fliime it ftaynes agayne the Chckes 

with flaming red : 
I know under the Grene, the Serpent howhelurkes : 
The hammer of the reftlefs forge 1 wote eke how it 

I know and con by roate the tale that I woulde tell 
But oftc the woordes come fourth awrye of him that 

loveth well. 
I know in hcate and colde the Lover how he (hakes. 
In fynging how he doth complayne, in flecping how 

he v.. kes 
To languifli without ache, fickelelTe for to confume, 
A thoufand thynges for to devyfc, rclblvyngeof his 

fume ; 
And though he lyfte to fee his Ladyes Grace full 

Such pleafurcs as delyght hys Eye, do not his heiihc 


I know to fcke the trafte of my defyred foe. 
And fere to fynde that 1 do feek, but chiefly this I 

That Lovers muft transfourme into the thynge be- 
And live (alas ! who would believe ?) with fprite 

from Lyfe removed. 
I knowe in harty (ighesand laughters of the fpleene, 
At once to chaunge my ftate, my will, and eke my 

colotfl- clene. 
I know how to deceyve my felf wythe others helpe. 
And how the Lyon chaftiled is, by beatynge of the 

In ftandyngc nere the fyre, I know how that I freafe ; 
Farre of I burne, in bothe I wafte, and fo my Lyfe 

I leefe. 
I know how Love doth rage upon a yeyldingmynde. 
How fmalle a nete may take and male a harte of 

gentle kyndc : 
Or elfe with feldom fwete to feafon hepes of gall. 
Revived with a glympfe of Grace old lorrowes to 

let fall. 
The hydden traynes I know, and fecret fnares of 

How foone a loke will prynte a thoughte that never 

may remove. 
The flypper ftate I know, the fodein turnes from 

The doubtfuU hope, the certaine wooe, and fure 

defpaired helthe. 

A praife of his ladie. 

/^EVE place you ladies and be gone, 
^-^ Boaft not your felves at all. 
For here at hande approcheth one, 
Whofe face will ftayne you all. 

The vertue of her lively lookes 
Excels the precious ftone, 
I wifhe to have none other bookes 
To reade or look upon. 

In eche of her two chriftall eyes, 
Smyleth a naked boy -, 
It would you all in heart fuffife 
To fee that lampe of joye. 

I think nature hath loft the moulde. 
Where (he her ftiape did take; 
Or elfe 1 doubte if nature coulde 
So fayre a creature make. 

She may be well comparde 
Unto the Phenix kinde, 
Whofe like was never feene nor heard, 
That any man can fynde. 

In lyfe (he is Diana chalt 
In trouth Penelopey, 
In woord and eke in dede ftedfaft j 
What will you more we fay ; 



If all the world were fought fo farre. 
Who coulJ findc fuche a wight, 
Hier beaury twinkleth lykc a ftarre 
"Within the frofty night. 

The Lover rcfufed of his love, embraccth vertue. 

TVyTY youthfull yeres are paiT, 
"^^■^ My joyfuil dayes are gone. 
My lyfe it may not laft. 
My grave and I am one. 

My myrth and joyes are fled. 
And I a Man in wo, 
Defirous to be ded. 
My mifciefe to forego. 

I burne and am a colde, 

1 freefe amyddes the fycr, 

2 fee fhe doth witholde 
That is my honeft defyre. 

I ice my helpe at hande, 
I fee my lyfe alfo, 
I fee where file doth (Vande 
That is my deadly fo. 

I fee how Ihe dorh fee. 
And yet flie wil be blynde, 
1 fee in helpyng me, ^ 

She fekes and wil not fynde. 

I fee how fhe doth wrye, 
"When I begynne to mone, 
I fee when 1 come nye. 
How fayne (he would be gone. 

I fee what wil ye more, 
She will me gladly kill. 
And you fhall fee therfore 
That fhe fhall have her vyill. 

I cannot live with (tones, 
It is too hard a foode, 
I wil be dead at ones 
To do my Lady good. 

The Death of ZOROAS, an Egiptian aftronomer, 
in the firft fight that Alexander had with the 

^^OW clattring armes, now raging broyjs of warre, 
•*' Gan palTc the noys of dredfuU trumpctts clang, 
Shrowdcd with fhaftsi the heaven with cloude of 

Covered the ayre. Againft full fatted bulles, 
As forccth kyndled yrc the lyons kecne, 
Whofe greedy gutts the gnawing hunger prickes; 
So Macedons againft the Perfians fare. 
Now corpfes hyde the purpurdc foyle with blood ; 
Large (laughter on eche fide, but Perfcs more, 
Moyft ficldes bebled, theyr heartes and numbers 

Fainted while ihey gave backe, and fall to flighte. 

The litening Macedon by fwordes, by gleaves. 
By bandcs and troupes of footennn, with his garde, 
Specdcs to Dary, but hym hii mereft kyn, 
Oxate prefcrves with horfeiren on a plumpe 
Before his carr, that none his charge fhould give. 
Here grunts, here groans, eche where ftrong youth 

is fpent: 
Shaking her bloudy hands, Bellone among 
The Perles foweth all kind of cruel death: 
With throte yrent he roares, he lyeth along 
His cntrailes with a launcc through gryded quyte, 
Hym fmytes the club, hym woundes farre ftryking 

And him the fling, and him the (hining fwordj 
He dyeth, he is all dead, he pantes, he reftcs. 
Right over ftoode in fnowwhite armour brave. 
The Memphite Zoroas, a cunnyng clarke. 
To whom the heaven lay open as his booke; 
And in celeftiall bodies he could tell 
The moving meeting light, afpedt, eclips, 
And influence, and conftellations all; 
What earthly chaunces would betyde, what yere. 
Of plenty (torde, what figne forewarned death. 
How winter gendreth fnow, what temperature 
In the prime tyde doih feafon well the foyle. 
Why fummer burncs, why autumnehath ripe grapes, 
. Whither the circle quadrate may become, 
Whether our tunes heavens harmony can yelde 
Of four begyns among themlelves how great 
Proportion is-, what (way the erryng lightes 
Doth fend in courfe gayne that fy rfl movy ng heaven ; 
What grees one from another diftancc be. 
What (tarr doth let the hurtfull fyre to rage. 
Or him more mylde what oppoficion makes. 
What fyre doth qualifye Mavorfes fyre. 
What houfe eche one doth fecke, what plannett 

Within this heaven fphere, nor thatfmall thynges 
I fpeake, whole heaven he clofeth in his breit. 
This fage then in the ftarres hath fpyed the fates 
Threatncd him death without delay, and, flth, 
He faw he could not fatal! order chaunge, 
Foreward he prefl: in battayle, that he migiit 
Mete with the rulers of the Macedons, 
Of his right hand defirous to be flain. 
The bouldeft borne, and worthieft in the feilde; 
And as a wight, now wery of his lyfe. 
And feking death, in fyrll front of his rage. 
Comes defperately to Alexanders face. 
At him with dartes one after other throwes. 
With recklefle wordes and clamour him provokes, 
And I'ayth, Nedanaks bartard (hamefull ilayne 
Of mothers bed, why lofeft thou thy ftrokes, 
Cowardes among. Turn thee to me, in cafe 
Manhood there be fo much left in thy heart. 
Come fight with mc, that on my helmet weare 



Apollo's laurell both for learnings laude. 
And eke for martiall praife, that in my fhieldc 
The feven fold Sophi of Minerve contein, 
A match more mete, Syr King, then any here. 
The noble prince amoved takes ruth upon 
The wilful) wight, and with foft words ayen, 

monflrous man (quoth he) what fo thou art, 

1 pray thee live, ne do not with thy death 
This lodge of Lore, the Mufes manfion marre; 
That treafure houfe this hand ihall never fpoyle, 
My fword fliall never bruife that (killful brayne. 
Long gather'd heapes of fcience fone to fpill ; 

O howe fayre fruites may you to mortall men 
From Wifdoms garden give; how many may 
By you the wifcr and the better prove; 
'What error, what mad moode, what frenzy thee 
Perfwades to be downe, fent to depe Avernc, 
"Where no artes flourifb, nor no knowledge vailes 
For all thefe fawes. When thus the fovereign 

Alighted Zoroas with fword unfheathed. 
The carelefs king there fmoate above the greve, 
At th' opening of his quifhes wounded him. 
So that the blood down trailed on the ground : 
The Macedon perceiving hurt, gan gnafhe. 
But yet his mynde he bent in any wife 
Hym to f rbeare, fett fpurrs unto his ftede. 
And turnde away, left anger of his fmarte 
Should caufe revenger hand deale baleful! blowes. 
But of the Macedonian chicftaines knights. 
One Meleager could not bear this fight. 
But ran upon the faid Egyptian rude. 
And cut him in both knees: he fell to ground. 
Wherewith a whole rout came of fouldiours 

And all in pieces hewed the fely feg, 
But happely the foule fled to the ftarres, 
Where, under him, he hath full fight of all. 
Whereat he gazed here with rcachmg looke. 
The Perfians waild fuch fapience to forgoe. 
The very fone the Macedonians wifht 
Me would have lived, king Alexander felfe 
Demde him a man unmete to dye at all; 
Who wonne like praife for conqucft of his Yre, 
As for ftoute men in field that day fubdued. 
Who princes taught how to difcerne a man. 
That in his head fo rare a jewel beares, 
But over all thofe fame Camenes, thofe fame. 
Divine Camenes, whofe honour he procurde, 
As tender parent doth his daughters wcale. 
Lamented, and for thankes, all that they can. 
Do cherirti hym deceaft, and fett him free. 
From dark oblivion of devouring death. 

Barclay wrote about 1550 ; his chief work is the 
Ship of Fooks, of which the following extradl ^ill 
ihew his ftyle. 

Of Mockers and Scorners, and falfe Accufers. 
r\ Heartless fooks, hafte here to our dodrine, 

Leaue off the wayes of your enormitie, 
Enforce you to my preceptes to encline. 
For here Iball I (hcwe you good and veritie : 
Encline, and ye finde fhall great profperitie, 
Enfuing the dodrine of our fathers olde. 
And godly lawes in valour worth great golde. 

Who that will followe the graces manyfolde 
Which are in vertue, (hall finde auauncement: 
Wherfore ^e fooles that in your finne are bolde, 
Enfue ye wifdome, and leaue your lewde intent, 
Wifdome is the way of men molt excellent: 
Therfore haue done, and fliortly fpede your pace. 
To quaynt your felf and company with grace. 

Learne what is vertue, therin is great iblace, 
Learne what is truth, fadnes and prudence. 
Let grutche be gone, and grauitie purchafe, 
Forfake your folly and inconueniencc, 
Ceafe to be fooles, and ay to fue offence, 
Followe ye vertue, chiefe roote of godlynes. 
For it and wifedome is ground of clenlynes. 

Wifedome and vertue two thinges are doubtles, 
Whiche man cndueth with honour fpeciall, 
But fuche heartes as flepe in foolithnes 
Knoweth nothing, and will nought know at all: 
But in this little barge in principall 
All foolifli mockers 1 purpofe to repreue, 
Clawe he his backe that fecleth itch or greue. 

Mockers and fcorners that are harde of beleue. 
With a rough comb here will I clawe and grate, 
Toproue if they will from their vice remeue. 
And leaue their folly, which caufeth great debate: 
Suche caytiues fpare neyther poore man nor eftate. 
And where their felfe are moft worthy derifion. 
Other men to fcorne is all their moft condition. 

Yet are mo fooles of this abufion, 
Whiche of wife men dcfpifeth the doftrine. 
With mowes, mockes, fcorne, and coUufion, 
Rewarding rebukes for their good difcipline: 
Shewc to fuche wifdome, yet (hall they not encline 
Unto the fame, but fet nothing therby, 
But mocke thy doftrine, ftiil or openly. 

So in the worlde it appeareth commonly. 
That who that will a foole rebuke or blame, 
A mocke or mowe (hall he haue by and by: 
Thus in derifion haue fooles their fpeciall game. 
Correct a wife man that woulde cfchue ill name. 
And fayne would learne, and his lewde life amende. 
And to thy wordes he gladly (hall intende. 



If by misfortune a rightwife man offende, 
He gUdly fuffercth a iuftc corredion, 
And him that him teacheth laketh for his frende, 
Him fclfe putting mekely unto fubiedtion, 
Folowing his preceptes and good diredion: 
But yf that one a foole rebuke or blame. 
He fliall his teacher hate, Qaunder and diffame. 

Howbeit his wordes oft turne to his own fliame, 
And his owne dartes rttourne to him agayne. 
And fo is he fore wounded with the fame. 
And in wo endeth, great mifery and payne. 
It alfo proued full often is certayne. 
That they that on mockers alway their mindes caft, 
Shall of all other be mocked at the laft. 

He that goeth right, ftedfaflr, fure, and faft. 
May him well mocke that goeth halting and lame, 
And he that is white may well his fcornes caft, 
Agaynft a man of Inde : but no man ought to blame 
Anothers vice, while he vfeth the fame. 
Butwhothatof finne is cleaneindeedeand thought. 
May him well fcorne whofe liuing is ftarke nought. 
The fcornes of Naball full dere fliould haue been 

If Abigayl his wife difcrete and fage. 
Had not by kindnes right crafty meanes fought, 
The wrath of Dauid to temper and affwage. 
Hath not two beares in their fury and rage 
Two and furtie children rent and tome. 
For they the prophete Helyfeus did fcorne. 

So might they curfe the time that they were borne, 
For their mockmg of this prophete diuine: 
So many other of this fort often mourne 
For their lewde mockes, and fall into ruine. 
Thus is it foly for wife men to encline. 
To this lewde flockc of fooles, for fee thou fliall 
Them mofte fcorning that are moft bad of all. 

The Lenuoy of Barclay to the fooles. 

Ye mocking fooles that in fcorne fet your ioy. 
Proudly defpifing Gods punition: 
Take ye example bv Cham the fonne of Noy, 
"Which laughed his father vnto derifion, 
Which him after curfed for his tranfgrefTion, 
And made him feruaunt to all his lyne and ftocke. 
So fliall ye caytifs at the conclufion, 
Since ye are nought, and other fcorne and mocke. 

About the year 1553 wrote Dr. Wtlfon, a man 
celebrated for the policcnefs of his ftyle, and the 
extent of his knowledge: what the ftate of our 
language in his time, the following may be of ufe 
to fliow. 

■pRonunciation is an apte orderinge bothe of the 
■*• voyce, countenaunce, and all the whole bodye, 
accor lynge to the worthines of fuche woordes and 
mater as by fpeache are declared. The vfc 
hereof is fuche for anye one that liketh to haue 
prayfe for tellynge his talc in open aflc;mblie, that 
hauing a good tongue, and a comelye countenaunce, 
he flial be thought to paflTe all other that haue the 
like vtteraunce : thoughe they haue much better 
learning.. The tongue geueth a certayne grace to 
euerye matter, and beautifieth the caufe in like 
maner, as a fwete foundynge lute muche fetteth 
forthe a meane deuifed ballade. Or as the founde 
of a good inftrumente ftyrreth the hearers, and 
moueth muche delite, fo a cleare foundyng voice 
comforteth muche our deintie cares, with muche 
fwete melodic, and caufeth vs to allowe the matter 
rather for the reporters fake, then the reporter for 
the matters fake. Demofthenes therforc, that fa- 
moufe oratour, beyng aflced what was the chiefeft 
point in al oratorie, gaue the chiefe and oncly 
praife to Pronunciation ; being demaunded, what 
was the feconde, and the thirde, he ftill made 
aunfwere. Pronunciation, and would make none 
other aunfwere, till they lefie afliyng, declaryng 
hereby that arte without vtteraunce can dooe no- 
thyng, vtteraunce without arte can dooe right 
muche. And no doubte that man is in outwarde 
apparaunce halfe a good clarke, that hath a cleane 
tongue, and a comely gefture of his body, ^fchines 
lykwyfe L'eyng banniflied his countrie through De- 
mofthenes, when he had redde to the Rhodians his 
own oration, and Demofthenes aunfwere thereunto, 
by force whereof he was banniflied, and all they 
marueiled muche at the excellencie of the fame : 
then (q d ^fchines) you would have marueiled 
muche more if you had heard hymfelfe fpeak it. 
Thus beyng caft in miferie and banniflied foreuer, 
he could not but geue fuch greate reporte of his 
deadly and mortal ennemy. 

Thus have I deduced the Englijh language from eafily traced, and the gradations obferved, by which 

the age of /f//r(f^ to ihzioi Elizabeth; in fome parts it advanced from its firll rudenefs to its prefeat 

imperfedty for want of materials; but 1 hope, at elegance, 
Icaft, in fuch a manner that its progrefs may be 



M M A R 




RAMM AR, whlchisyhart of ufing'wards properly , com- 
prifes four parts; Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, 
and Profody. 

In this divirton and order of the parts of grammir I follow the common gr»m- 
mwians, without enquiring whether t fitter diftributiim might not be tound. 
Experience ha; long Ikown this method to be fo diftinft a» to obviate confulion, 
and fo comprchcnfive as to prevent any inconvenient omiflions. I likcwife ufe 
•the terms already received, and ah-cady (nderftood, though perhaps others more 
proper might fometimes be invented. Sylbnrgius, and other innovators, whofe 
new terms have fanlc their learning into negled, have left fufficieot warning 
againft the trifling ambition of teaching arts in a new language. 

ORTHOCRAPHy is the art of combining Utters itito fyllahhs, 
4mdfyllabhs into nuords. It therefore teaches previoufly the form 
and found of letters. 

The letter* of the Eagliih language are. 






















































































i (.wja 







J confonant. 





























































































u (or 'Va 









•V confonant. 









doable « 


























xed, more 

commonly izz^rd 


uxxard, that is 


- _ » 


Vol. I 

To thefe may be added certain combinations of letters univer- 
fally ufed in printing ; as ft. ft, fl, fl, (b, flc, fF, ff, fi, fli, fi, ffi, ffl, 
and &, or and per ft, and. a,ft,fl,f,fi,fi,ff,j;f,ffi,f,ffi.ff. H. 

(t, a, a, a, ff, tr, a, s, ffi, ffi, i» 

Our letters are commonly reckoned twenty-four, bccaufe anciently i and/, 
■s well as u and v, were exprefled by the fame charafler ; but as thofc letters, 
which had always different powers, have now diflFcrent forms, our alphabet may 
be properly faid to coniill of twenty-fix letters. 

None of the fraall confunants have a double form, excepty^ ij of whichyit 
ufed in the beginning and middle, and < at the end. 

Vowels are five, a, e, i, o> u. 

Such is the number generally received ; but for i it is the 
praftice to write y in the end of words, as thy, holy ; before /, 
as from die, dying ; from beautify, beautifying ; in the words y5yi/, 
■days, eyes ; and in words derived from the Greek, and written 
originally with v, Zifiijiem, avmft» 5 fympathy, av^iti^uct. 

For u we often write w after a vowel, to make a diphthong j 
as rarw, grew, n/itvj, •vovi,floTMing, loivnefs. 

The founds of all the letters are various. 

In treating on the letters, 1 fliall not, like fome other grimmarUni, enquire 
into the original of their form, as an antiquarian j nor into their formation and 
prolation by the organs of fpccch, as a mechanick, anatomiH, or phyfiologift : 
nor into the properties and gradation of founds, or the elegance or harlhnefs of 
particular combinations, as a writer of univerfal and tranfcendental grammar. I 
confider the Englilh alphabet only as it is Englilh ; and even in this narrow dif.. 
quifition, I follow the example of former grammarians, perhaps with more reve- 
rence than judgment, bccaufe by writing in Englilh i fuppofc my reader already 
acquainted with the EngliOi language, and confequenilv able to pronounce the 
letters, of which I teach the pronunciation; and becaufc of founds in it 
may be obfcrved, that words are unable to defcribe them. An account therefore 
of the primitive and fimple ietttrs is ufclefs almoft alike to thofe who know their 
found, and thofe who know it not. 



J has three founds, the flender, open, and broad. 

A flender is found in moft words, zaface, mane ; and in word* 
ending in atiotr, as creation, fal'vation, generation. 

The a flender is the proper Englilh a, called very juftly by Erpenius, in hii 
Arabick Grammar, a Anglicum turn c miftum, as having a middle found between 
the open a and the t. The French have a fimilar found in the woid /a/i, and in 
their e mafculiuc. ^ 

A open is the a of the Italian, or nearly refembles it j as 
father, rather, congratulate, fancy, glafs. 

A broad refembles the a of the German ; as all, 'wall, call. 

Many words pronounced with a broad were anciently written with au, at 

ftnlt, mauli ; and we fliU tty fault, vault. This was probably the Siaon found, 

S /or 


for it II yet retained in the northern dialeAst aod in the ruftick pronunciation ; 
u naan for au«, taunj lor bard. 


The fliort a approaches to the a open, as griz/i. 

The long «, it prolonged by e at the end of the word, is al- 
ways (lender, is graze, fame. 

A forms a diphthong only with ;' or j, and u or w. Ai or 4)'> 
as in plain, ivain, gey, clay, has only the found of the long and" 
flender a, and differs not in the pronunciation froin flane, -wane. 

Au or o'w has the found of the German a, as reew, naughty. 

^e is fometimcs found in Latin words not completely naturalifcd or aflimi- 
lattd, but is no EngUfli diphthong ; and is more properly exprclled by fing'.e t, 
as C'jir, £mas. - ■ . ■ 


£ I] the letter which occurs rood frequently in the Englifli language. 
. E is long, as m feint ; or fliort, as in cellar, feparate, celebrate. 



fFomttt is pronounced nuimen. 

The ihort e has fometimes the found of a clofe u, tsfon, ttme. 

It is always Ihort befor© a double confonahti' or tw(i.confo- 
nants, as in ft.v, perplexity, relent, medlar, reptile, fer pent, cellar, 
cjfation, bleJJ{ng, fell, felling, debt. 

E is always mute at the end of a word, except in monofylla- 
bles that have no other vowel, as the ; or proper names, as Pe- 
nelope, Phebe, Derbe ; being ufcd to modify the foregoing con- 
fonant, asyiWiT^, tnce, hedge, oblige ; or to lengthen the preceding 
vowelj as bun, b^.ne ; can, cane; pin, p'tne ; tun, tiene ; rob, 
rihe ; popt fopt ; fir, ftre ;, cur, .cure i tub, tube. 

Almoft all words which now canfonants ended anoicntly in «, as 
year, yean; -u/'ildnifs, •wildvejji; which ir probably 'had the force of the French e 
feminine, and ranftituted a lyllahle with its adbtiat^ conionant ; for, in old edi- 
tions, words are fometimes di\ided thus, clca-rt, fcl-k, icciuled-ge. This e 
was perhaps for a tiqie vocal or filent in poetry, as convenience requircJ ; but it 
has been long whi'Hy mute. Camden in his Himains calls it the iilent e. 

It does not always lengthen the foregoing vowel, as ^/s-v?, live, 

It has fometimes in the en<J pf words a found obfcure, and 
fcarcely perceptible, as open, papen, Jhotteut'thijile, participle, 

iitc?e. '■ ■ ■ , ■ ; '; ' :-'• ■ '• 

. This faintnefe of found is found when « feparates a muce from a liquid, at in 
rotten; or follows a mute and liquid, as in raff/e. 

E forms a diphthong with a, as near ; with /', as deign, receive ; 
and with uotiu, asne^VfJieiv. 

Ea founds like e long, as mean ;. or like^^, as dear, cJefrxfuar..^ 

Ei is founded like e lon^, as/eize, perceiving. v '\ -,i •' 

£u founds as u long and foft. 

E, a, u, are combined in beauty and its derivatives, but have 
only the found of u. 

E m2Ly be faid to form a diphthong by reduplication, as agree, 

Ea is found inyecmen, where It is founded as e (hort; and 'in feifle, where it 
is pronounced like et. 

/has a found, long, as fine; and Ihort, as fin. 

That is eminently obfervable in i, which may be lllcewife remarked in other 
letters, that the Ihort found, is not the long found contrafled, but a found wholly 

The long fonnd in monofyllables u always marked by the e 
final, as thin, thine. 

J is often founded before r as a fliort a ; i.% flirt, firft, Jhiri. 

It forms a diphthong only with e, a& field, Jhield, which is 
founded as the double ee ; except friend, which is founded as 

I is joined with ai in lieu, and rui in •uie^ii ; which triphthong) ate founded as 
tbe oprn *. 


O is long, as bZiu, aiidiint, corriding ; or fliort, hillock, knock, 
iili^ue, /«//. 

O coalefces into a diphthong with a, as moan, groan, approach { 
oa has the found oio long. 

(n% united to f in fome words derived from Greek, as cecontmy ; but ne being 
not an Englilh diphthong, they are better written a^ they are luusdcd, with only t, 
'ecoixiriy. * 

With I, as oil, foil, moil, neifome, 

, This ^oalition of letters fcems to unite the founds of the two letters as bet as- 
two f»un>& can be united without being dcftroyed, atid therefore approaches more 
nearly than any combination in our tongue to the notion of a diphthong. 

With 0, as boot, hoot, cooler ; eo has the found of the Italian u. 

With K or iv, as our, poiver, flo'wer ; but in fome words has- 
only the found'cf o long, as in. foul, bmul, fovj , grtnu. Tiiefe dif- 
ferent founds are ufed to dittinguifli difPercnt iigoificatipns ; as 
bo^u, an inllrument for (hooting ; boiv, a depreiiion of the head : 
fan.!}, the (he of a boar ; foi>j, to fcatter feed : bowl, an orbicular 
body ; botxl, a wooden veflel. 

Ou is fometimes pronounced like o foft, as court ; fometimes 
like (hort, as cough ; fometimes like u clofe, as could ; or ;/ open, 
as rough, tough ; which ufe only can teach. 

' Ou is frequently ufed in the laft fyllable of words which in Latin end in cr, and 
arc made Engliih, as hcncur, labour, favour, from bcno/j tabor ^ fat' or. 

Some late innovators havtejefted the u, without coiirtJtring that the lad fyl- 
lable gives the found neither of er nor ur, but a found between them, if not com- 
pounded of both; befidrt that they are probably dL-rJv.ed to us from the French, 
f\ontta in err, as bnnieur, Jivcur. 


U is long in /fe, confuflon ; or (hort, as us, concujjion. 

It coalefces with a, e, i, o ; but has rather in theie combina- 
tions the force of the ou, as quaff, qnefl, quit, quite, languijh ; 
fometimes in ui the / lofes its found, as in juice. It is fometimes 
mute before a, e, i,y, as guard, guefl, guije, buy. 

U is followed by e in virtue, but jhe e has no fojjnd. 

Ue is fometimes mute at the end of a word, in imitation of the French, ispro" 

rogue, fynagogue, fitgue, vague, harangue. 

7" is a vowel, whichi as Quintilian obferves of one of the Ro- 
man letters, we might want without inconvenience, but that we 
have it. It fupplies the place of; at the end of words, as thy ; , 
before an f, as dying ; and is commonly retained in derivative 
words where it was part of a diphthong in the primitive j as de- 
Jlroy, dejlroyer ; betray, betrayed, bttrayer ; pray, prayer j fay, 
fayer ; day, days. 

J'b^ng the^aton vowel y, which was commonly ufcd wher? / is now put, , 
occuts very frequently in all old boolc£> 

General Rules. 

A vowel inthe beginning or middle fyllable, before two con-, 
fonants, is commonly (hort, as opportunity. 

In monofyllables a fingle vowel before a fingle confonant is- 
ftiort, as flag,. frog. 

Many is pronounced as if it were wrote mermy. 

Of C O N S O N AN T S.. 

3 has one unvaried found, fuch as it obtains in other Ian- 

guages. , t I L J / 

It is mute in debt, debtor, fubtk, doubt, lamb, limb, dumb, 

thumb, climb, comb, ivomb. 
It is vifed before I and r, »j */«*, hrvaa. 

E :N ,G L I S -H ./TON G;.U ]E. 


C has before e and / the found of/; a.s^)itere!j, centrLi, cen- 
tury, circular, cijiern, city , Jicc'.ty : before a, o, and », it founds 
like k, as calm, concavity, copper, incorporate, curiojity, concupij- 
cence. ...... ^ . . - _ 

C might be omitted in the language without lofs,,(ince o«e of its founds might 
be fupplicd by/, and the oth* by k, but that it prefervcs to the eye the etymology 
0/ words, as fact from fades, captive from captfvus, 

Cb has a found which is analyfed into tjh, as church, chin, 
crutch, ft is the fame found which the Italians give to the c 
fimple before ; and e, as citta, cerro. , 1, 

Ch is founded like k in words derived from the Greek, as 
chymiji, /cheme, chohr. Arch is commonly founded ark befor* a 
vowel, as archangel; and with the Englifti found of ch before a 
confonant, as arf^^y^^o/. 

Cb, in fame Freoch words not yet affimilatcd, founds lilce fi, as mach'au, 

C, having no determinate found, according to Engliih ortliography, never ends 
a word ; therefore wc write y?iV*» i/s.-,4, which wcc vr'^'mi^l-, fluke, ixcke, in 
fjch words, C is now mute. , 

It is ufed before / ajid r, as clxk, crofst 


Is uniform in its found, as death, diligent. 

It is ufed before r, as drtv), draft ; and vi, as divelK 

/", though having a name beginning with a vowel, is num- 
bered by die grammarians among the ienii-vowels ; yet has tliis 
quality of a mute, that it is commodioudy founded before a 
liquid, z%jiajk,jly, freckle. It has an unvariable found, except 
that of is fometimes fpokcn nearly as ov. 


G has two found?, one hard, as in gay, go, gun ; tlie other 
foft, as in gem, giant. 

At the end of a word it is always hard, ring, fnug, fong, frog. 

Before e and / the found is uncertain. 

G before e is foft, as gem, gcicralion, except in gear, geld, 
geej'e, get, genvgaiu, and derivatives from words ending in g, as 
finging, ftrtnger, and generally before er at the end of words, as 

G is mute before n, as gnafh,ftgn, foreign. 

G before i is hard, as gi've, except in giant, gigantic, gibhtt, 
gibe, giblets, Giles, gill, gdlifiimier , gin, ginger, gingle, to which 
may be added Egypt zxiL gypfey . 

Gh, in the beginning of a word, has the found of the hard g, 
as ghoflly ; in the middle, and fometimes at the end, it is quite 
filent, as though, right, fought, fpoken tho', rite, foute. 

It has often at the end the found of/, as laugh, whence laugh- 
ter retains the fame found in the middle ; cough, trough, fough; 
ttugh, enough, Jlough. 

It is not to be daobted, but that in the original pronunciation gh hid 
the force of a confonant, deeply guttural, which is ftill continued unung the 

G is ufed before i, 1, and r. 


W is a note of afpiraiion, and (hows that the following vowel 
muft be pronounced with a ftrong emiffion of breath, as hat, 

It feldom begins any but the firll fyllable, in which it is 
always founded with a full breath, except in heir, herb, hofller, 
honour, humble, honefl, humour, and their derivatives. 

It fometimei begins middle or final fyllablesln words compouadcdi as hliik- 
It^J; ot derived lium the Lacin,,as ctmprtbetuUd. 

J confonant founds uniformly like the foft g, and is therefore 
a letter efelefs, except in ctynwlog)', as ejaculation, jcftir, jocund, 


• • K. ■ ,..'''■ 

K has the found of hard c, and \i ufed before e and C wKctc, 

according to Englirti analogy, c would be foft, 'as kept, king, 

Jl-!rt,Jieptick, for fo it Ihould be written, not fceptick, becaufey^ 

is founded like/, ag in fane. ■ 

It is ufed before «, as knell, knot, but totally lofes its found in modem pro- 
nunciation. . . ! 

K is never doubled; but c is ufed before it to Ihorten'tha 
vowel by a double confonant, as cockle, flc,iU, 

L has in Englifh the fame liquid found as in other languages. ' 

Thecuftom is to double the / at the end of monofyllablcs, as HI!, iv'ill,Ju/f. 
Thefe words were originaHy writteiT H/le, tville, fuUc ; and when the e firft 
grew filcnt, and was afterwards omitted, tiic //was retained, to give force, ac- 
cording to the analogy of our language, to the foregoing vowel. 

L is fometimes mute, as in calf, half, halves, calites, could, 
•would, fhould, pjalm, talk, faltnon, falcon. 

The, who delighted in guttural founds, fometimes afpirated the / af 
the beginning of words, as hbj:, a loaf, or bread; hlapolift, a lord; but this 
pronunciation is now difufed. 

Le at the end of words is pronounced like a weak el, in which 
the e is almofl mute, as table, puttie. 

Mhas always the fame found, as murmur, monumental. 


A'^ has always the fame (bund, as noble, manners. 

N is fometimes mute after m, as damn, condemn, hymn. 

P has alv/ays the fame found, which the Welfli and Germans 
confound with B. 

P is fometimes mute, as in pfalm, and between m and /, as 

Pb is ufed for/ in words derived from the Greek, as philofo- 
pher, philanthropy , Philip, 

^, as in other languages, is alw.iys followed by «, and has a. 
found which our Saxon anceftors well exprefled by cp, ciu, as 
quadrant, queen, equeflrian, quilt, enquiry, quire, quotidian. ^ is 
never followed by u. 

S^u is fometimes founded, in words derived from the French, 
like k, as conquer, liquor, rifque, chequer. 

R has the fame rough fnarling found as in other tongues. 

The Saxons nfed often to put h before it, as before / at the beginning of 
words. . . 

Rh is ufed in words derived from .the Gteck, as myrrb, mjrrbiiu, catarrhous, 
rheum, rbeumdiuk, rhjmt. , 

Re, .It the end of fome words derived from the Latin or 
French, is pronounced like a weak er, as theatre, fepulcbre. 

£ has a hifling found, 9a fibilation, fiftet. 

A Angle > feldom ends any word, except in the third perfon of verbs, as 
'Imci, frovii ; and the pkitall of nouns, M (rets, hufits, diftrejfei j th« prontuns 
' B » V this, 

A 'Grammar of the 

tth, th, tan, ynn, u) ; tfie lirerb tbui ; and worJs derived from Latin, as 
niat, jufflui ; Che f IcWe being always either in Jt, at himjt, berjc, or inyt) as 
grsji, drejt, i/ijs, lifs, anciently gmji, ttrrji. 

S fingle, at the end of words, has a wofler found, like that of 
», as trees, eyes, except this, thus, us, rebus, furplus. 

It fpundj like % before ion, if a vowel goes before, as intrufion ; 
and like^ if it follows a confonant, as con'verjton. 

It founds like z. before e mute, as refu/e, and before _)i final, as 
rejy; and in thofe words ho/om, dejire, •u.-ifjom, prifon, prifoner, 
frejint, prefent. Jam/el, ca/ement. 

It it the peculiar quality o( f, that it may be founded before all confonants, 
except * and as, in which / \% comprifcd, x being only ij, and K a hard or 
gftifsf, Tbb / is therefore termed by grammarians fi»te pitifiat'u Ultra ; the 
reafon of which the learned Dr. Clarke erroneoully fuppoled to be, that in 
fome words it might be #jublcd at plealure. Thus wc find in feveral lan- 
guages : 

iZ'invfxt, fcatter, Jdcgno, fdrucdolo, ffavetlari, ff"*jH>^, Jgamhrart, jgranare-, 
Jhake, Jiumber, fmtli, jnipe, fpace,^iendiiur, fpring, fquax^e, Jbrnv, fi^p, firt^gtb, 
^ramen, Jh'ipe, J'vnttura, ftvell, 

S is iDUtC in ij!e, ijland, demefnt, vi/cqunl. 

7* has its cuHonary found, as take, temptation, 

Ti before a vowel has the found of _/f, as/ai'vatioH, except an 
/ goes before, as quejiion ; excepting likewife derivatives from 
words ending in ty, as mighty, mightier. 

Th has two founds ; the one foft, as thus, <whcther ; the other 
hard, as thing, think. Thie found is foft in thcfe words, then, 
thenct, and there, with their derivatives and compounds ; and in 
that, thefe, thou, thee, thy, thine, their, they, this, thofe, them, 
though, thus, and in all words between two vowels, as father, 
tvhether ; and between r and a vowel, as burthen. 

In other words it is hard, as tbici, thunder, faith, faithful. 
Where it is foftened at the end of a woid, an e filent mult be 
added, as breath, breathe; cloth, clothe. 


y has a found of near affinity to that ofy*, vain, vanity. 

From f, in the Iflaadjck alphabet, 1/ ir ocly diftinguiihcd by a diacritical 
pel IK. 


Of Of, which in diphthongs is oftea an undoubted vowel, 
fome grammarians have doubted whether it ever be a confonant ; 
and not rather, as it is called, a double u or ou, as luater may be 
refolved into ouater ; but letters of the fame found are always 
reckoned confoaants in other alphabets : and it may be ob- 
ferved, that lu follows a vowel without any hiatus or difficulty of 
utterance, a frofiy ^winter. 

Wh has a found accounted peculiar to the Engllfh, which the 
Saxons better cxpreffed by hp, htu, as ivhat, 'whence, -whiting ; 
in luhore only, and fometimes in •wholefome, 'wh is founded like 
a fimple h. 

JT begins no Englilh word ; it has »he found of is, as axle, 


y, when it follows a confonant, is a vowel ; when it precedes 
•ither a vowel or dipththong, is a confonant, ye, young. It is 
thought by fome to be in all cafes a vowel, But it may be ob- 
ferved ofy as of 'iu, that it foUoivs a vowel without any hiatus, 
as rofy youth. 

The thief argument by which •» and y appear to be always vowels is, that 
the founds which they arc fuppofed to have as confonant^, cannot be uttercJ 
ai^ter • vowel, like that of a'l nther confonants : thus we fay, tu, vt ■■, do, odd ; 
tat <A wM, Unu, the two founds »t'«r ha?e ao ickialilaiicc tu ewih «tlic[> 


Z begins no word originally EnglLfli ; it has the fonnd, a» 
its name ixxard, or f hard exprefles, of an / uttered with clofer 
compreffion of the palate by the tongue, in freeze, froxe. 

In orthography I have fuppoltd trtbetpj, orjufl utterance tf wurjt, to be in- 
cluded ; orthography being only the art of expreiring certain founds by proper 
characters. 1 have therefore obferved in what words any of the letters are 

Mod of the writers of Englilh gramtnar have given long tables of words pro- 
nounced othcrwifc than they arc written, and feem not fufHclently to have 
confidcrcd, that of £nglilh, as of all living tongues, there is a double pro- 
nunciation, one curfory and colloquial, the other regular and folemn. The 
cjirlory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain, being made diflferent in 
diiiercnt mouths by negligence, unikilfulnefs, or an'eilation. The folemn pro- 
nunciation, though by no means immutable and permanent, is yet always 
Icfs remote from the orthography, and Icfs liable to capricious innovation. 
They have however generally formed their tablet according to the curfory 
fpccch of thofe with whom they happened to converfe ; and concluding that 
the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one manner, have oftea 
eftabliflicd the jargon of the lowed of the people as the model of fpeech. 

For pronunciation the beft general rule is, to confider thofe of the moft ele- 
gant fpeakers who deviate lead from the written words. 

There have been many fchcmcs offered for the emendation and fcttlement of 
our orthography, which, like that of other nations, being formed by chance, 
or according to the fancy of the earlled writers in rude ages, was at fird very 
various and uncertain, and is yet fufficlently irregular. Of thefe reformers 
fome have endeavoured to accommodate orthography better to the pronunci- 
ation, without confiderlng that this is to mcafure by a ihadow, to take that for 
a mod^l or ilandard which is changing while they apply it. Others, lefs 
abfurdly indeed, but with equal unlikelihood of fuccels, have endeatoured to 
proportion the number of letters to that of founds, that every found may have 
its own charaftcr, and every character a lingle found. Such would be the. 
ortliography of a new language to t% formed by a fynod of grammarians 
upon principles of fcience. But who can hope to prevail on nations to change 
their praftice, and make all their old books ufelefs ? or what advantage would 
a new orthography procure equivalent to the confulion and perplexity of fuch 
an alteration f 

Some of thefe fchemes I fliall however exhibit, which may be ufcd according 
to the diverfitics of genius, as a guide to reformers, or terrour to innovators. 

One of the fird who propofed a fcheme of regular orthography, was Sir 
Thomas Smith, fecretary of date to Queen Elizabeth, a man of real learning, 
and much pra£llfed in grammatical difquiQtions. Had he written the following 
lines according to his fcheme, they would have appeared thus 1 

At length Erafmus, that great injur'd name, 
The glory of the ptiedhood, and the fhame, 
Stemm'd the wild torrent of a barb'rous age. 
And drove thofe holy Vandals off the dage. 

Ac IcngiS Erafmus, Sat gret Vngurd nam. 
At glorV of So priidhtid, and Se zam, 
Stcmmd Se TOild torrent of a barb'rous aj. 
And drijv S'os hiili Vandals off Se daj. 

After him another mode of writing was offered by Dr. Gill, the celebrated 
maftcr of St. Paul's fchool in London ; which I cannot reprcfent cxa^ly for 
want of types, but will approach as nearly as 1 can by means of charattcr^ 
now in ufe, fo as to make it undcrftood, exhibiting two ftanzas of Speofeiia tlie 
reformed orthography. 

Spenfer, book iii. canto 5. 
tTnthankful wretch, faid he, is this the meed. 
With which her fovereign mercy thou dod quite f 
Thy life fhe faved by her gracious deed j 
But thou dod ween with viiianous defpight. 
To blot her honour, and her beav'nly light. 
Die, rather die, than fo difloyally 
Deem of her high defert, or feem fo light. 
Fair death it Is tj ihun more Ihame ; then die* 
Die, rather die, than ever love difloyally. 

But if to love difloyalty it be, 
Shall I then hate her, that from deathes door 
Me brought ? ah ! far be fuch reproach fi om ms> 
What can 1 lefs do, than her love therefore, 
Sith I her due reward cannot redore ? 
Die, rather die, and dying do her fcrvc. 
Dying her ferve, and living her adore. 
Thy life (he gave, thy life fhe doth deferve ; 
Die, rather die, than ever from her (enice fwtrvt. 

VrJlonkful wrs:i, faid hj, iz Sis Se mjd, 
Wi|j lob hrr fotcrdin miifi Sou dud qujt ^ 
Dj Ijf rj '"tt!''- bj htr grafius djd ; 
Sue Sou duil wca wi|i V'iinus diipjt, 



Tu blot btr honor, and her hctlalj lL6ti 
Pj, ra^ir dj, iScn Co diflolalj 
Pjm o( hir hii> dizirt, or fjm fo liit. 
Fair dt|| ic iz tu fun mwr film ; ^in dj* 
Pj, nSer dj, Ssn itlfr lub difloulj. 

But it" tu lub difloialtj it bj, ~ 

Sal 1 ^in hat htr ^at iVom diSez dxr 
Mj brouit ? oh ! f#' bj fuo nproj from mj. 
Wat kan I iis du iStn hir iuti Scrfvr, 
Siir i her du riw^rd icanot reitur ? 
Dj, rjiJSer dj, and djij du htr firto, 
DJ!5 hir fiib, and lib.; hsr adir. 
Dj Ijf f j 6«*'> *j Ijf rj <iuA dizerVl ; 
Dj, raiit dj, ita (btr r'rom hir I'tibii fwirb. 

Dr. Gill was followed by Charles Butler, a man who did not want an un- 
derftanding which might have qualified him for better emp'.i'yiricnt. He ferns 
to have been more fanguine than his predccefTors, for he prjnted his book ac- 
cording to his own I'chenke ; which the following fpecimcn will make eafily un- 

But whenfoerer you have occaflon to trouble their patience, or to come 
ireong them being troubled, it is better to ftanJ upon your guard, than to 
truft to their gentlenefs. For the fafeguard of your face, which they have 
moft mind unto, provide a purfttiood, made of coarfc bouUering, to be drawn 
and knit about your collar, which fur more fafety is to be lined againft the 
eminent parts with woollen cloth. Firfl cut a piece about an inch and a half 
broad, and half a yard l;ing, to reach round by the temples and forehead, from 
one ear to the o^her; which being fowcd in his place, join unto it two Ihort 
pieces of the fame breadth under the eyes, for the balls of the cheeks, and then 
fet another piece about the breadth of a (hilling againft the top of the aofe. 
At other times, when they are not angered, a little piece half a quarter broad, 
to cover the ejes and parts about them, may lerve, though it be in the heat of 
the day. 

Bet penfocver you hay' occafion to trubble 8eir patlenc', or to c«»m among 
tern hiring trubled, it is better to ftand upon your gard, San to truft to 8eir 
gentlenes. For *e faf gard of your fac', pi? 8ey hav' moft mind' unto, 
provid' a purfehjod, mad' of coorfe boultering, to b« drawn and knit about 
your collar, pis for raor' faf'ty is to b« lined againft S' eminent parts wit 
wecUen clot. Firft cut a free' about an jna and a half broad, and half a \ard 
long, to ten round by Se temples and for'head, from one ear to 8e o8er j 
yia bfcing fowrd in his plac', join unto it two fort paces of the fam breadT 
under 'Se eys, for the bails of ie chirks, and then fet an oSer p«c' about 8t 
breadr of a filling againft the top o 8c nofe. At o8er tim's, fen 8ey at' 
not angered, a little pice' half a quarter broad, to cover 8e eys and parts about 
them, may fcrve, 8owj it be in the heat of 8e day. Buikr m Ihi Nature anj 
Frtfcrlits cf Beit, 1634. 

In the time of Charles I. tber« was a very prevalent Inclination to change 
the orthography; as appears, among other books, in fuch editions of the 
works of Miltun as were publilhed by himlilf. Of thefe reformers, every 
man bad his own fchcme ; but they agreed in one general delign of accommo- 
dating the letters to the pronunciation, by ejcfting fuch as they thought fu- 
perfluous. Seme of them would have writun thefe lines thus : 

-All the erth 

Shall then be paradis, far happier place 
Than this of Eden, and far happier dais. 

Birtiop Wllklns afterwards, in his great work of the philofophital Janjuage, 
f ropofed, without expeSing to be followed, a regular orthography ; by which 
(he Lord't prayer i» 10 be written thus : 

y»r Fadher hnitfli art in hcven halloed bi dhyi nam, dhyi cingdym cym, dhy 
•ni bi dyn in erth as it is in heven, ic. 

We have finee had no general reformers ; but fome ingenious men have 
endeavoured to deferve well of their country, by writing bcmr and iaior for 
iimur and Uinur, rtd for riad in the preter-tenfe, ja'is (or Jay t, rtfett for rtfeai, 
txf'.am for ixflam, or dutamt for dicta'm. Of thefe it may be laid, that as they 
have done no good, they have done little harm ; both bccaufe they have inno- 
vated little, and becaule few have followed them. 

The Englilh language has properly no dialefls ; the ftyle of writers has no 
profeffed diverfity in the ufe of words, or of their flexions, and terminations, 
■or differs but by diflferent degrees of (kill or care. The oral diiftion is uniform 
is no fpacious country, but has lefs variation in England than in moft other 
nations of equal extent. The language of the northern counties retains many 
word* novv out of ufe, but which are commonly of the genuine Teutonick 
lace, and is uttered with a pronunciation which now fccms harlh and rough, 
but wai probably ufed by our anceftors. The northern fpcrch is therefore not 
barbarous but obfoletc. The fpcech in tiic wcftern provinces fecms to differ 
Xrom the general diflion rather by a depraved ptunwicistioD, thao by any real 
4iS<T<i)ce which JctKn would cxprcii. 


ETYMOLOGY teaches the deduftion of one word from 
atiother, and the various modifications by which the fenfe 
of the fame word is diverfified ; as horj'e, horfes ; I love, I loved. 

0/ tie A R T I c V t. 
The Englilh have two articles, an or a, and t&e. 

An, a. 

ji Jias an indefinite fignification, and means one, with fome 
reference to more ; as T/jis ii a good hook, that is, one among the 
books that are good. He tvas killed by a fvjord, that is, yZfa# 
/•word. This is a better book for a man than a boy, that is, for 
one ofthoje that are men than one of thofe that are boys. An army 
might enter ivithout refiftance, that is, any army. 

In the fenfes in which we ufe a or an in the fingular, we fpeak 
in the plural without an article ; as, thefe are good books. 

1 have made an the original article, becaufe it is only the Saxon an, or arn, 
on.', applied to a new ufe, as the German tm, and the French un : the n being 
cut off before a conibnant in the fpeed of utterance. ~ 

Grammarians of the laft age direft, that an fhould be ufed 
before h ; whence it appears that the Englilh anciently afpirated 
lefs. Jn is ftill ufed before the filent b, as, an herb, an haneft 
man : but otherwife a ; as, 

A horfe, a horfe, my kingdom for a horfe. Shakefpeatt. 

An or a can only be joined with a ftngular, the correfpondent 
plural is the noun without an article, as Iivant a fen ; J ivant 
fens : or with the pronominal adjt&'ivefome, as / luant fome fens. 

The has a particular and definite fignification. 

The fruit 
Of that forbidden tree, whofe mortal talle 
Brought death into the wor!d. Milton. 

That is, that f articular fruit, and this tvorld in ivhich iiiie live. 
So, He giveth fodder for the cattle, and green herbs for the ufe of 
man ; that is, for thofe beings that are cattle, and his ufe that 
is man. 

The is ufed in both numbers. 

I am as free as Nature firft made man. 

Ere the bafe laws of fervitude began. 

When wild in woods the noble favage ran. D'ryden. 

Many words are nfed without articles ; as, 

1. Proper names, as John, Alexander, Longinus, Arijlarchus, 
ferufalem, Athens, Rome, London. GoD is ufed as a proper name. 

2. AbftraA names, as blacknefs, nuitchcraft , virtue, vice, beauty, 
uglinefs, love, hatred, anger, good-nature, kindnefs, 

3. Words in which nothing but the mere being of any thing 
is implied : This is not beer, but water : this is not brafs, but 


Of Nouns Substantives, 

The relations of Englilh nouns to words going before or fol- 
lowing, are not exprelfed by cafes, or changes of termination, 
but as in moft of the other European languages by prepofitiont, 
unlefs we may be faid to have a genitive cafe. 




Magifter, a Mailer, the Mailer. 

Magillri, of a Mailer, of the Mailer, or Mailers, 

the Mallert. 
Magillro, to a Mailer, to the Mailer. 
Magillrum, a Mailer, the Mailer. 
Magifter, Mafter, O Mafter. 

Magillro, from » Mafter, from tbt Mailer. 




Nom. Magillrl, Madcrs, the Matters. 

Gen. Magillrorum, e/"Mailfrs, of the yiiAex%. 

Dat. Magiftris, to Mailers, to the Matters. 

Ace. Magiftros, Matters, the Matters. 

Voc. Magiftii, Matters, O Matters. 

Abl. Magiftris, from Matters, from the Matters. 

Our nouns are therefore only declined thus : 

Matter, Gen. Matters. Plur. Matters. 

Scholar, Cen. Scholars. Tlur. Scholars. 

Thcfe genitives are always written with i mark of clifion, majier't, fcholar's, 
according to an opinion long received, tliat the '» is a contraction of hit, as the 
foldier't valour, for ihifild'ier his vaUur i but this cannot be the true original, 
bccaufe 's is put to femile nouns, ff^anan's htauiy ; the Virgin' t delicacy ; Haughty 
^/»'i unrtltntmg bate : and collcflivc nouns, as fVomcn's paffant, the rahik't 
mfilence, the multitude'' t felly ; in all thefe cafes it is apparent that his cannot be 
underftood. We fay liiccwifc, thefouitdaiion'sjlrengih, the diamord's lujire, the 
lyinter's ftvcrity ; but in thefe cafes bis may be underftood, he and bis having 
tormirly been applied to neuters in the place now fupplied by it and its. 

The learned and fagacinus Wilis, to whom cveiy Engliili grammarian owes a 
tribute of reverence, calls this modification of the noun an adjeHiv: Ix.JJiJJlvc ; 
1 think with no more propriety than he might have applied the fame to rhe geni- 
tive in iqultuin decus, Trjte oris, or any other Latin genitive. Dr.Lowth, on the 
Other part, fuppofes the pofTelfive pronouns i«i«r and thir:t to be genitive cafes. 

This termination of tnc noun feems to conftitute a leal genitive indicating 
pofleflion. It is derived to us from thofe who declined rmi8, afmiih; Gen. 
.r.TlScp, ofafmith ; t'lur. J-mxiScJ-, or rmi8aJ-,_/»H»i>j ; and fo in two other of 
tlicir fevcn decletiHons. 

It is a further confirmation of this opinion, that in the old poets both the 
genitive anj plural were longer by a fyliable than the original word ; kiitis, for 
knight's, in Chaucer ; Uavis, for haves, in Spenfcr. 

When a word ends in s, the genitive may be tile fame with the nominative, as 
Vertis Temple. 

The plural is formed by adding /, as table, tables ; fly, flies ; 
fifler,fij}ers ; •vjood, ivoods ; or es where s could not other^vife be 
founded, as after ch, s, Jh, x, a ; after c founded like s, and g 
I'lkej ; the mute e is vocal before s, as lance, lances ; outrage, 
tut rages. 

The formjtion of the plural and genitive fingular is the fame. 

A few words yet mak.e the plural in a, as men, nvotncn, oxen, fwine, and more 
anciently eyin -^ni finon. This f jrmation is that which generally prevails in the 
Xeutonick dialects. 

Words that end in /"commonly form their plural by -ves, as 
haf, loaves ; calf, calves. 

Except a few, muff, muffs ; chitf, chiefs. So bttf, reof, frtKf, relief, mifcbief, 
fuff, cuff, dwarf, handkerchief, grief. 

Irregular plurals are teeth from tmib, Hce from hufe, mice from mcufe, ge.fe 
{com gotfe, feel from/of-r, dice from die, fence Uom penny, br^:hren from brother, 
children from child. 

Plurals -ending in s have for the moft part no genitives ; but 
we fay, Womens excellencies, and ff''ei^h the mens ivits again/l the 
ladies hairs. Pope. 

Dr. Wallis thinks the Lords' hmfe may be faid for the houjt if Lords ; but fuch 
phrafes are not now in ufe ; and furcly an Englilh ear rebels againll them. They 
would commonly produce a troublefome ambiguity, as the L'.rd's buufe may be 
the beuje of Lords, or the houfe of -x Lord. Belidcs that the mark of clifion is 
in>proper, for in the Lords' houfe nothing is cut off. 

Some Englifli fubftantives, like thofe of many other languages, change their 
tarr.iinatjon as they exprefs diftei ent fexcs, as prince, princefs ; alJor, aSrcfs ; Rm, 
Hone's ; hero, heroine. To thefe mentioned by Dr. Lowth may be added arb'iirefs, 
poetifs, ehaunlrejs, duchefs, ligrefs, governefs, tuirefs, pecrefs, authorefs, traytrefs, 
and perhaps others. Of thefe variable terminations we have only a fufficient 
number to make us feel our want ; for when we fay of a woman that flie is a 
ph'tUfpher, an ajlroncmer, a builder, a iveaver, a dancer, we perceive an impro- 
priety in the terminatii'n which we cannot avoid ; but we can fay that (he is an 
trehiliH, a hotaniJI, ifudtni, becaufe thefe terminations have not annexed to 
tinm tlie notion of (ex. Jn words which the nece(rities of life are often re- 
quiring, the fex is dift.njuilhcd not by different terminations, but by dift'ercnt 
names, as, a bull, a conu ; a hcrfe, a mare ; eijuus, ejua ; a cock, a hen j and fome- 
times by pronouns prefixed, as a he.goai, u (kc-goat. 

Of Adjectives. 
Adjeflives in the finglifti language are wholly indeclinable ; 
having neither cafe, gender, nor number, and being added to 
fubftantives in all relations without any change ; as a good wo- 
man, good luomen, of a good nuoman ; a good man, good men, of 
good men. 

The ComparifoH of AdjeSllves. 

The comparative degree of adjeftives is formed by adding «•, 
the fuperlative by adding efl, to the pofitive ; as fair, fairer, 
iwefl ; lo--jely,\ost\\er, loveli^y? ; /ivtv/, fweet^r, fweet^ ; lotti, 
lower, \cwfjl ; high, liighrr, high;-/?. 

Some words are irregularly compared ; as good, better, hcjl ; 
bad, eworfe, tvorfi ; little, lifs, leaft ; near, nearer, next ; much, 
more, moj} ; many (or mce), more (for moer), mofl (for moeji') ; late, 
later, latefl or laj}. 

Some comparatives form a fuperlative by adding tnofl, as 
nether, ncthcrmofl ; outer, oiUermofi ; under, undermofl ; up, upper, 
upper mojf ; fore, former, for emoji. 

Moft is fometimes added to a fubftantive, as topmoft , fiuthmoft . 

Many adjeftives do not admit of comparifon by terminations,' 
and are only compared by more and mojl, as benevolent, mart 
bene'volent , moft benevolent. 

All adjeiSives may be compared by more and m»ft, even when 
they have comparatives and fuperlatives regularly formed ; as 
fair ; fairer, or more fair ; faireft, or moft fair. 

In adjectives that admit a regular comparifon, the comparative mive !< oftener 
ufed than the fuperlative rmfi, as more fair is oftener written lot fairer, than molt 
fair for faircf. 

The comparifon. of adjeftives is very uncertain ; and being 
much regulated by commodioufnefs of utterance, or agreeable- 
nefs of found, is not eafily reduced to rules. 

Monofyllables are commonly compared. 

Polyfyllables, or words of more than two fyllables, are feldom 
compared otherwife than by more and moft, as deplorable, tnort 
deplorable, moft deplorable. 

Diflyllables are feldom compared if they terminate in feme, 
as fiilfome, toilfome ; in ful, as careful, ffleenfiil, dreadful ; in 
ing, as trifling, charming ; in ous, as porous ; in lefs, as carehfs, 
harmlefs ; in ed, as luretched ; in id, as candid ; in al, as mortal ; 
in enf, as recent , fer'vent ; in ain, as certain ; in ive, as mijjive ; 
XTsdy, zs luoody ; vn. ff, as pttfly ; in ^Vj is.rociy, except IticHy ; 
in my, as roomy ; in ny, asjkinny ; in py, as ropy, except happy ; 
in ry, as hoary. 

Some comparatives and fuperlatives are yet found in good writers, formed 
without regard to the foregoing rules : but in a language fubjeCted fo little and fo 
lately to grammar, fuch anomalies mull freijuently occur. 

Sojtady is compared by Milton. 

She '\t\padieji covert hid, 
Tun'd her ooCturnal note. Faradife Lojt. 

And virtuws. 

What (he wills to fay or do. 
Seems wifefl, virtutujeji, difcreetcft, bell. Paradije Lefl. 

So trifing, by Ray, who is indeed of no great authority. 

it is not fo decorous, in refpeCl of God, that he (hould immediately 
do all 'the meaneft and trifingrj} things himfclf, without making ufe of 
any inferior or fubordinate minider. Ray on the Creation. 

Famous, by Milton. 

1 (hall be nam'd among the famoufcjl 
Of women, fung at folemn fellivals. Milton's Agtniftes. 

In-vent'nie, by jijcham. ' 

Thofe have the invent'eveft beads for all purpofes, and roundell tongues 
in all matters. uijebam's Schoolmafier. 

Mortal, by Bacon. 

The martalefl poifons praClifed by the Weft Indians, have fomc mixture 
of the blood, fat, or flclh of man. Bacon, 

Natural, by Wottos. 

I will now deliver a few of the properefl and naturolkfi confiderations 
that belong to this piece. Wotlon's Arcbitcciure. 

IVretehed, by Jonfon. 

The ivretcheder are the contemners of all helps j fuch as prefuming on 
tiieir own naturals, deride diligence, and mock at terms when they un- 
dcrdand not things. Ben fonfm. 

Vnverful, by Milton. 

We have fuftain'd one day in doubtful fight, 
What heav'n's great King hath f.w'rfifl.'eji to fend 
Againft us from about his throne. Paradije Lcfi, 

■ The 


The term!«»t!on \n !Jh any be acceunteJ In fome fort 9 degree of comparifon, 
by which the fignlnca.ioa is diminiihed below the poficive, as ilacky black'ijhy or 
tending to bbcknefs ; jah,Jahijk, or having a little tafte of fait : they therefore 
admit no comparifon. This termination is fddom added bntto words expreiling 
fenfible qualities, nor often to words of above one fy)Uble, and is fcaredy ufed 
io the foiemn or fubiimc llyle. ' ■ 


Pronouns, in the EngHfti language, are, /, thtu, be, with fHeir 
plurals, ttie, ye, they ; it, ivho, luhich, •what, ivhether, ivho/oe-ver , 
<vibalfoen:er , m/, mine, our, ours, thy, thine, your, yours, his, hir, 
hers, their, theirs, this, that, other, another , ^x\\c fame , fame. 

The pronoans perfonal are irregularly inflefted. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. I 


Accuf. and other ) -^ 
oblique caies. ] 


AW. Thou 


Oblique. Thee 


Ysu is commonly ufed ia modern writers foryr, particularly in the language of 
cere:aonJr, where the fccond perfon plural is ufed for the fecond perfon fingular, 
Yi,u art my fr':ei:tt' 

Singular. Plural. 

Ouique. Sfm TheL } ^^^^"^ " mafcuHnes. 

Nom. She Thev 1 , ,• . r • • 

Ohl,que. Her Them } '^PP^'^'^ '° fem.nines. 

rpi ^ {• Applied to neuters or things. 




For // the praflice of ancient writers was to ufe he, and for 
;■//, his. 

The poffeflive pronCuns, like other adjeftives, are without 
cafes or change of termination. 

The pofleflivk of the fitH perfoa is my, mine, our, tun ; of the 
fecond, thy, thine, your, yours ; of the third, from he, his ; hoxajhe, 
her, and hers ; and in the plural their^ theirs, for both fexes. 

Ouri, yeurt, km, tle-rt, are ufed *hen the ftblantive preceding is fcparatcd 
by a ve;b, at T^^jirr our Ae«>i. Theft kaki art van. Your ebiUm tsKti oars 
infijttirej hut ours Jurpajx yours tn /ei:rn'!Jig. 

Can, yiuri, ten, ibtiri, notwithllanding their feeming plural termination, 
are applied equally to Angular and plural fubltaotives, as, Ti!>;i hock ii ourt. Theft 
betki are ours. 

Mitu and ih'mt were formerly ufed before a vowel, as mine amUblthdy ; which, 
though now difufed in profe, might be ftill properly continued in poetry : they are 
ofed as tun and j'»r>, and are referred to a fubftantive preceding, as thy houfe is 
larger than mine, but jny garden if more fpacioui than thim. 

Their znd. theirs are the pofleflives likewife o{ they, when they 
it the plural of ;>, and are therefore applied to things. 

Pronouns relative ZKriuh*, -which, ivhat, tuhether, •who/oever, 

Sing and Plur. 
Nom. Who 

Gen. Whofe 

Other oblique cafes. Whom 

Sing, and Plur. 
Nom. Which 
Gen. Of which, or whofe 
Other oblique cafes. Which. 

Wba is now ufed in relation to perfons, and ivhkb in relation to things ; but 
they were anciently confounded. At leatt it was common to fay, the roan Vfhlcb, 
though 1 remember no example of the thing lubo, 

Whaft if rather th« poetical than regular genitive of vihkb :. 
The fruit 
Of that forbidden tree, ivbefe nwrtal tafie 
Brought death into the world. Mitlon, 

H^tbtr is only ufed in the nominative and accufative cafei ; and has nc plural, 
being applied only to on< of a number, commonly to one of two, as Whether of 
Ihtfi ij lift liitvtu not. Whether flyall I tboofe ? It Is now almod obfolete. 

What, whether relative or interrogative, is without variation. 
IVhofoe'ver, nvhatfoever , being compounded of who 01 "what, 
zadfoevcr, follow th« rule of their primitives, 


In all cafes, < 



The plural ctbers is not ufed but when it is referred to a fubllantive preceding, 
as / huvcfent other korfes. I have nctfint the fame horfcs, but others. 

Another, being only an other, has no plural. 

Here, there, and 'where, joined with certain particles, have a 
relative and pronominal ule. Hereof, herein, hereby, hereafter, 
herei'jith, thereof, therein, thereby, thereupon, there-tuith, luhereof, 
•wherein, •ivherehy, luhereupon, ivhereivtth, which lignify, of this,, 
in this, &c. of that, in that, &C. ofivhieh, inivhich, &C. 

Therefore and ivherefore, which are properly, there for and 
•where for, for that, for •which, are now reckoned conjunflions, 
and continued in ufe. The reft feem to be paffing by degrees 
into negleft, though proper, ufeful, and analogous. They are- 
referred both to lingular and plural antecedents. 
• There are two more words ufed only in conjunftion with pro* 
nouns, ciun ^ndfelf. 

Oiun is added to polTeflives, both lingular and plural, as my 
own hand, our own hciife. It is emphatical, and implies a filent 
contrariety or oppofition ; as / li^ve in my oiun houfe, that is, not 
in a hired houfe. This 1 did •with my OTvn band, that is, ivithotit 
help, or not by proxy. 

Selfh added to pofleflives, as myfclf,yourf elves ; and fometimes 
to perfonal pronouns, as himfelf, itfelf, themfel-ves. It then, like 
own, exprefles emphafis and oppolition, as / did this myfelf, 
tliat is, Mt another ^ or it forms a reciprocal pronoun,- as We 
hurt oiirfel'ves by •vain ragi. 

IVimfdf, itfelf, ibimfelves, are fuppofed by Wallis to be put, hy corruption, for 
bit felf, it' JL-lf,. their fjvii ;. (a ihii felf is always a fubllantivc. This feema 
juilly obf:rved, for we- fay. He came himfif; Himftlffliall do this ; where himfelf 
cannot be an accufatiTC* 

Of the V Z V^ ^. 

Englifh verb* are afl.iv«, as / lo^ve ;. or neater, z.t.Lliinguif>t 
The neuters are formed like the aftives. 

Mod verbs fignifying aClhn may likewife fignify condition or hebit, and becoms 
neuters, a^ / love, 1 am in luvc j Iflrikc, I am now llrilcing. 

Verbs have only two tenfes inflefted in their terminations, the 
prefent, and the fimple preterite ; the other tenfes are compounded 
of the auxiliary verbs ha've, fhall, •will, let, may, can, and the in* 
finitive of the aftive or neuter verb. 

The pafiive voice is formed by joining the participle preterite 
to the fubftantive verb, as / am loved. 

To ha^ve. Indicative Moodi 

Prefent Tenfe. 
Sing. I have ; thou haft ; he hath or has ; 
Fltir. ire have ; ye have ; they have. 

Hal is a termination corrupted from hath, hut now more frequently tt<cd botll'- 
in verfe and profc. 

Simple Preterite. 
Sing. I had ; thou hadft ; he had ; 
Plur. We had ; ye had ; they had. 

Compound Preterite. 
Sing. I have had ; thou haft had ; he has or hath had ; 
Flur. We have had ; ye have had ; they have had. 

Sing. I had had ; thou hadft had ; he had had ;- 
Plur. We had had ; ye had had ; they had had. 

Sing. I (hall have ; thou (halt have ; he fliall have ;■ 
Plur. W( (hail have ; yt (hall have ; they Ihall have. 


SeetHd Futurt. 
Slug. I will have ; thou, wilt have ; be will have ; 
Plur. IVe will have ; ye will have ; they will have. 

By Tudiog thele future tcnfci may be obfenred the vuiationt t>{ Jball and 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing. Have, w have thou ; let him have ; 
Plur, Let HI have ; have, or have ye ; let them have, 

Conjunflive Mood. 

Sing, I have ; thou have ; he have ; % 

Plur. We have ; ye have ; they have. 

Preterite fimfle as in the Indicative. 

Preterite compound. 
Sing, I have had ; /^eu have had ; he have had ; 
Plur. Ife have had ; ye have had ; they have had. 

Sing, I (hall have ; as in the Indicative. 

Second Future, 
Sing. I (hall have had ; thou (halt have had ; be (hall have had ; 
Plur. We (hall have had ; ye (hall have had j they (hall have had. 

The potential form of fpeaking is expre(red by may, can, in 
the prefent ; and might, could, or Jhould, in the preterite, joined 
with the infinitive mood of the verb. 

Sing. I may have ; thou mayft have ; he may kave{ 
Plur. We may have ; ye may have; they may ha%'c. 

Sing. I might have ; thou mighttt have ; he might have ; 
Plur. We might have ; ye might have i they might have. 

Sing. I can have ; thoa canft have ; he can have^ 
Plur. We can have ; ye can have ; they can have. 

Sing, /could have ; thou couldft have ; be could have; 
J'lur. We could have ; ye could have ; they could have. 

In like manner Jhould is united to the verb. 

There is likewife a double preterite. 
Sing. I Ihould have had ; thou (houldll have had ; be Ihould have 

had ; 
Plur. We (hould have had ; j'f ihould have had ; they Ihould have 
In like manner we ufe, / might have had ; / could have had, 

In(inttive Mood. 

Prefent. To have. Preterite, To have had. 

Participle pT if ent. Having. Partiiiple preler. Had. 

Verb Aftive. " To lovt. 

Indicative. Prefent, 
Sing, /love; //^ox loveft ; /v loveth, or loves j 
Plur. We love ; ye love ; they love. 

Prefer in Jimple. 
Sing, /loved; fltoM lovedll ; Af loved; 
Plur. We loved ; ye loved ; they lo\'ed. 

Prettrperfeit compound. I have loved, ^u 

Preterpluperfeil. J had loved, ij(. 

Future. J (hall bve, Wc . / will love, ^c. 

Sing. Love, «r love thou ; let him love ; 
Plur. Let atf love j love, or lovc>* ; let them love. 

Conjunftive. Preftnt. 
Sing. I love ; thou love ; he love ; 
Plur. We love ; ye love ; they love. 

Preterite fimple, as in the Indicative. 
Preterite compound. I have loved, l^c. 
Future. I (hall love, i^c. 
Second Future. I fliall have loved, tic. 

Prefent. I may or can Iwe, t5ff. 
Preterite, /might, could, «r (hould Iove,£sf<-. 
Double Preterite. J might, could, or (hould have loved, fcff. 

Prtfent. To love. Preterite. To have loved. 

Participle prefent. Loving. Participle paft. Loved. 

The palTive is farmed by the addition of the participle prete- 
rite to the diiFerent tenfes of the verb to be, which muft there- 
fore be here exhibited. 

Indicative. Prefent, 
Sing. I am ; thou art ; he'u; 

Plur. We are, or be ; ye are, or be ; they are, or be. 
The plural tc is now Uctle in ufe. 

Sing. I was ; thou waft, or wert ; A« wa« ; 
Plur. We were ; ye were ^ //^{y were. 

fyeri is properly of the conjunflive mood, and ought not to be ttfed !a the 

Preterite compound, /have been, lie-. 
Preterpluperfea. I had been, l^c. 
Future. I (liall or will be, i£c. 

Sing. Be thou ; let him be ; 
Plur. Letajbc; be_;v ; Xttthemhe, 

Conjunftive, Prefent, 
Sing. I be ; thou beeft ; ^^ be ; 
Plur. We be ■; _;'^ be ; they be. 

Sing. I wpre ; thou wert ; he were; 
Plur. We were ; ye were ; they were. 

Preterite compound. /Jiave been, ^r. 
Future. I (hall have been, ^r. 

/ may er can ; would," could, or (hould be ; could, would, w 
(hould have been, tSc, 

Prefent, To be. Preterite. To have been. 

Participle prefent. Being, Participle preter. Having been. 

PalTive Voice. Indicative Mood. 
/ an loved, lie. I was loved, ^c I have been loved, He. 

If /be loved, ^f. 
loved, He, 

Conjunftive Mood. 
If / were loved, He, 

If /ftiall have been 


Potential Mood, 
/may er can be loved, tfr . / might, could, er (hould be loved, 
i^c /might, could, er fliould have been loved, (sfc^ 

Frtfent. To be loved. Preteriie. To have been loved. 
Participle. Loved. 

There is another form of Engli(h verbs, in which the infinitive 
mood is joined to the verb do in its various infledions, which are 
therefore to be learned in this place. 

To Do; 

Indicative. Prefent, 
Sing, I do ; thou doft ; it doth ; 
Flur. IVeioijieio; they do. 

Sing. I did ; thou didll ; he did ; 
Plur. We did ; ye did ; they did. 
Preterite, i^c. / have done, tsfc. /had done, ^c, 
Future. I Ihall or will do, ^c. 

Sing. Do thou ; let him do; 
Flur. Let ut do; ioye; let them do. 

Conjunftive. Preftnt. 
Sing. / do ; thou do ; ^* do ; 
Plur. We do sye do; they do. 

The reft are as in the Indicative. 

Infiniti've. To do ; to have done. 

Participle prefent. Doing. Participle preter. Done. 

Do is fometimes ufed fuperfluoufly, as / do love, /did love; 
fimply for / love, or / loved; but this is confidered as a vitious 
mode of fpeech. 

It is fometimes ufed emphatically; as, 

/ do love thee, and vihen I love thee net. 

Chaos is come again. Shakefpeare. 

It is frequently joined with a negative ; " as / like her, hut I 
do not love her ; I vjijhed him fuccefi , but did not help him. This, 
by cnftom at leaft, appears more eafy than the other form of 
cxpreffing the fame fenfe by a negative adverb after the verb, / 
like her, but love her not. 

The Imperative prohibitory is feldom applied in the fecond 
perfon, at leaft in profe, without the word do ; as Stop him, but 
do not hurt him ; Praife beauty, but do not dote on it. 

Its chief ufe is in interrogative forms of fpeech, in which it is 
ufed through all the perfons ; as Do / live ? Doft thou Jlrike 
me? Do they rebel ? Did J complain F DidA thou love her? Did 
Jhe die ? So likewife in negative interrogations ; Do / not yet 
griev!? D\d file not die ? 

Do and did are thus ufed only for the prefent and fimple pre- 

There is another manner of conjugating neuter verbs, which, 
when it is ufed, may not improperly denominate them neuter 
pajjivei, as they are inflefted according to the paffive form by the 
help of the verb fubftantive to be. They anfwer nearly to the 
reciprocal verbs in Frencli ; as 

1 am rifen, furrexi, Latin ; Je me fuis leve, French, 
I vjas vjalkedout, exieram ; Je m'etois promene. 

In tike manner we commonly exprefs the prefent tenfe ; a;, I am going, to. 
1 am grieving, ditto. She is dying, ilia morilur. The temped is raging, /«nf 
proctlla. I am purfuing an enemy, brtji^m wjequor. So the other tenfcs, as, tVt 
vitr- -uialking, iluyx^nitn <«{iw»lWif, / havt iien v/olkirg, I had ittn walking, 
&a^ or ivi/l bt 'walki'^z. 

Vol. I. 

There Is another manner of ufing the aftive participle, which gives !t a paji 
five fignificarion : as, The grammar is now printing, graixmauca jam tiun 
charlis mprimilur. The brals is forging, <rrj cxcuduijiur. This is, in my opi- 
nion, a vitious exprcflion, probably corrupted from a phrafe more pure, but now 
fomewhat obfolete : The took it a printing. The brafs is a forging ; a being pro- 
perly at, and printing and forging verbal nouns fignifying ailion, according to 
the analogy of this language. 

The indicative and conjunflive moods are by modern writers frequently con- 
founded, or rather the conjunftive is wholly neglefted, when fome convenience 
of verCfication does not invite its revival. It is ufed among the purer writers of 
former times after if, though, ere, before, till or until, -whether, except, un/eft, 
•whatjofver, luhomfeever, and words of wifhing ; as, Doubilefs ihou art our father, 
though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Ifael acknowledge us not, 

0/"Irregular Veres. 

The Englilh verbs were divided by Ben Jonfon into four con- 
jugations, without any reafon arifing from the nature of the lan- 
guage, which has properly but one conjugation, fuch as has been 
exemplified ; from which all deviations are to be confidered as 
anomalies, which are indeed in our monofyllable Saxon verbs, 
and the verbs derived from them, very frequent ; but almoft all 
the verbs which have been adopted from other languages, follow 
the regular form. 

Our verbs are obferved by Dr. Wallls to be irregular only in the formation of 
the preterite, and its participle. Indeed, in the fcantinefs of our conjugations, 
there is fcarcely any other place for irregularity. 

The firft irregularity is a (light deviation from the regular 
form, by rapid utterance or poetical contraction : the laft plia- 
ble ed is often joined with the former by fuppreffionof ^ ; as lov^d 
for loved ; after c, cb,fh,f, k, x, and after the confonantsy", th, 
when more ftrongly pronounced, and fometimes after m, n, r, if 
preceded by a fhort vowel, / is ufed in pronunciation, but very 
feldom in writing, rather than d ; as plac't, fnatch't,fjh^t, vjak't, 
dvL-eV t , fmel' t ; (or plac'd,/aatch'd,fljh'd, ivak'd, dwel'dffriel'd i 
or placed, fnatched,fl/hed, vjaked, divelled , fmelled, 

Thofe words which terminate in / or//, or p, m^ke their pre- 
terite in /, even in folemn language ; as crept, felt, divelt, 
fometimes after *■, ed is changed into /, as vext ; this is not con- 

A long vowel is often changed into- a Ihort one ; thus, kept, 
flept, vjept, crept, f-wept ; from the verbs, to keep, Xajleep, to vieep, 
to creep, Xo/iueep. 

Where </ or / go before, the additional letter d or /, in thii 
contrafted form, coalefce into one letter with the radical d ox t ; 
if/ were the radical, they coalefce into / ; but if a' were the ra> 
dical, then into d or t, as the one or the other letter may be 
more eafily pronounced : as read, kd,fpread, fhed, fhred, bid, hid, 
chid, fed, bled, bred,fped,f}rid,Jlid, rid; from the verbs to read, 
to lead, tofpread, to Jhed, to /bread, to bid, to hide, to chide, to' 
feed, to bleed, to breed, tofpeed, to firide, to flide, to ride. And 
thus, caft, hurt, coft, bitrji, eat, beat, fvjeet. Jit, quit, fmit, ivri', 
bit, hit, met, jhot ; from the verbs to cafi, to hurt, to ccfl, to 
burfi, to eat, to beat, to f-weat, to fit, to quit, to fmite, to vjrite, 
to bite, to hit, to meet, to fhoot. And in like manner, lent, fent, 
rent, girt ; from the verbs to lend, to fend, to rend, to gird. 

The participle preterite or pafTive is often formed in en, in- 
ftead of ed ; as been, taken, given, flain, knovjn ; from the verbs 
lobe, to take, to give, to flay, to know. 

Many words have two or more participles, as not only vuritten, 
bitten, eaten, beaten, hidden, chidden, fhotten, chofen, broken ; but 
likewife imit, hit, eat, beat, hid, chid, fhot, chofe, broke, arc pro- 
mifcuoufly ufed in the participle, from the verbs to vurite, to 
bite, to eat, to beat, to hide, to chide, to fhoot, to cboofe, to break, 
and many fuch like. 

In the fame manneryoTt;^, fhevjn, hevin, movin, loaden, laden, 
as well a.sfoiv'd, fhevi'd, hevj'd, moiv'd, loaded, laded, from the 
verbs to yoTLu, to fhevi, to hevi, to movj, to load, or lade. 

Concerning theie double participles it is difficult to give any 
rule ; but he ftiall feldom err who remembers, that when a verb 

I has a participle diftinft from its preterite, as tf:riu, ivrote, ivrit- 
len, that diftindt participle is more proper and elegaat, as Tite 
h iook 


ie*i is written, is better th»n Tin book is wrote. UWoie however 
may be oled in poetry ; at lead if we allow any authority to 
poets, who, in the exultation of genius, think therafclves perhaps 
entitled to trample on grammarians. 

There are other anomalies in the preterite. 

1. Win, /fin, begin, Jnuim, ftriitt, ftick, ft'ig, fling, fling, ring, 
nuring, I'friiig, J'lving, drink. Jink, Jhrink, ftink, come, run,fiitd^ 
hind, grind, tuind, both in the preterite, imperfeft, and partici- 
ple palfive, give -iich, /pun, begun, Jivum, flruck, ftuck, Jung, 
flung, flung, rung, iorung,/prung,/'Wiing, drunk,J'unk, Jhrunk, flunk, 

camt, run,fouhd, bound, ground, ivound. And moft of them are 
alfo formed in the preterite by a, as began, rang, Jang, fprang, 
drank, came, nh, and fome others ; but moft of thefe are now 
obfolete. Some in the participle paflive likewife take en, as 
J}ricken,flrucken, drunken, boundtn. 

2. Fight, teach, reach, Jeek, hejeech, catch, buy, bring, think, 
rtvork, make fought, taught, raught, Jought, bejoughl, caught, 
bought, brought, thought, 'wrought. 

But a great many of thefe retain likewife the regular form, 
as teached, reached, bejeeched, catcbed, tvorked. 


3. Take, jhake, forjake, luake, axvake, fland, break, Jp. 
hear , fljear ,JiMear , tear, t.\iear,iuea've, cleave, flrive, thri-ve, drii/e, 
Jhine, rije, arije, Jmile, ivrite, bide, abide, ride, cbooje, chuje, 
tread, get, beget, forget, feethe, make in both preterite and partici- 
ple tookr Jhook, forjook, ■woke, awoke , flood , broke, Jpoke, bore,Jhorc, 

Jwore, tore, 'wore, 'wo've, clove, flrove, thro<ve, dro've, Jhone, rofe, 
aroJe,Jmote, lurote, bode, abode, rode, choje, trode, got, begot, for- 
got, Jod. But we fay likewife, thri-ve, riJe, Jmit, ivrit, nbid, 
rid. In the preterite fome are likewife formed by a, as brake, 
/pake, bare, Jhare, /-ware, tare, 'ware, clave, gat, begat, forgat,< 
and perhaps fome others, bit more rarely. In the participle 
paflive many of them are formed by en, as taken, /haken, J'or- 
Jaken, broken, Jpoken, born, Jhorn, J'worn, torn, 'worn, 'wo'ven, 
flo'ven, thri'ven, driven, rifen, fmitten, ridden, chojen, troddat, got- 
ten, begotten, forgotten, fodden. And many do likewife retain 
the analogy in both, as 'waked, a'waked, /beared, txiectved, lea-ved, 
abided, feet bed. 

4. Gi've, bid, fit, make in the preterite ga've, bade, fate; in 
the participle paflive, giijen, bidden, fitten ; but in both lid. 

5. Dravj, ino'w, gro'w, throtv, bloiu, croi.u like a cock, fly, 
Jlay, Jee, ly, make their preterite dre'w, kne'w, greiv, threvo, 

hienu, crevi, flc'w, fle'v>,Ja'w, lay; their participles paflive by », 
dra'wn, knovjn, gro'wn, thro'wn, blovjn, flotvn, flain, Jeen, lien, 
lain. Yet from flee is made fled; from go, -went, from the old 
nxiend, the participle is gotie. 

Of Derivation. 

Th»( the Engli(h language may b« more eafily underftnod, it is ntccflary to 
encjuire how its derivative words are deduct from their primitives, and how the 
primitives are borrowed from other languages. In this enquiry I fhall fome- 
times copy Dr. Wallis, and f«mctimes endeavour to fupply his dei'"efts, and rec- 
tify his errouts. 

Nouns are derived from verbs. 

The thing implied in the verb, as done or produced, is com- 
monly either the prefent of the verb; as tolove, /e-uf ; to fright, 
^fright; to fight, 3i.flght; or the preterite of the verb, as, to 
flrike, I ftrick or ftrook, zflroke. , 

The aftion is the fame with the participle prefent, as loving, 
frighting, fighting, flriking. 

The agent, or perfon afting, is denoted by the fyllable er 
added t« the verb, as lo'vcr, fighter, flriker. 

Subllantives, adjeftives, and fometimes other parts of fpeech, 
are changed into verbs : in which cafe the vowel is often 
kngthened, or the confonant foftened ; as a houfe, to houfe ; 
brafs, to braze; glafs, to glaze; grzis, to graze ; price, to prize ; 
breath, to breathe; a filh, to fi/h ; oil, to oil; further, to fur- 
ther ; forward, to forward ; hinder, to hinder. 

Sometimes the termination en is added, efpecially to ad- 

jc£lives J 34 hafte, t» iaflen ; length, to lengthtn ; Jtrength, to 

' I 

ftrengthen ; (hort, to flporten ; faft, t§ fsflen j white, te •wbiien p 
black, to blacken; hard, to harden ; foft, to /often. 

From fubftantives are formed adjeilives of plenty, by adding 
the termination y; as a loufe, lou/y ; wealth, 'wealthy ; healths 
healthy ; might, mighty ; worth, 'worthy ; wit, 'witty ; luft, lufly ; 
water, luatery ; earth, earthy ; wood, a wood, 'woody ; air, airy j 
a heart, hearty ; a hand, handy. 

From fubltantives are formed adjeftives of plenty, by adding 
the termination />//, denoting abundance; as }oy, Joyful ; fruit, 
fruitj'ul ; youth, youthful; care, careful; ufe, uj'efuh, delight^ 
deligbtj'ul; p\twVj , plentiful ; he\p, he/pfut. 

Sometimes, in almoft the fame fenie, but with fome kind of 
diminution thereof, the termin.ition fome is added, denoting 
/oinetbing, or in/ome degree, ; as delight, delight/ome; game, game" 
/ome; irk, irkj'ome ; burden, burdenjomei trouble, troublesome i 
light, lightjome ; hand, handjome ; alone, lone/ome ; toil, tailjomt. 
On the contrary, the termination le/s added to fubltantives, 
makes adjectives fignifying want; as ivorthle/s, ivitlefj, heart' 
le s, joyleji, careUfs, helflefu Thus comfort, ccmfortlefs ; fap, 

Privation or contrariety is very often denoted by the par- 
ticle «« prefixed to many adjedtives, or in before words derived 
from the Latin ; as pleafant, unpleafant ; Wife, univife ; profit- 
able, unprofitable ; patient, impatient. Thus unworthy, unhealthy,, 
unfruitful, unufeful, and many more. 

The original Englifh privative is un; but as we often borrow from the Latin, 
or its defendants, words already fignifying privation, as mtffcac'avs, ttnf'aut^ 
mi't/rcet, the inleparable particles un and in have fallen into confufion, froia 
which it is not cafy to dilentangle them. 

Un is prefixed to all words "orginally EngUih ; as untrue, untruth, uniaugbtt 

Un is prefixed to all participles made privative adjcftives, as unfeeling, uruijpjt- 
ing, unaided, unddigbud, unendeared. 

Un ought never to be prefixed to a participle prefent, to mark a forbearance of 
aftion, as unjighing ; but a privation oi habit, as unpitying. 

Un is prefixed to moft fubftantives which have an Engliih termination, as un- 
fertilcneji^ unpcr/e&nefi, which, if they have borrowed terminations, take in or iw, 
as infertility, inpir/e^fion ; uncivil, incivility ; una^ivc, incBl-vity. 

In borrowing adjedtives, if we receive them already compounded, it is ufual 
tojrctoin the partich prefixed, as indecent, inelegatt, impnJKr; but if we borrow 
the adjcftive, and add the privative particle, w,; commonly prefix un, as unfdite, 

The prepofitive particles dit and mis, derived from the det 
and mes of the French, fignify almoft the fame as un ; yet dis 
rather imports contrariety than privation, fince it anfwers to 
the Latin prepofition de. Mis inCnuates fome error, and for 
the moft part may be rendered by the Latin words male or fer- 
peram. To like, to diflike ; honour, di/honour ; to honour, to 
grace, to di/honour, to di/graei; to deign, to di/deign; chance, 
hap, mi/chance, mipap ; to take, to miflake ; deed, mi/deed ; 
to ufe, to tHifufe ; to employ, to mifemploy ; to apply, to mij- 

Words derived from Latin written with de or dis retain the 
fame fignification ; as diflingui/h, diftinguo ; detraS, detraho j 
de/ame, defamo ; detain, detineo. 

The termination ly added to fubftantives, and fometimes to 
adjedives, forms adjeftives that import fome kind of fimilitudc 
or agreement, being formed by contraftion of lick or like. 

A giant, giantly , giantlike ; earth, earthly ; heaven, beavtiilyi 
\vot\6., ivorldly ; God, godly; good, goodly.. 

The fame termination ly added to adjeftives, forms adverb* 
of like fignification ; as beautiful* beautifully ; fweet, fweetly ; 
that is, in a beautiful manner ; 'with fome degree ofjhveetnejs. 

The termination ijh added to adjeftives, imports diminution; 
and added to fubftantives, imports fimilitude or tendency to a 
charader; as green, greeni/h ; white, 'whiti/h ; ioit, fofti/h; a 
thief, thievi/h; a wolf, •wol'viflj; a child, childi/h. 

We have forms of diminutives in fubftantives, thotigh not 
frequent; as a hill, a hillock; a cock, a cockrtl; a pike, a 
pickrel; this is a French termination: a goofe, a gofiing; this 
is a German rfrmination : a lamb, a lambkin ; a chick, a chicken ; 
a man, a manikin ; a pipe, a pipkin \ and thus Halkin, whence the 
patroniniick, Havikini; Wilkin, Thomkin, and others. 



Yet ftUl there h »not1>«r fcrm of diminution among the Englilh, by leflening 
tJw found itfelf, efpecially of vowels ; as there is a form of augmenting them 
by eolargingi or even lengthening it} and that fumetimcs not fo much by 
thange of the letters, as o? their pronunciation ; as fuf, Jif, jmf, Jif, fiffit, 
where, bolides the extenuation of the vowel, there is added tlie French termina- 
tion ft ; tif, up; ffit, Jfoui; hebt, baby ; baby, (iitaic, great pronounced long, 
efpecially if with a llroDgcr found, grta-t ; /;Vf/f pronounced long, /«.?/; j ling, 
tang, long, imports a fuccelHon of fmaller and then greater founds; and fo in 
jinglifjangU, tingle, tangle, am^ many other made words. 

Much however if this ii arbitrary and fanciful, Aefcr.d'tng •wltlly on eral ut- 
terance, and thcrifort fcarcely lucrihy the notice of ffallis, 

Of concrete adjeftives are made abllraft fubftantives, by add- 
ing the termination tir/t, and a few in booc/ or btacf, noting 
charafter or qualities ; as white, luhitenefs ; hard, harcinefs ; 
great, greatnefs ; flcilful, Jkilfulnefs , unjiilfuliiefs ; godhead, man- 
hood, maidenhead, luidetvbood, knighthood, priejihood, likelihood, 

There are other abftrafts, partly derived from adjeftives, and 
partly from verbs, which are formed by the addition of the ter- 
mination th, a fmall change being fometimes made ; as long, 
\ length; Arong, _firength.; broad, breadth; wide, ixidth ; deep, 
depth; true, truth; v/3.rm, luarmth ; desLr , dearth ; How, fleavth ; 
merry, mirth ; heal, health; well, weal, ivealth; dry, drtughth ; 
yoaag, jcuth; 3.nd {o moon, month. 

Like thefe are forae words derived from verbs ; die, death ; 
till, tilth ; grow, groimh ; mow, later tnoicth, after niovj'th ; 
commonly fpoken and written later math, after math ; (leal, 
Jiealth ; bear, birth ; rue, ruth ; and probably earth from to 
ear ot plonu; &y,J!ighti weigh, -wei^t ; flay, /right; to draw, 

Tbcfc ^uld rather be written Jligbti, frighih, only that cuftom wiU no' 
fuffer i> to be twice repeated. 

The fame form retain faith, (fight, v/retlbe, wraib, troth, froth, breath, 
J'xth, worth, light, ivigbi, and the like, whofe primitives are either entirely 
obfoletc, or feldom occur. Perhaps they arc derived inta fey 0'fy,Jfy, v)ry, 
wreak, brew, m9U3,fry, bray, jay, vtcri* 

Some ending in Jbip imply an office, employment, or con- 
dition ; as kingjhif, luardjhip, guardianfbip, partiurjhip , fieivard- 
Jhif, headfhip, lordjhip. 

TTios wtrfi'ip, that is, vmtbpif ; whence vmjtiffu!, and to ten-jhif. 

Some few ending in dom, rick, •wick, do efpecially denote 
dominion, at leaft ftate or condition ; as kingdom, dukedom, 
earldom, princedom, popedom, chriflendom, freedom, ivifdom, 'whore- 
dom, bijhoprick, hailyiuick. 

Ment and age are plainly French terminations, and are of 
the (ame import with us as among them, fcarcely ever occur- 
ring, except in words derived from the French, as command- 
ment, u/age. 

There are in Englifli often long train) of words allied by their meaning and 
derivation } as f^ iw/, a bat, balcin, a battle, a beetle, a battle-door, id batter, 
batter, a kind of glutinous compofition for food, made by beating different bo- 
dies into one mal's. All thefe are of fimilar flgnification, and perhaps derived 
from the Latin latui:. Thus take, imh, tickle, tack, tackle ; all imply a local 
conjunSlofl, from the Latin tango, teiigi, taflum. 

From izi'o are formed tivain, twice, twenty, twelme, twins, twine, twill, tivirl, 
fwig, twit,B, twinge, between, betwixt, twilight, twibil. 

The following remarks, extraQci from Wallis, an ingenious, but of more 
fnktlety than folidity, and fuch as perhaps might in every language be enlarged 
without end. 

Sn ufually imply the n<jft, and what relates to it. From the Latin nafu, 
ire deriwd the French mn and the Englilh mfe ; and ne/fe, a promontory, ai 
proj-.lir. • like a nnfc. But as if from the cunlonants ai taken from ma/us, 
an<i tri-iMfcd, that they may the better correfpond, /« denote nafui ; ini 
tlitnrc arc d'a'ived many words that relate to the nofe, as fnout, fneeze, fnore, 
fm-r, freer, Jmckir, jm*, Jneyil, fnke, huf, Jnuffle, fmifflc, Jnarle, f nudge. 

There is another fn, which may perhaps be derived from the Latin Jinu}, as 
fiuif, fneak, fnail, fnare ; (b likewife fnaf and /natch, /nib, /nub. 

Bl imply a bh/} ; as A.'«ti, blafl, t(, bhji, to blight, and, metaphorically, to 
Halt ones reputation ; bitat, bleak, a bleak place, to look bleak or wcather- 
beatrn, bitak, thy, bleach, blufier, blurt, blijier, blab, bladder, bleb, bitfier, blab- 
b-r-lit-t, blahh'r-chrtft, bl-jttd, bhte-herring!, blaji, blaM, ttblnu, that is, bh/. 
/on, ilo'.m i jnd prrhap, hlood and blu/h. 

ia '.he nauvc worJ^ of vur wngue is to bt fwnJ a great agreement between 

the letters and the things fignified ; and therefore the founds t>f letters fmjller, 
(harper, louder, clofer, fofter, ftronger, clearer, n>nre obfcurc, and more ftridu' 
lotts, do very often intimate the like effefls in the things fjgnihed. 

Thus words that begin with fr intimate the force and cffeft of the thinj 
lignified, as if probably derived from rjiwu/xi, orftrenuus; a jlrong, firergth^ 
Jtrew, jirike, flreah, jirote, flrife, /frive, /irif:, ftruggle, /irout, /Irut, firetch, 
Jirait,firiB, ftreight, that is, narrow, di/fraiti, fircfi, Jiflrt/t, jlring, flraf, Jlream, 
jireamer, /irand, /Irip, fray, jiruggle, frangc, /Iride, ftraddte. 

St in like manner imply Itrength, but in a lefj degree, fo much only as is 

fufficient to preferve what has been already communicated, rather than acquire 

any new degree } a» if it were derived from the Latin y?o •• for ixitnyk, /land, Jlay, 

chat is, to remain, or to prop; flaff, jlay, that is, to oppnk ; fnp, to fluff, 

jl'fie, to /lay, that is, to flop; a flay, that is, an oh^zeXt:; flick, flut, flutter, 

jiammer, flaggcr, flickh, flick, flake, a ftiarp pale, and any thing depofited 

at play ; /lock, flem, fling, to fling, flink, flitch, flud, j>,anchion, flub, ftubbU, t» 

flub up, flump, vihenctflumble, flalk, to flalk,flep, toflnr'f with the feet, whence 

to flamp, that is, to make an impreifion and ^ iiamp ; flov:, to floiu, to bcfltrzv, 

fleward or floward, /had, fleady, flcadfafl, flahle, a flable, a flail, to flail, flool, 

flail, flill, ftall, flallagc, flail, fiagc, fiiU adj. and fill adv. flak, flout, flmdy, 

fleed, fleet, flalli'n, fliff, flark-dcad, to flarvc with hunger or cold ; ftore, ftcel, 

flem, fiancb, to Jianch blood, to flare, flctp, flecple, /iair,fliindard, a ftated mea- 

'(are, flately. In ail thefe, and pcihapsi fome others, yi denote fomethirg £iia 

and fixed. 

Ter imply a more violent degree of motion, at ibrow, thnfi, throng, throb, 
through, threat, threaten, ttrall, thnwi, 

Wr imply fomc fi>rt of obliquity or dlftortion, as wry, to vjrcatie, wrejt, 
tvrc/ik, lurhtg, wrong, wrinch, ivrench, wrangle, turinkle, wrath, wreak, xvrack, 
W'ltcb, •wr/t, wrap. 

Sto impiy a filent agitation, or a fofter kiru}. of lateral motion ; as /way, 
/wag, to /way, /wagg^r, /wcrve, jnueat, /weep, jwHI, /wim, /wing, /wift , /weet, 

Nor is there much djfterence of /« in fmootb, fmug, /mile, /mirk, /mite, which 
fignifies the fame as to flrike, but is a fofter word ; Jmall, /mcll, /mack.Jmcihcr, 
Jmari, a /mart blow properly fignilie^ futh a kind of llroke as with an originally 
filcnt motion, implied in /m, proceeds to »qulck violence, denoted by ar fud- 
denly ended, as is (hewn by t. 

CI denote a kind of adliefion or tenacity, as in cleave, clay, cling, climb, 
clamber, clammy, cla/p, to cla//>, to clip, to clinch, cloak, clog, clo/e, to clo/e, a clod, 
a clot, as a clot of blood, chuied cream, ercluitit, a elufler. 

Sp imply a kind of diHipation or expanfion, efpecially a quick one, particii- 
lariy if tliere be an r, aa if it were from fparpo, or /iparo t for example, /prcad, 
f^ffg' jfig, /prout, Jprinkle, /plit, /plinter, /pill, /pit, /putter, /patter. 

SI denote a kind of filent fall, or a lefs obfervablc motion ; as in Jlime, Jlidtt 
flip, flipper, fly, Jleight, fl:t, flow, flack, flight, fling, flap. 

And fo likcwife ajh, in cra/h, ra/b, gap, flalh, cla/h, lejh, fla/h, pla/h, trap, 
indicate fonicthing adjing more nimbly and (harply. But u]h, in eru/h, rujh, 
gujh, fiujb, blu/h, briifi, hu/b, pup, implies fumething as afling more obtufely 
and duily. Yet in bjtli tlierc is indicated a fwlft and fudden motion, not in- 
Ihntajicous, but gradual, by the continued foundyS. 

Thus in fling, fling, ding, /wing, cling,, wring, fling, the tingling of 
the termination ng, and the tliarpnefs of the vowel j, imply the continuation of 
a very ilendcr motion or tremor, at length indeed saniOiing, but not fuddenly 
interrupted. But in tir.k, wink, Jink, clink, chink, think, that end in a mute 
confonant, there is alfo indicated a fudden ending. 

It there be an /, as in jingle, tingle, tinkle, mingle, /prinkle, twinkle, there is 
implied a frequency, or iteration of fmall adli. And the fame frequency of a£ls, 
hut lefs fubtile by rcafon of the clearer vowel a, is indicated in jangle, tangle, 
j'pangle, mangle, tvrangle, brangle, dangle ; as alfo in mumble, grumble, jumble, 
tumhlt, flun<hU, rumble, crumble, fumble. But at the fame time the clofc u im- 
plies fometliing obfcure or obtunded ; and a congeries of confonants rnbl, dcnotei 
a confufed kind of rolling or tumbling, as in ramble, /camble, /cramble, wamble, 
amhle ; but in thefe there is fomcthing acute. 

In nimble, the acutcnels of the vowel denotes celerity. In /parkle, /p denotes 
dilTipatioii, ar an acute crackling, k a fudden interruption, /a frequent iteration j 
and in like manner in /prinkle, unlefs in may impiy the fubtility of the diffi. 
pated guttulcs. Thick and thin differ, in tliat the former ends with an obtufc 
confonant, and the latter with an acute. 

In like manner, m/jucck, /jueak,/qucal, /quail, braul, wraul,yaul,/paul, /creek, 
/hriei, prill, parp, privel, wrinkle, crack, crafl->, clap, gnap, pla/h, crup, hup, 
l"Jp, fijjc, whifl, J'ft, jarr, hurl, curl, whirl, buz:, buflic, /pindle, dwindle, twine, 
iwfl, and in many more, we may obfcrvc the agvcemcnt of fuch fort of founds 
with the things fignified : and this fo freijuently happens, that fcarce /ny language 
which 1 know can be compared viith ours. So that one monofyllabic word, of 
which kind are almoft all ours, emphatically expreffes what in other language* 
can fcarce be explained but by compounds, or decompounds, or fometimes a 
tedious circumlocution. 

We have many words borrowed from the Latin ; but the 
greateft part of them were communicated by the intervention 
of the French ; as grace, face, elegant, elegance, re/emble. 

Some verbs, which feem borrowed from the Latin, are form* 
ed from the prefent tenfe, and fome from the fiipines. 

From the prefent are formed fpend, expend, expendo ; conJuce» 
conduce ; defpi/e, defpicio ; approve, approbo ; conitiw, con- 

h 2 from 


From the Cv^Ims, /npfJicatt, fupplico ; dtmtnftraie, demonftro ; 
Jiff oft, difpono ; ixpatiaie, expatior ; /upprefs, fupprimo ; exempt, 

Nothing It more apparent, than diatWallis goo too far in quell of originals. 
Many of tbefe which fcem felejted as immediate defcendanta from the Latin, 
are appirentl; Ficnch, as conceive, affrtmt, exfofi, txcmft. 

Some words purely French, not derived from the Latin, we 
have transferred into our language ; as garden, garter, buckler, to 
aJi'ttttce, to cry, to plead, from the French, Jardin,jartier, bouclier, 
A-vancer, crier, plaider ; though indeed, even of thefe, part is of 
Latin original. 

As to many words which we have in common with the Germans, it is doubt- 
flU whether the old Teutons borrowed them from the Latins, or the Latins 
ftom the Teutons, or both had tlicm from fome common original ; as v)'tnt, 
vinum ; ixi'md, vcntus ; wf»f, veni ; icay, via ; •tvall, vallum ; ivalkia, volvo ; 
tinol, vtilus ; lu'xll, volo ; imrm, vermis { ■u'tirtb, virtus ; waff, vefpa ; Jay, 
dies; Sravt, traho ; tame, domo, i'(t/>caar; yoke, jugum, ^fDy*?; over, upper, 
fuper, iir«; ; am, fum, Hfju ; ireji, frango ; fy, volo j ilc^v, flo. I make no 
doubt but the Teutonick is more ancient than the Latin; and it is no leff 
certain, that the Latin, which borrowed a great number of words, not only 
from the Greek, efpccially the ^olick, but from other neighbouring languages, 
a) the ©fcan and others, which have long become ohfolete, received not a few 
from the Teutonick. It is certain, that the EngliOi, German, and other Teu- 
tonick languages, retained fome derived from the Greek, which the Latin has 
not ; as ex, aebs, mit, ford, pfurd, daughter, tocbter, mick/e, mingle, moon, 
fear, grave, gra^, to grave, tojcrape, vjbole, from i^irn, /j^ira, ma^ixo^, ^yyar^f , 
utyaXo^, fxiyfCv, fMr,m, ^^^ii, y^a'^ai, cXof. Since they received thefc immediate- 
ly from the Greeks, without the intervention of the Latin language, why may 
not other words be derived immediately from the fame fountain, though they be 
likcwife found among the Latins ? 

Our anceftors were ftudious to form borrowed words, however 
long, into monofyllables ; and not only cut off the formative 
terminations, but cropped the firll fyllable, efpecially in words 
beginning with a vowel ; and rejefted not only vowels in the 
middle, but likewife confonants of a weaker found, retaining the 
Wronger, which feem the bones of words, or changing them for 
others of the fame organ, in order that the found might become 
the fofter ; but efpecially tranfpofing their order, that they might 
the more readily be pronounced without the intermediate vowels. 
For example, in expendo, _/5>Ma' ; txemp]um, /ample ; excipio, 
/cape ; extraneus, grange ; extraftum, ^retch'd ; excrucio, to 
/creiv i exfcorio, to/our ; excorio, to/courge ; excortico, to /cratch ; 
and others beginning with ^jr .• as alfo, emendo, to mend; epif- 
copus, hipop ; in Danifh, hi/p\ epillola, epi/ile; hofpitale, /fit- 
tie J Hifpania, Spain ; hiiloria,y?(7ry. 

Many of thefe etymologies are doubtful, and fame evidently miftaken. 

The following are fomewhat harder, Alexarier, Sander ; Elifabeiha, Betty ; 
apis, hee\ aper, bar\ p paOing into h, as in bijhop ; and by cutting off a from 
the beginning, which is reftored in the middle : but for the old bar or hare, 
We now fay hoar ; as for lartg, long ; for bain, bane ; for fiane, flcne ; aprugna, 
braton, p being changed into b, and a tranfpnfed, as in afer, and g changed 
intow, as in pignus, paton ; lege, latu ; iXoirnJ, fox; cutting off me begin- 
ning, and changing/! into f, as in pellis, a fell; pullus, a foal; pater, father; 
pavor,y<ar ; polio, jf/V; pIco, impleo, _^//, /a//; pifcis, ^i ; and tranfpofing o 
into the middle, which was taken from the beginning; apex, apiece; peak, 
pike; zofhoia$, freeze; muftum, JIum; defenfio, fence; difpenfator, fpencer ; 
afculto, efcouter, Fr. fcout ; exfcalpo, /(rape, redoring / indead of r, and hence 
fhap, fcrahle, Icrawl; exculpo, /coop ; exterrltus, Jlart ; extonitus, attonitus, 
fitnn'd; ftomachus, maw; o&etiio, fined ; obftipo, y7o)> ; audere, dare; cavere, 
xvare; whenrc a-iuare, he-tvare, ivary, ivarn, warning, for the Latin .1/ con - 
fonant formeilv founded like our w, and the modern found of the v confonant 
was formerly that of the letter y, that is, the i^o'.ick digamma, which had the 
found of ^, and the modern found of the letter /"was that of the Greek ip or pb ; 
ulcus, ulcere, ulcer^ fre, and hence ferry, jorrotv, jorrovjful; ingenium, engine, 
gin; fcalenus, leaning, unlrfs you w.juld rather derive it from xXivv, v.-hence in- 
clino ; infundibulum, funnel ; gagate:, jctt ; projeilum, to jctt forth, a jetty ; 
cucullus, a civil. 

There are fyncopes fomewhat harder; from tempore, time; from nomine, 
Tame ; domina, eLtme ; as the French b-.mme, femme,, fromlipminc, fceraina, 
nomine. Thua pagina, page ; «roTn{im, pot ; tamtWa., cup ; cantharus, can ; 
tentorium, lint ; precor, pray ; prxda, prey ; fpecio, fpeculor, Jpy ; plico, ply ; 
implico, im^/y ; replico, rrf« ; complico, rom/i/y ; fedes epifcopalis,^v. 

■ A vowel is alfo cut off in the middle, that the number of the fyllable? 
may be leffened ; ai aroita, aunt; fpiritus, ^ri^i/ ; dcbitum, debt; dubito, 
tUnbt ; com^5, comitis, count ; ckticus, clerk ; quietus, ^uit, quite ; acquieto, 
(» Mf^t; feparo, r« Jp<irt\ &al>ilis> ^uiU; lUbuluni; Jiable j fa^atiym^ pp- 

lace, place ; rabula, rail ; rnel, viraul, Irawf, raile, Irthh \ l]UiefitiO( 


At alfo a confonant, or at lead one of 1 fofter found, or even a whole fyl- 
lable ; rotundus, round; fragilis, /rai/ ; fecurus, /vn ; regula, rule; tegula, 
tile ; fubtilis, futtle ; nomen, noun ; decanus, dean ; computo, rntiir ; fubita- 
ncui, fuddain, foon ; fuperare, tofoar; periculum, ^^i/; mirabile, marvel; as 
magnus, mo/R ; dignor, <fW^ii ; Xingo, JIain; tin3um, /.linr ; pingo, ^o>»; prx- 
dari, reach, 

The contraftions may feem harder, where many of them meet, as xit^ioju;, 
kyrk, church; prejbyter, frir/? ; facrillanus,y<x.'cn; frango, fregi, irrj>, irraii j 
fagus, ^vya, beech ; f changed into b, and g into cb, which are letters near 
a-kin; frigefco,yr«ai£; Wigeko, frefh, fc \n«> p, slz TAioyt in hifbcp, fijh, fo in 
fcapha,^iy,yl(^, and refrigefco, refrejh ; butvirefcOj/r^; phlcbotomusjj^rain ; 
bovina, huf; vitulina, vtal; fcutifer, fjuire ; pcenitentia, penance; fandtua- 
rium, fanHuary, fentry ; qusfitio, chafe; perquifitio, purchaje; anguilla, «/; 
Jnfula, ijle. He, iflar.d, i'anJ ; infuletta, iflet, u'el ; eyght ; and more contrafledly 
ey, whence Ovijney, Ruhy, Ely ; ciaminare, to fan, namely, by rejeiling from 
the beginning and end t and 0, accord'mg CO the ufual manner, the remainder 
xamin, which tlie Saxons, who did not ufe *, write cfamen, or fcamen, is con- 
tracted into yr an ; as from dominus, don; nomine, noun; Ahomlno, ban ; and 
indeed apum cxamen they turned into fciame ; for which we fay ftvjrme, by 
inferting r to denote the murmuring ; thefaurus, fiore ; fedile, fiuol ; w'o;, 
•uiet ; fudo, fweat ; gaudium, gay ; jocus, joy ; fuccus, juice ; catena, chain j 
caliga, calga ; chaufe, chaulTe, Fr. hcfi ; extinguo, ftancb, fquencb, fucnchf 
ftint; (otii, forth; {fCcXts, fpice ; recito, read; adjuvo, aid; a\vi, a;vum, erff 
age, ever ; noccus, lock ; excerpo, fcrape, fcrahbU, fcratul ; extravagus, flray, 
ftraggle; c.o\\t&\itn, clot, clutch; cnlligo, coil; recoUigo, recoil; feveio, fivear ; 
iWduluSj^ri//; procurator, ^roxy ; pulfo, ro /i»/!!> ; calamus, a quill; impetere, 
to impeach; augeo, auxi, tv<ix; and vanefco, vanui, TJane ; fyllabare, tofpelli 
puteus, ^ir; granum, ccrn ; compritno, cramp, crump, crumple, crinkle. 

Some may feem harOier, yet may not be reje^ed, for it at lead appears, 
that fome of them are derived from proper names, and there are others whofe 
etymology is acknowledged by every body ; as Alexander, Elick, Scanjer, San- 
der, Sanny, Sandy; Eiizabetha, Eiixabeth, Elifaheth, Betty, Befi; Margareta, 
Margaret, Margct, Meg, Peg ; Maria, Mary, Mai, Pal, Malkin, Mawkin, 
Matokcs; Matthaeus, Mattlu, Ma'tbew ; Martha, Matt, Pat; Gulielmus, 
IVilhelmus, Cirolamo, Guillaume, miliam, fVitl, Bill, fTiUm, HHcken, fTicki, 

Thus cariophyllus, flos ; gerofilo, leal, giriflee, gilofer, Fr. gillifiovter, \vhich 
the vulgar call julyfloiuer, as if derived from the month July ; petrofclinum, 
parjley; portulaca, ^wr/Jjm ;cydonium, quince; cydoniatum, quiddeny ; perfi- 
cum, peach ; cruca, eruke, which they corrupt to ear-viig, as if it took its 
name from the ear ; annulus geminus, a gimmal, or gimbal ring ; and thus the 
word gimbal and jumbal is transferred to other things thus interwoven ; quelques 
chofes, kickfbaivi. Since the origin of thefe, and many others, however forced, 
is evident, it ought to appear no wonder to any one if the ancients have thus 
disfigured many, efpecially as they fo much affefted monofyllables ; and, to 
make them found the fofter, took this liberty of maiming, taking away, chang- 
ing, tranfpofing, and foftening them. 

But while we derive thefe from the Latin, I do not mean to fay, that many 
of them did not immediately 'come to us from the Saxon, DanUh, Dutch, and 
Teutonick languages, and other dialedls, and fome taken more lately from the 
French, or Italians, or Spaniards. 

The fame word, according to its different Cgnifications, often has a diflferent 
origin; »s to bear a burden, (com fero; but to bear, whence birth, born, bairn, 
comes from pario, and a bear, at leaft if it be of Latin original, (com f era, 
Thas perch, a fifli, ftomperca; but perch, a meafure, from pertica, and like- 
wife ro^frri. To fpett is from Jyllaba ; hut fpell, an inchantmcnt, by which 
it is believed that the boundaries are fo fixed in lands, that none can pafs them 
againft the mailer's will, from expello ; and fpell, a me(Tenger, from epijlola ; 
whence gofpel, good-fpell, or god-Jpell, Thus frcefe, or freexe, from frigejco ; 
but /"«««, an architeflonic word, from xophorus; bat freefe, for cloth, from 
Frifia, or perhaps from frigefco, as being more fit than any other for keeping out 
the cold. 

There are many words among us, even monofyllables, compounded of two or 
more words, at leaft ferving inftead of compounds, and comprifing the fignifi- 
cation of more words than one ; as from fcrip and roll, comes fcrcll ; from froud 
and dance, prance ; from ft of the verb Jlay, or Jland and c:a, is made/oar ; 
from flout and hardy, flurdy ; from fp of fpit or fpevi, and out, comes fpout j 
from the dmn fp, with the termination in, \% fpin; and iii\n%oul,fpin tut ; 
and'from the Um&fp, with /'/, is fpit, which only differs ftom fpout m that it 
is fmaller, and with lei's noife and force ; but fputter is, becaufe of the obfcure 
V, fomething between fpit and (pout ; and by reafon of adding r, it intimates 
a frequent iteration and noife, but cbicurely confufed : whereas fpatter, on ac- 
count of the (harper and clearer vowel a, intimates a more diftiniS noife, in 
whiih it chiefly differs from fputter. From the dmefp, and the termination 
ark, comas fpark, fignifying a fingle cmifiion of fire with a noife ; namely, j^ 
the cniiOion, ar the more acute noife, and k the mute confonant, intimates its 
being fuddenly terminated ; but adding /, is made the frequentative fparkle. 
The famc_y^, by adding r, that is fpr, implies a more lively impecus of diffufing 
or expanding itfclf; to which adding the termination ing, it becomes J^rjn^ ; 
its vigour fpr imports, its fiiarpnefs the termination ing; and lalHy in acute and 
tremulous, ending in the mute confonant g, denotes, the fudden ending of any 
motion, that it is meant in its primary fignificatioo, of a finglr, not a com- 
plicated exilition. Hence we call fpring whatever has an elallick force : as 
alfo a fountain of water, and thence the origin of any thing ; and to fpring, 

to germinate J and fpring, gnc vf Uis fpur f«afoasi Froio ths faroc ^r and 



Hit, U formed ffrtul, «nJ with tie termination ig, ffrig ; of which the follow- 
ing, for the moft part, is the difference: ffrout, of a groffer found, imports 
a fatter or groffer bud ; fprig, of a tenderer found, denotes a fmaller (hoot. 
In like manner, from fir of the verb firhic, and out, comes firout 3ni firut. 
From the fame fir, and the termination ugg/e, is made firuggle ; and this g 
imports, but without any great noife, by reafon of the obfcure found of the 
vowel u. In like manner from threw and nil is made troll ; and almoft in 
the fame fenfe is trur:J!e, f")m thrciv or ttrufi, and ruitdle. Thus grajf or 
grcugb is compounded of grave and rough j and trudge from tread or trot, and 

In thefe obfervations it is eafy to difcover great fagacity and 
great extravagance, an ability to do much defeated by the de- 
fire of doing more than enough. It may be remarked, 

1 . That Wallis's derivations are often fo made, that by the 
fame licence any language may be deduced from any other. 

2. That he makes no diftinftion between words immediately 
derived by us from the Latin, and thofe which, being copied from 
other languages, can therefore afford no example of tlie genius 
of the Englifti language, or its laws of derivation. 

3. That he derives from the Latin, often with great harftinefs 
and violence, words apparently Teutonick ; and therefore, ac- 
cording to his ovyn declaration, probably older than the tongue 
to which he refers them. 

4. That feme of his derivations are apparently erroneous. 


The eftabliflied praftice of grammarians requires that I ihould here treat of 
the Syntax; but our language has fo little inflexion, or varietj' of termina- 
tions, that its conftruflion neither requires nor admits many rules. Wallls 
therefore has totally negleded it ; and Jonfon, whofc defire of following the 
writers upon the learneJ languages made him think a fycta^ indifpenfably ne- 
ceflary, has publiihed fuch petty obfervatioiw ai weic better omitted. 

The verb, as in other languages, agrees with the nomina- 
tive in number and perfon ; as Ti/eu flUJi from good ; He runt to 

Our adjeAives and pronouns are invariable. 

Of two fubftantives the noun poffefliye is the genitive ; as 
His father's glory. The fun's heat. 

verbs tranfitive require an oblique cafe ; as He lovet me ; 
You fear him. 

All prepofitions require an oblique cafe : He gave this to me ; 
He took thii from me ; He fays this of me ; He came with me* 


It is common for thofe that deliver the grammar of modern languages, to 
omit their Profody. So that of the Italians is negleded by Suemaitei ; that of 
the French by Dejmarais ; and that of the Englifli by fyatlii, Cmfer, and even 
by Jivfon, though a poet. But at the laws of metre are included in the idea 
of a grammar, I have thought it proper to iafert them. 

Profody comprifes orthoepy, or the rules of pronunciation ; 
and orthometry, or the laws of verfification. 

Pronunciation is juft, when every letter has its proper 
found, and when every fyllable has its proper accent, or, which 
in Engliih verfification is the fame, its proper quantity. 

The founds of the letters have been already explained ; and rules for the ac- 
cent or quantity are not eafily to be given, being fubjeft to innumerable excep- 
tioos. Such howcTCi a> I have read or formed, I fliall here ptopote. 

1. Of difTyllables formed by affixing a termination, the former 
fyllable is commonly accented, as chiUiJh, kingdom, aHeJi, atled, 
toilfome, lo'ver, fciffer, fairer, f'oremofl, zealous, fulnefs, godly, 
meekly, artijl. 

2. Diffyllables formed by prefixing a fyllable to the radical 
word, have commonly the accent on the latter ; as to beget, to 
tefeem, to hefotxi. 

3. Of diffyllables, which arc at once nouns and verbs, the 
verb haa commonly the accent on the latter; and ths noun on 

the former fyllable j as to defcant, a difcam ', to timent, a e^ 
ment ; to contraB, a contraB, 

This rule has many exceptions. Though verbs feldom have their accent ob 
the former, yet nouns often have it on the latter fyllable; as, dtUght, ferfume^ 

4. All diflyllables ending in y, as cranny ; in aur, as labour, 
favour ; in oou, as ivillo'w, 'walloiu, except allovj ; in le, as 

battle, bible ; in ijh, as banijh ; in ck, as cambrick, caffock ; in 
ter, as to batter ; in age, as courage ; in en, as fajien ; in et, as 
quiet, accent the former fyllable. 

5. DifTyllable nouns in er, as canker, butter, have the accent 
on the former fyllable. 

6. DifTyllable verbs terminating in a confonant and e final, 
as comprije, efcape ; or having a diphthong in tlie laft fyllable, 
as appeafe, reveal; or ending in two confonants, as attend, have 
the accent on the latter fyllable. 

7. DifTyllable nouns having a diphthong in the latter fyllable, 
have commonly their accent on the latter fyllable, as applaufe ; 
except words in ain, certain, mountain, 

8. TrifTyllables formed by adding a termination, or prefixing 
a fyllable, retain the accent of the radical word, as lavelinefs, 
tendernefs, contemner, iKagonner, phyfical, befpatter, commenting, 
commending, ajjurance. 

9. TrifTyllables ending in ous, as gracious, arduous ; in al, as 
capital ; in ion, as mention, accent the firfl. "1 

10. TrifTyllables ending in ce, ent, and ate, accent the firfl 
fyllable, as countenance, continence, armament, imminent, elegant, 
propagate, except they be derived from words having the accent 
on the laft, as connivance, acquaintance ; or the middle fyllable 
hath a vowel before two confonants, as promulgate. 

1 1. TrifTyllables ending \ny, as entity, fpecify, liberty, vtBory, 
fubfidy, commonly accent the firft fyllable. 

1 2. TrifTyllables in re or le accent the firfl fyllable, as legible, 
theatre ; except difciple, and fome words which have a pofuion, 
as example, tpifile, 

13. TrifTyllables in ude commonly accent the firfl fyllable, as 

1 4. TrifTyllables ending in ator or atour, as creattur ; or hav- 
ing in the middle fyllable a diphthong, as endeavour; or 'a 
vowel before two confonants, as domeflick, accent the middle 

1 5 . TrifTyllables that have their accent on the laft fyllable arc 
commonly French, as acquiefce, repartee, magazine ; or words 
formed by prefixing one or two fyllables. to an acute fyllable, as 
immature, overcharge. 

16. Polyfyllables, or words of n»re than three fyllables, fol- 
low the accent of the words from which they are derived, as 
arrogating, continency , incontinently , commendable, commiinicablenefs . 
We fhould therefore fay difputable, indifputable, rather than dif- 
putable, indifputable ; and advertifement rather than advertife~- 

17. Words in ion have the accent upon the antepenult, as 
falvation, perturbation, concoBion ; words in atour or ator on the 

penult, as dedicator. 

1 8. Words ending in le commonly have the acceat on the firfl 
fyllable, as amicable, unlefs the fecond fyllable have a vowel be- 
fore two confonants, as comb'ujlible. 

19. Words ending in ous have the accent on the antepenult, 
as uxorious, voluptuous. 

20. Words ending in ty have their accent on the antepenult, 
as pujillanimity, aBivity. 

Thefe rules arc not advanced an complete or infallible, but propofcd as ufefiiU 
Almoft every rule of every language hns its exceptions ; and in Erjglifh, as in 
other tongues, much muft be learned by example and authority. Perhaps more 
and better rules may be given that have efcaped my obfervation. 

Versification is the arrangement of a certain number of 
f}llables according to certain laws. 

The feet of our verfes are either iambiek, as al'ofty create ; 
or trochaisk* as kHy, lofty. 



Our lambick meaTure comprife* verfes 


Mod good, moil fair. 
Or things as rare. 
To call you 's loft ; 
For all the coft 
Words can beftow. 
So poorly Ihow 
Upon your praifc. 
That all the ways 
Senfc hath, come ihort. 

Of fix. 

With ravilh'd ears 
7^he monarch hears. 

This while we are abroad. 
Shall we not touch our lyre ? 

Shall we not fing an ode i 
Shall that holy fire. 

In us that ftrongly glow'd. 
In this cold air expire i 

Though in the utmoffi Peak 

A while we do remain. 
Among the mountains bleak, 

Expos'd to fleet and r^in, 
No fport our hours fliall break. 

To exercife our vein. ♦ 

What though bright Phoebus' beams 
Refrelh the fouthern ground. 

And though the princely Thames 
With beauteous nymphs aboundj 

And by old Camber's Itreams 
Be many wonders found : 

Yet many rivers clear 

Here glide in filver fwathes. 

And what of all moft dear, 
Buxton's delicious baths. 

Strong ale and noble chear, 

T' affwage breem winter's fcatlies. 

In places far or near. 

Or famous, or obfcure. 
Where wholfom is the air. 

Or where the moft impure. 
All times, and every where. 

The mufe is ilill in ure. 


A thoufand crannies in the walls vit made | 
Nor gate nor bars exclude the bufy trade. 
'Tis built of brafs, the better to diffufe 
The fpreading founds, and multiply the news ; 
Where echoes in repeated echoes play : 
A mart for ever full ; and open night and day. 
Nor filence is within, nor voice exprefs. 
But a deaf noife of founds that never ceafe ; 
Confus'd, and chiding, like the hollow roar 
Of tides, receding from th' infulted fliore: 
Or like the broken thunder, heard from far. 
When Jove to diftance drives the rolling war. 
The courts are fill'd with a tumultuous din 
Of crowds, or iifuing forth, or ent'ring in : 
A thorough-fare of news ; wheie fome devife 
Things never heard, fome mingle truth with lies: 
The troubled air with empty founds they beat. 
Intent to hear, and eager to repeat. 



Of eight, which is the ufual meafure for ftiort poems. 
And may at laft my weary age 
Find out the peaceful hermitage. 
The hairy gown, and mofly cell. 
Where I may fit, and nightly fpell 
Of ev'ry ftar the flcy doth (hew. 
And ev'ry herb that fips the dew. Milton. 

Gf ten, which is the common meafure of heroick and tragick 

Full in the midft of this created fpace, 

BctwiSct hcav'n, earth, and flties, there Hands a place 

Confining on all three ; with triple bound ; 

Whence all things, though remote, arc view'd around. 

And thither bring their undulating found. 

The palace of loud Fame, her feat of pow'r, 

Plac'd OD thefummit of a lofty tow'r; 

A thoufand winding entries long and wide 

lUceive of frefii reports a flowing tide. 


In all thefe meafures the accents are to be placed on even 
fyllables ; and every line confidcred by itfelf is more harmo-* 
nious, as this rule is more Aridlly obferved. The variations ne- 
ceffary to pleafuxe belong to the art of poetry, not the rules of 

Our trochaick meafures are 

Of three fyllables. 

Here we may 
Think and pray. 
Before death 
Stops our breath : 
Other joys 
Are but toys. 

Waltotfs Angler. 

Of five. 

In the days of old. 

Stories plainly told. 

Lovers felt annoy. Old Ballad. 

Of feven, 

Faireft piece of well-form'd earth. 

Urge not thus your haughty birth. Waller. 

In thefe meafures the accent is to be placed on the odd 

Thefe are the meifures which are now in ufe, and above the reft thofe of 
feven, eight, and ten fyllables. Our ancient poets wrote verfes fomctimet ai 
twelve fyllables, as Drayton's Polyolbion, 

Of III the Cambrian (hires their heads that bear fo high. 
And farth'ft furvey their foils with an ambitious eye, 
Mervinia for her hills, as for their matchlefs crowd:i. 
The ncareft that are (aid to kifs the wand'ring clouds, 
Efpecial audience craves, oflcnded with the tlirong^ 
That Iheof all the rcll ncgleclcd was fo long; 
Alleging for hcrfelf, when through the Saxon's pride. 
The godlike race of Brute to Severn's fctting fide 
Were cruelly inforc'd, her mountains did relieve 
Thofe vvlmm devouring war clfc every where did grieve. 
And when all Wales befide (by fortune or by might) 
Unto her ancient foe refign'd her ancient right, 
A conftant maiden ftill (he only did remain, 
The laft her genuine laws which ftoutly did retain. 
And as each one is prais'd for her peculfar things. 
So only (he is rich in mountains, meres, and fprings ; 
And holds hcrfelf as great in her fuperfluous uafte. 
As others by their towns and fruitful tillage grac'd. 

And of fourteen, as Chapman's Homer. 

And as the mind of fuch a man, that hath a long way gone. 
And either Icnowcth not his way, or ell'c would let aloac 
His purpos'd journey, is diftract. 

The meafures of twelve and fourteen fyllables were often mi>gleJ by out 
old poets, fomcumcs iu alternate lUcs, and lometimcs ijt altciaatc cuuplcu. 
' The 


Th« »erfe »f tvwtre fylUblM, citlci an Altxandrine, it now only ufe4 to 
iiiaif-j heroick lines. 

Waller was fmooth, but Dr/den taught to joi« 

The varying verfc, the full-refounding line, 

7hi lung maj'f-ic murcb, and cncr^ Jivine. Pif' 

The paufe in the Alcxaajrine m»ft be at the iixth fyllable. 

The verfe of fourteen fyllables is now broken into a foft lyrick meafun of 
«rfo conliiling alternately of eight fyllables and fix. 

fi. i 

She to receive thy radiant name» 
Selects a whiter fpace. 

When all (hall praife, and ev'ry hj 

Devote a wreath to thee. 
That day, for come it will, that day 

Shall I lament to fee. 

Beneath t!>i> tnmb an 'infant liet 

To earth whofe body lent. 
Hereafter (hall more glorious rife. 

But not more innocent. 
When the Archangel's trump (hall bI•^r» 

And fouls to bodies join. 
What crowds thall wilb their lives below 

Had been as jhort as thine I 


liwit U Ft^' 



We have another roeifure very quick and lively, and therefore much ufcd 
in fongj, which may be called the atutftfiick, in which the accent refts upon 
every third fyllable. 

May I govern my paiTione with ab&Iute f»'ay. 

And grow wiiiir and i)cBer as lile wear& away.. Dr. Popi^ 

!■ this meafure a fyllable is often retrenched from the firft foot, as 

Diogenes furly and proud. Dr. Pafu 

When prefent we love, and when abfent agrcCj. 

I think not of I'ris, nor I'ris of mc. DryJen. 

Thefe meafares are varied by many combinations, and fometimes by double 
tS(!jngS| either with w without rhyme, as in the heroick meafure^ 

'Tij the Divinity that ftirs •within ut, 

Tis Heav'n itfelf that points out an htritfitrf 

And intimates eternity to roan. AUifoiit- 

So ra that of eight fyllables, 

' They neither added nor confounded. 

They neither wanted nor abounded.. Fritit^ 

In that of (even, 

For refiftsnce I could fear none. 

But with twenty ihips ha^ dtme. 
What thou, brave and happy Vernon» 

H«ft atchiev'd with fix alone. Gtmtr, 

In that of fix, 

'Tv;as when the feas were roaring* 

With hollow blafts of wind, 
A damfel lay deploring, 

AH en a rock reclin'd. <»<jyv 

la the aaapeftick,. 

When terrible tempefts alTail us. 
And mountainous billows affright,. 
-^ Nor grandeur or wealth can avail us. 

But flciiful induftry fleers right. Bj/W» 

To tbefe meofures, and their laws, may be reduced every fjiecles of Sogllfik 
verfe. i 

Our verfification admits of few licences,, except tsi. fynaloepha^ 
or elifion of t in the before a vowel,, as r/j' eternal ; and more 
rarely of o in to, as r' accept ; and a fyntrrejis, by which two- 
fhort vowels coalefce into one fyllable, as quefiion, fpecial \ or a. 
word is contrafted by the expulfion, of a Ihort vowel before a li- 
quid, as anPrUtr temf'rance.. 

Thus have I collected rules and examples,. by which the Englifli language 
may be learned, if the reader be already acquainted with grammatical terms, 
or caught by a mailer to thofe that arc more ignorant. To have written a 
grammar for fuch as are not yet initiated ux the I'clwols, would have been te> 
diouS) and peilufs at lall iacfitftual* 





MA N Y are the works of human induftry, which to begin and finifli are hardly granted to 
the fame man. He that undertakes to compile a Didionary, undertakes that, which, if it 
comprehends the full extent of his defign, he knows himfelf unable to perform. Yet his labours, 
though deficient, may be ufeful, and with the hope of this inferior praife, he muft incite his a(5tivity,^ 
and folace his wearincfs. 

Perfection is unattainable, but nearer and nearer approaches may be made ; and finding my Dic- 
tionary about to be reprinted, I have endeavoured, by a revifal, to make it lefs reprehenfible. I will 
not deny that 1 found many parts requiring emendation, and many more capable of improvement. 
Many faults I have correfted, fome fuperfluities I have taken away, and fome deficiencies I have 
fupplied. I have methodifed fome parts that were difordered, and illuminated fome that were obfcure. 
Yet the changes or additions bear a very fmall proportion to the whole. The critick will now have 
lefs to objeft, but the ftudent who has bought any of the former copies needs not repent j he will 
not, without nice collation, perceive how they differ j and ufefulnels feldom depends upon little 

For negligence or deficience, I have perhaps not need of more apology than the nature of the work 
will furnifh : I have left that inaccurate which never was made exadt, and that imperfeft which never 
was completed. 

A D I C- 




A The firft letter of the European 
alphabets, has, in the Englifti 
^ language, three different tounds, 
which may be termed the broad, open, 
and (lender. 

The broad found, refembling that of 
the German a, is found in many of our 
monofyllables, as all. wall, malt, /alt, in 
which a is pronounced as au in cau/e, or 
aiv in lazv. Many of thefe words were 
anciently written with au, as fault, 
I'jauli ; which happens to be ftill retained 
\r\ fault. This was probably the ancient 
found of the Saxons, fmce it is almoft 
uniformly preferred in the ruflic pro 
nunciation, and the Northern dialefts, 
as maun for man, haund for hand. 
A open, not unlike the a of the Italians, 
is found in father, rather, and more 
obfcurely \n fancy, fafi, &c. 
A (lender or clofe, is the peculiar a of the 
Englifh language, refembling the found 
of the French e mafculine, or diphthong 
ai in pais, or perhaps a middle found 
between them, or between the a and e ; 
to this the Arabic a is faid nearly to ap- 
proach. Of this found we have exam- 
ples in the wor^i, place, face, luajle, and 
all thofe that terminate in ation ; as re- 
lation, nation, generation. 
A is (hort, as, glafs, grafs ; or long, as, 
glaze, graze: it is raarlted long, gene- 
rally, by an e final, plane, or by an / 
added, as plaia. The ihort a is open, 
the long a clofe. 
1. A, an article fet before nouns of the 
fingular number; a man, a tree ; de- 
noting the number one, as, a man is 
coming, that is, no more than one ; or an 
indefinite indication, as, a man may 
come this way, that is, any man. This 
article has no plural (ignification. Be- 
fore a word beginning with a vowel, it 
is written an, as, an ox, an egg, of 
which a is the contraction. 
Vol. I. 

2. A, taken materially, or for itfelf, is a 
noun ; as, a great A, a little a. 

3. A is placed before a participle, or par- 
ticipial noun ; and is confidered by 
Wallis as a contraction of at, when it 
is put before a word denoting fome aftion 
not yet finilhed ; ls, I am a walking. 
It alio feeras to be anciently contrafted 
from at, when pl.-.ced before local fur- 
names ; as, Thomas a Becket. In other 
cafes, it feems to fignify to, like the 
French a. 

/i hunting Chloe went. Trkr. 

They go a brgging to a bankrupt's door. Dryi!in. 

May peace Hill llumbcr by thcfs purling foun- 
tains ! 
Which we may every year 
Find when we come a fifliing here. IfDiUn. 

Now the men fell a rubbing of armour, which 
a great while had lain oiled. IVcticn. 

He will knap the fpears a pieces with his teeth. 
M-.rc't Antid. Athm. 

Another falls a ringing a Pefcennius Niger, and 
judicioufly diftinguiihes the found of it to be 
modern. AJJifin on Midah. 

4. A has a peculiar fignification, denoting 
the proportion of one thing to another. 
Thus we fay. The landlord hath a hun- 
dred a year ; The (hip's crew gained a 
thoufand pounds a man. 

The river Inn paflcs through a wide open coun- 
try, during all its courfe through Bavaria ; which 
is a voyage of two days, after the rate of twenty 
leagues a day. Addijin on Italy. 

5. A is ufed in burlefque poetry, to lengthen 
out a fyllable, without adding to the 

For cloves and nutmegs to the line-u, 
And even for oranges to China. Vryden. 

6. A is fometimes, in familiar writings, 
put by a barbarous corruption for he; 
as, will a come, for will he come. 

7. A, in compofition, fecms to have fome- 
times the power of the French « in thefe 
phrafes, a droit, a gauche, Sic. and iome- 
timet to be contracted from at ; as, afde, 
uflope, afoot, ajleep, athirjl, aiuare. 


I 'gin to be a viiary of the fun ; 
And wifh the ftate of tli' world were now undone. 
Sbakefpearet Miicbetb, 

And now a breeze from (hore began to blow. 
The Tailors (hip their oars, and ccufe to row ; 
Then hoift their yards a-tr'p, and all their fails 
Let fall, to court the wind, and catch the gales. 

Drydcn'i Ceyx and A/cjmi, 

A little houfe with trees a row. 
And, like its maftcr, very low. I'lfe, Hor, 

8. A is fometimes redundant ; as, arife, 
aroufe, a-wake ; the fame with rife, roufe, 

9. A, in abbreviations, (lands for artium, 
or arts ; as, A. B. batchelor of arts, ar- 
tium haccalaureus ; A. M. mailer of arts, 
artium magifier ; or, anno ; as, A. D. 
anno domini. 

AB, at the beginning of the names of 
places, generally (hews that they have 
fome relation to an abbey, as Abingdon. 


Aba'cke. adv. [from lack.'\ Backwards. 

But when they came where thou thy (kill didit 
They drew abacke, as half with (hame confound. 

S/ievJ. Pafl. 

ABACTOR, n.f. [Latin.] One who drives 
away or fteals cattle in herds, or great 
numbers at once, in didindlion from 
thofe that ileal only a (heep or two. 


A'BACUS. n.f. [Latin.] _ 

1. A counting- table, anciently ufed ia 
calculations. ' 

2. [In architecture.] The uppermoU mem- 
ber of a column, which ferves as a fort 
of crowning both to the capital and co- 
lumn. Dm. 

Aba'ft. adv. [of abapran. Sax. behind.] 
From the fore-part of the (liip, towards 
the llern. Dia. 

Abm'sance. n.f. [from the French abai.. 
fer, to deprcfs, to bring down.] An aCl 
of reverence, a bow. Obeyfance is con- 
fidered by Skinner as a corruption bf 
ahaifame, but is now univcrl'ally uled. 
B 1* 




To ABA'LIENATE. -v. a. [from aiallene, 
Lat.] To make that another's which 
was our own before. A term of the civil 
Jaw, not much ufed in common fpeech. 

Abalien a'tiox. n.f. [Lat. abalicnaiio.'] 
The afl of giving up one's right to ano- 
ther perfon ; or a making over an eftatc, 
goods, or chattels by fal«, or due coiirfc 
oflaw. Dia. 

To Aba'nd. v. a. [A word con traced from 
abandon, but not now in uie. See A- 
BANDON.] To forfalce. 

Thi y ftr :>nger arc 
Than they which fought at firft their helping 

Mai Vortiger enforced the kingdom to abatiet, 

Sftnftr'i Fairy Sheen, h. li. cuu. to. 

To ABA'NDON. -v. a. [Fr. abandonner. 
Deriv«d, according to Menage, from the 
Italian abandonare, which fignifies to 
forfake his colours ; bandum ['vexillum] 
deferere. /"a/^a/Vr thinks it a coalition of" 
a ban donner, to give up to a profcription ; 
in which fenfe we, at this day, mention 
the ban of the empire. Ban, in our 
own old dialed, fignifies a curfe ; and 
to a^aWoa, if confidered as compounded 
between French and Saxon, is exaftly 
equivalent to diris de-Tjcuere.'] 

I. To give up, refign, or quit ; often fol- 
lowed bv the particle to. 

]f Jhe be fo ahand'jn'd to her forrow, 
Ac iti* fpokc, file never will admir me. 

Shah/j>. -Tivtlfth Night. 

The- paflive gods behold the Greeks defile 
Their temples, and abandon to the fpoll 
Their own abodes ; wc, feeble few, confpire 
To fave a finking town, involv'd in ftre. 

Dryil. j^miJ. 

Who is he fo ahatidomd re fottifli credulity, as 
to think, that a clod of earth in a fick, may ever, 
fay eternal ihaking, receive the fabric of man's 
body ? Bcmley'i Sermom. 

Muft he, whofe altars on the Phrygian (hore. 
With frequent rites, and pure, avow'd thy pow'r, 
Be doom'd the worft of human ills to prove, 
Unblefs'd, abaxdon'd to the wrath of Jove ? 

Pofi't Odyjfty, h. i. 1. 80. 

^. To defert ; to forfake : in an ill fenfe. 

The princes ufing the palTions of fearing evil, 
and defiring to efcape, only to ferve the rvile of 
virtue, not to abandon one's felf, leapt to a rib of 
the (hip. Sidney, b. ii. 

Seeing the hurt flag alone, 
I<eft and abandoned of his velvet friends, 
'Tis right, quoth he ; thus mifery doth part 
The flux of company. Shakifp. As you lih it. 

What face a wretched fugitive attends, 
Scom'd by my foes, abandoned by my friends. 

Dryd. jUneid, 2. 

But to the partisg goddcfs thus (he pray'd j 
Propitious dill be prcfcnt to my aid. 
Nor quite abandon your oncc-favour'd maid. 

Dryd. Fab. 

3. To forfake, to leave. 

He boldly fpakc, Sir knight, if knight thou be, 
.Abandon this Ibreflalled place at crft, 
For fear of further harm, 1 ccunfel thee. 

Sfenfer'i Fairy Sunn, b. ii. eant. ^. Jlanx. 39. 

Te ABANDON OVER. 11. fl. [a fomi of wri- 
ting not ufual, perhaps not exacl.] To 
give up to, to refign. 

Look on me as a man abandon d o'er 
To an eternal lethargy of love ; 
To puU, and pinch, and wound me, cannot cure, 
And but diAurb the quiet of my death. 

Dryd. Sp. Friar. 

Aba'nooned. farticip. adj. Corrupted 
in the higheil degree ; as, an abandoned 
%vretch. In this fenfe, it is a contradion 

of a longer form, abandoned [given up] 
to wickednefs. 

Aba'ndoninc. [A verbal noun from 
abandon.] Defertion, forfaking. 

He hop'd his paft meritorious ailions might out- 
weigh his prcfent abandoning the thought of future 
action. Clarend. b. viii. 

Ab a'k [abajtdoanement ,Ft .] 

1. The aft of abandoning. 

2. The ftate of being abandoned. Dia. 
Abanni'tiOn. n./. [LblZ. aiannitio.] A 

banifhment for one or two years, for 
manflaughter. Obfolete. Dia. 

Te Aba're. 1/. a. [abajiian. Sax.] Tomake 
bare, uncover, or difclofe. Dia. 

Ab ARTicutA'TiON.«.y; [from ab, from, 
and articulus, a joint, Lat.] A good and 
apt conftruftion of the bones, by which 
they move ftrongly and eafily ; or that 
fpecies of articulation that has manifeft 
motion. Dta. 

To Aba'se. 1). a. [Fr. abaijfer, from the 
Lat. hajis, or bajfus, a b.arbarous word, 
fignifying low, bafe.] 

1. "To deprefs, to lower. 

It is a point of cunning to wait upon him with 
whom you fpeak with your eye; yet with a demure 
abajing of it fomctimes. , Baccn. 

2. To caft down, to deprefs, to brijig low ; 
in a figurative and perfonal fenfe, which 
is the common ufe. 

Hjppy Ihephcid, to the gods be thankful, that 
to thy advancement their wlfdoms have thceabajcd. 

Sidney, b, \. 
Behold every one that is proud, and abiije him. 

'Job, xl. II. 
With unrefiftcd might the monarch reigns; 
He levels mountains, and he raifes plains j 
And, not regarding difl'rence of degree, 
jit>as'd your daughter, and exalted me. 

Dryd. Fables. 

If the mind be curbed and humbled too much 

in children ; if their fpirlts be ahafed and broken 

much by too ftrlit an hand over them ; they lofe 

all their vigour and induftry. 

Loekt on Education, § 46. 

Aba's ED. adj. [with heralds] a term ufed 
of the wings of eagles, when the top 
looks downwards towards the point of the 
ftiield ; or when the wings are ftiut ; the 
natural way of bearing them beingfpread 
with the top pointing to the chief of the 
angle. Bailey. Chambers. 

Aba'sement. n.f. The ftate of being 
brought low ; the aft of bringing low ; 

There is an abafenunt becaufe of glory ; and 
there is tliat lifteth up his head from a low cftate. 
EccUfijJlicus, XX. II. 

7ff Aba'sh. ni. a. [See Bashful. Per- 
haps from abaiffer, French.] 

1. To put into confufion ; to make afha- 
med. It generally implies a fudden 
impreflion of Ihame. 

They heard, and were abap'd. 

Milton's Paradife Loft, b, !, /. 3 ji. 
This heard, th' imperious queen fat mute with 
Nor further dur(l incenfc the gloomy thunderer. 
Silence was in the court at this rebuke : 
Nor could the g'^ds, abajb'd, fullain their fove- 
reign's look. Dryden's Fables. 

2. The paflive admits the particle at, fomc- 
times of, before the caufal noun. 

1 n no wile (peak againft the truth, but be abnjhed 
of the error of thy ignorance. Ecclui. iv. 25. 

I faid unto her, From whence is this kid ? Is 
it not ftolen ? But (be replied u^on nic, it was 

liven fm > gift, more than the wagtji however^ 
I did not believe her, and 1 was aba/b.-d at lier. 

iob. ii. 13, i^ 
In the ad-nirrtion only of weak minds 
Led captive : ccafc t" admire, and all her plumct 
Fall Hat, and (ink into a trivial toy. 
At every fudden flighting quite abdjht. 

Mtlti.n's Paradife Ltji, b. ii. /. 223. 
The little Cupiils hov'ring round, 
(As pictures prove) with garlands crown'd, 
MaJIj'd at what tbey faw and heard, 
Ficw off, nor ever more appcar'd. 

Sliift's Mifcillariil, 

To AB A'TE. V. a. [from the French abba- 
ire, to beat down.] 

1. To leffen, to diminifli. 

Who can tell whether tlie divine wifdoni, to 
abate the glory of thoft kings, did not rcfcrve this 
wo;k to be done by a* queen, that it might appear 
to be his own immediate work? 

Sir John Da'vies on Ireland^ 
If you did know to whom 1 gave the ring. 
And how unwillingly I left the ring, 
.You would abate the ftreogth of your difpleafure. 


Here we fee the hopes of great benefit and light 

from expofitors and commentators, are in a great 

part abated; and thofe who have moft need of their 

help, can receive but little from them. 

Luke's EJfay on St. Paul's Ef'JiUi. 

2. To dejeft, or deprefs the mind. 

This iron world 
Brings down the llouteft hearts to loweft ftate : 
For mifery doth braveft m'indi abate. 

Spenf. Hubbird's Tale. 
Have the power ftiJl 
To hani(h your defenders, till at length 
Your ignorance deliver you. 
As moft abated captives to fome nation 
That won you without blows ! 

Sbatefpeare's Coriolanus, 
Time, that changes all, yet changes us in vain. 
The body, not the mind ; nor can controul 
Th' immortal vigour, or abati the foul. 

Dryd. ^ne'id, 

3. In commerce, to let down the price in 
felling, fometimes to beat down the price 
in buying. 

To Aba'te. 'V. »; 

1. To grow lefs ; as, his paflion abates; 
the ftorm abates. It is ufed fometimes 
with the particle of before the thing 

Our phyficians have obfcrved, that in procefs of 
time, fome difeafes have abiitidcfx.)\t\r virulence, 
and have, in a manner, worn out their malignity, 
io as to be no longer mortal. 

Dryden's Hind and Panther, 

2. [In common law.] 

It is in law ufed both aftively and neuterly ; as, 
to abate a catlie, to beat it down. To ithate a writ, 
is, by fome exception, to defeat or overthrow it, 
A ftranger abatetb, that is, entereth upon a houfe 
or land void by the death of him that laft pon(:(red 
it, before the heir take his po(rcl1ian, and fo keep- 
eth him out. Wherefore, as he that putteth out 
him in pofTelTinn, is faid to dilTelfe : fo he that 
fteppcth in between the former pofTefTor and hi» 
heir is faid to abate. In '.he neuter fignlfication 
thus ; The writ of the d niandment ihail abate, that 
is, (hall be difabled, fruftrated, or overthrown. The 
appeal ahateih by covin, that is, that the accuO- 
tion is defeated by deceit. CoiueU 

3. [In horfemanlhip.] A horfe is faid to 
abate or take down his curvets ; when 
working upon curvets,' he puts his two 
hind legs to the ground both at once, 
and obfervcs the fame exaftnefs in all 
the times. Dia, 

Aba'tement. n.f. \abatemcnt,^'c.'\ 
I. The aft of abating or leflening. 

Xenophon tells us, that the city contained about 
ten theuXond houfes, and ^wing one saaa to every 




A B D 

houfc, who could have any (hare in the jorern- 
ment (the reft coniiliing of women, children, and 
. lervants}, and making orher obvious abatements^ 
thcfc tyrants, it" they had been careful to adhere 
together, might have been a majority even of the 
people colle^ive. 

Sviift on tbe Ctnteji ofAthem and Romg' 

2. The ftate of being abated. 

ColTee has, in common with all nuts, an oil 
ftrongly combined and entangled with earthy par- 
ticles. The moft noxious part of oil exhales in 
roafting, to the aiatemtnt of near one quarter of its 
weight. Arhuthnct on Al'tmcrts. 

3 . The fum or quantity taken away by the 
aft of abating. 

The law of works is that Ijw, which requires 
pcrfefl obedience, without rcmiflion or abatement^ 
fo that, by thatlav,-, a man cannot be juft, or jufti- 
6ed, without an cxa3 performance of ever)' tittle. 


4. The caufe of abating; extenuation. 

As our advantages towards pradt^fing and pro- 
moting piety and virtue were greater than thofe ot 
other men; fo will our eicufe be lefs, if weneglcil 
to make ufe of them. We cannr't plead in abate- 
ment of our guilt, that we were ignnrant of our 
duty, under the prepolfefiion of ill habits, and the 
bias of a wrong education. Atterbury^sSermcm, 

5. [Inlaw.] The ad of the abator ; as, the 
abatement of t\\e heir into the land before 
he hath agreed with the lord. The af- 

, feftion or paflion of the thing abated ; 
Tis, abatement of ihe ■wnx.. Ctnve/. 

6. [With heralds.] An accidental mark, 
which being added to a coat of arms, 
the dignity of it is abafed, by reafon of 
fome Ilain or dilhonourable quality of 
the bearer. />.<2. 

Aba'ter. n./. The agent or caufe by 
which an abatement is procured ; that 
by which any thing is leffened. 

Abaters of acrimony or fliarpnefs, arc exprciled 
oils of ripe vegetables, and all preparations of 
fucb ; as of almonds, pillachocs, and ether nuts. 
A'butbnot on Diet, 

Aba'tor. n./. [a law term.] One who 
intrudes into houfes or land, void by the 
death of the former poffeflbr, and yet 
not entered upon or taken up by his 
heir. Di^. 

A'batude. n.y; [old records.] Anything 
dtminifhed. Bailey. 

A'bature. It./, [from aiatre, French.] 
Thofe fprigi of grafs which are thrown 
down by a ttag irf his pafiing by. Dia. 

Abb. «./. The yarn on a weaver's warp ; 
a terra among clothiers. Chambers. 

ABB J. n.f. [Heb. ns] A Syriac word, 
which f\^n\fic% father . 

A'bqacv. /;./. \LzX. ahbatla.'\ The rights 
or privileges of an abbot. See Abbey. 

According to Fctiuu>, an abbacy is tlie iiignity 
itfclf, fincc an abbot ia a term ( r word of dignity, 
and not of ofSce ; and, therefore, even i fecular 
perfon, who has the cue of fouls, is fometimes, 
iR the canon law, alf > ftiled an abbot. 

^>7'j?='j Parcrgitt 'jitrh Canonhi. 

A'bbess.«./ [Lat.. aibali//b, from whence 
the Saxon abubij-yi;, then probably ab- 
hatefs, and by contrafticn abheffe in Fr. 
and abbej'i, Eng.] The fuperiour or go- 
verncfs of a nunnery or monaflery of 

They fled 
Into this al bey, whither we purfued them ; 
JVnd here the abhejs Ihuts tbe gate on us. 
And will not fuffer us to fetch him out. 

Shaltf. Con. ofErrtri. 

I hive a filter, aibcfs in Terceraf, 
Who loft her lover on her bridal-day. 

DiyJ. D. Sebajl. 
Conftantia, as foon as the folemnities of her re- 
ception were over, retired with the abbefs into h?i 
own apartment. Adii'.jon. 

A'bbey, or Abby. n.f. [Lat. abbatia; 
from whence probably firft Abbacy; 
which fee.] A monaftery of religious 
perfons, whetlier men or women ; dif- 
tinguifhed from religious houfes of other 
denominations by larger privileges. See 

With eafy roads he came to Leicefler ; 
Lodg'd in the abbey, where the reverend abbot, 
Y^ithall his convent, honourably receivM him. 


A'bbey- -Lubber, n.f. [See Lubber.] 
A flothful loiterer in a religious houfe, 
under pretence of retirement and aufte- 

This is no Father Dominic, no huge overgrown 
abbey-lubber \ this is but a diminutive fucking 
f'iar. ' DryH. Sp. fr. 

A'BBOT. H.f. [in the lower Latin abbas, 
from i» father, which fenfe was Hill 
implied ; fo that the abbots were called 
patres, and abbefles matres monajicrii. 
Thus Fortunatus to the abbot Paternus : 
Namitiis cffieiumjure. Paterae, geris.'j The 
chief of a convent, or fellowfliip of ca- 
nons. Of thefe, fome in England were 
mitred, fome not : thofe that were mi- 
tred, were exempted from the jurildic- 
tion of the diocefan, having in them- 
felves epifcopal authority within their 
precinfts, and being alfo lords of parlia- 
ment. The oth/r fort were fubjcft to 
the diocefan in all fpiritual government. 

See Abbey. 

A'bbotship. n.f. The ftate or privilege 
of an abbot. Did. 

To ABBRE'VIATE. v. a. [Lat. abbre- 
1)1 are.^ 

1. To Ihorten by contraftion of parts with- 
out lofs of the main fubilance ; to abridge. 

It is one thing to abbreviate by contradllng, an- 
other by cutting off. Baccn, FJJay 26. 

The only invenfion of late years, which hath 
contributed towards polirenefs in difcnurfc, is that 
of abbreviating or reducing words of many fyllablei 
into one, by lopping ofF tl.c reft. Sieift. 

2. To fliortcn, to cut fliort. 

Set the rtrength of their days before the flood j 
which were aibreviatej after, and contracted into 
hundreds and threefcores. 

Bro^vn'i Vulvar Ernun, b. vi. e. 6. 
.Abersvi a'tion. n.f. ~ 

1. The aft of abbreviating. 

2. The means ufed to abbreviate, as cha- 
rafters fignifying whole words ; words 

Such is the propriety and energy in them all, 
that they never can be chang(:d, but to difadvan- 
fage, except in the circumftance of ufing albrevia- 
t'ont. Swi/i. 

Abbrevia'tor. n.f, [abbre-viateur,Fr.] 
One who abbreviates, or abridges. 

.A,-!Ek.e'vi ATURE. n. f [abbrevialura. 

1. A mark ufed for the fake of (hortening. 

2. A compendium or abridgment. 

Ht! is a good man, who grieves ra.her lor him 
that injures him, tlun f^r hii own fuffering; who 
prays fgr bim that wrong!, him, forgiving all bis 

faults; who fooner (hews mercy thah anger; wh« 
offers violence to his appetite, in ell things endea- 
vouring to fubdue the fiefli to the fpirit. This is 
an excellent abbreviature of the whole duty of a 
Chri!>ian. 7aylari Guiti< to Dtvoricn, 

JBBREUFOI'R. [in French, a watering- 
place. Ital. abbe-jerato, dal verbo beiiere. 
Lat. bibcre. Abbeverari i cavalli. This 
word is derived by Menage, not much 
acquainted with the Teutonic dialefts, 
from adbibare for adbibere ; but more 
probably it comes from the fame root 
with bretxi. See Brew.] Among ma- 
fons, the joint or junfture of two Hones, 
or the interftice between twoftonesto be 
filled up with mortar. Di&. 

A'bby. See Abbey. 

A, B, C. 

1. The alphabet; as, he has not learned 
his a, b, c. 

2. The little book by which the elements 
of reading are taught. 

Then comes queilion like an a, b, c, book. 


To A'BDICATE. -v. a. [Lat. abdicc] To 
give up right ; to refign ; to lay down 
an office. 

Old Saturn, here, with upcaft eyes. 

Beheld his abdicatcil Ikics. AJdifon, 

Abdica'tion. ?/._/". [abduatio, Lut.] The 

aft of abdicating ; refignation ; quitting 

an office by one's own proper aft before 

the ufual or dated expiration. 

Neither duth it appear how a princ«'s abdication 
can make any other fort of vacancy in the throne, 
than would be caufcd by his death ; fince hecan- 
not abdicate for his children, otherwife than by his 
own confcnt in form to a bill from the two houfes* 
Sivift on the Sentiments of a Church of 
England Man. 

A'bdicative. adj. That which caufes.or 
implies an abdication. Diil. 

A'bdicative. adj. [from <? Wo, to hide. j 
That which has the power or quality of 
hiding. Dia. 

ABDO'MEN. n. f [Lat. from abdo, to 
hide.] A cavity commonly called the 
lower venter or belly : It contains the 
Itomach, guts, liver, fpleen, bladder, 
and is within lined with a membrane 
called the peritoneum. The lower part 
is called the hypogallriiim ; the forcmoll 
part is divided into the epigaftrium, the 
right and left hypochondria, and the 
navel ; 'tis boended above by the car- 
tilago eufiformis and the diaphragm, 
fideways by the flwrt or lower ribs, and 
behind by the vertebra; of the loins, the 
bones of the coxendix, that of the pubes, 
and OS facrum. It is covered with feve 
ral mufcles, from whofe alternSle relaxa- 
tions and contra(itions in refpiration,. 
digeilion is forwarded, and the due mo- 
tion of all the parts therein contained 
pfomoted, both for fecretion and expul- 
fion. ' ^iiicy. 

The abJonun confifts of parts containing and con- 
tained. py)fem:in^s Surgery. 

Abdo'minal. Xadj. Relating to the ab- 

Abdo'm INDUS. 5 domen. 

To A.'JDU'CE. 'u. a. [Lat. abduco.'\ Tq 
draw to a diffcrcHt part ; to withdraw 
one part from another. A word chiefly 
ufed in phylic or fcience. 

B i If 


A B H 

A B I 

If w« tUtict the eye unto either tomar, the 
ohjcA will not duplicKe; (ur, in that porition,che 
axis of (he cones remain in the Tame plain, as is 
demonftrated in the optics delivered by Galen. 

Browit'i yulgar Ernun, b, iii. c. 20. 

Abou'cent. aajr. Mufcles abducent are 
thofe which ferve to open or pull back 
divers parts of the body ; their oppofites 
being called adducent. Di8. 

Abduc'tion. n.f. [aiduSHi, Lat.] 

1. The art of drawing apart, or withdraw- 
ing one part from another. 

2. A particular form of argument. 
JBDirCTOK. n.f. {^abduaor, Lat.] The 

name given by anatomitts to the muf- 
cles, which ferve to draw back the fe- 
veral members. 

He fuppofed ih ; conftriftors of the eye-lid» muft 
he ftresgthened in the fupercilious j the aidulfsn 
in drunkards, and contemplarive men, who have 
the fame fteady and grave motion of the eye. 

jirtuititot anil Pofi'i A''arlinus Scriilcrus. 

Abeceda'rian. »./ [from the names of 
a, b, c, the three firtt letters of the al- 
phabet.] He that teaches or learns the 
alphabet, or firft rudiments of literature. 
This word is ufed by ff^ood in his 
Athena Oxoninfes, where mentioning 
Farnaby the critic, he relates, that, in 
fome part of his life, he was reduced to 
follow the trade of an abecedarian by his 

A'BECEDARY.fli^'. [See Ab ECED A R I AN.] 

1. Belonging to the alphabet. 

2. Infcribed with the alphabet. 

This is pretended from the fympathy of two 
needles touched with the loadllonc, and placed in 
the center of two ahtcedary circles, or rings of let- 
ters, defcribed round about them, One friend keep- 
ing one, and another the other, and agreeing upon 
' i^Ki hour wherein they will communicate. 

Brovin^i Vuhar Errcurs^ b* n. r. 3. 

Abe'o. aJv. [from a, for at, and bed.] In 

It was a (hame for them to mar their com- 
plexions, yea and conditions too, with long lying 
tfW : when fiie was of their age, file would have 
in»ie a handkerchief by that time oMay. 

Suliy, b» ii. 
She has not been ahed, but in her chapel 
All night devoutly watch'd. Dryd. Span. Friar. 
-Abe'rrance. ?«./. [from a berro, La.t. 
Abe'rrancy. 5 to wander from the 
right way.] A deviation from the right 
way ; an crrour ; a miftake ; a falfe opi- 

They do not only fwarm with errours, but vices 
depending thereon. Thus they commonly aft'edl 
no man any farther than he dcferts his reafon, or 
complies with thrir ahcrrartc'm. 

Brotim't y^ulgar Ernurs, h. i. f. 3. 
Could a man be compofed to fuch an advantage 
of conftitution, that it ihould not at all adulterate 
the images of his mind ; yet this fecond nature 
would alter the cr.^iis of his underilanding, and 
render it as obnoxious to aherraricetf as now. 

CfoBvilU^i Supjit Scientijicat c. 16. 
Abe'rrant. adj. [from aberraris, Lat.] 
Deviating, wandering from the right or 
known way. DiJl, 

Aberra'tio.n. n.f. [from «i«rra//o, Lat.] 
The act of deviating from the common 
or from the right track. 

If it be a miilake, there is no hercfy in fuch an 
barmlefs aherratkn ; the probability of it will ren- 
der it a lapfe of eafy pardon. 

CUn-vilU'i Sceffit Seienllfica, c. 11. 

ABE'jLRiKC./«r/. [from the \<iih aberr. 

cf abini, Lat.] Wandering, going a- 

Of the verb aberr I have found no 

Divers were out in their account, aterr'mg feve- 
ral ways from the true and jult compute, and call- 
ing that one year, which perhaps might be another. 
Bri/ivns Errourif b. iv. r. 12. 
To Aberu'nc ATE. I". «. [averunco, Lat.] 
To pull up by the roots ; to extirpate 
utterly. D'^- 

To ABE'T. "v. a. [from betan. Sax. Cg- 
nifyine to enkindle or animate.] To 
pulh forward another, to fupport him in 
his defigns by connivance, encourage- 
ment, or help. It was once indifferent, 
but is almoA always taken by modern 
writers in an ill fenfe : as may be feen 
in Abetter. 

To abd fignifieth, in our common law, as much 
as to encourage or fet on. Co^vel. 

Then fliall I foon, quoth he, return again, 
Abet that virgin's caufe difconfolate. 
And ftiortly back return. Fairy Siueen, b. i. 

A widow who by folemn vows, 
Contrafted to me, for my fpoufe, 
Combin'd with him to break her word. 
And has abetted all. Hudibras, p. iii. cant. 3. 

Men lay fo great weight upon right opinions, 
and eagernefs of abetting them, tliat they account 
that the unum neceflarium. Decay of Piety. 

They abetted both parties in the civil war, and 
always furnifiied fupplies to the weaker fide, left 
there fliould be an end put to thcfe fatal divifions. 
Jlddifin. Freehulder, No 2S. 

Abe'tment. n.f. The aft of abetting. 

Abe'tter, or Abe'ttor. ».yi He that 

abets ; the fupport«r or encourager of 

a :v) titer. 

Wliilft calumny has two fuch potent abetters, 
we are not to wonder at its growth ; as long as 
men are malicious and defigning, they will be tra- 
ducing. Govertl. of tbe Tongue. 

You (hall be ftill plain Torrifmond with me, 
Th' abfttir, partner (if you like the name), 
The hulband of a tyrant, but no king ; 
Till you dcferve that title by yourjullice. 

Dryden^s Spjnijh Friar. 
Thefe confiderations, though they may have no 
influence on the multitude, ought to fink into the 
minds of thofe who are their abettors, and who, 
if they cfcape puniihment here, muft know, that 
thcfe fcvcral mifchiefs will be one day laid to their 
charge. Addijor. Freeholder, No 50. 

Abey'ance. n.f. [from the French abo- 
yer, allatrare, to bark at.] This word, 
in Littleton, cap. Difcontinuance, is thus 
ufed. The right of fee-fimple lieth in 
abeyance, when it is all only in the re- 
membrance, intendment, and confidera- 
tion of the law. The frank tenement of 
the glebe of the parfonage, is in no man 
during the time that the parfonage is 
void, but is in abeyance. Co-ivel. 

Aboreca'tion. n.f. [abgregatio, LtA.] 
A reparation from the flock. Diil. 

To ABHO'R. T/. a. [abborrea, Lat.] To 
hate with acrimony ; to detell to extre- 
mity ; to loath ; to abominate. 

■Whilll I was b g in claraout, came a man. 
Who having freii ;iie in my worferftate, 
Shunn'd my abhorrd fociety. 

Sl'akefpcaie's K. Lear, 
Juftly thou abb:^rryi 
That fon, who on the qaict ftate of men 
Such trouble brought, aflfefting Co fubdue 
Rational liberty. 

Mill. ParaJ, Loji, 6. xii. /. 79. 

The felf.fame thing they wilt abbn> 
One way, and long another for. 

Hudibras, p, i. cant, f , 

A church of England man abhors the humour 
of the age, in delighting to Aing fcandals upon the 
clergy in general i which, befides the difgracsto 
the reformation, and to religion itfcif, cafts an ig- 
nominy upon the kingdom. Stvift, Ch, ofEng, 

AbHo'rRENCE. 1 r re II 1 

A r > n.f, I from aoMr.l 

Abho rrencv. i -^ '• ■• 

1 . The a£t of abhorring, deteflation. 

It draws upon him the hatred and abhorrence of 
all men here ; and fubjedts him to the wrath of 
God hereafter. Soutb's Hcrmmst 

2. The difpofition to abhor, hatred. 

Even a juft arid neceflary defence does, by giv. 
ing men actguaintance with war, take oS' Ibine- 
what from the abhorrence of it, and infenfibly dif- 
pol'e them to hoftilities. Dec<iy of Piety, 

The firft tendency to any injuftlce that appears, 
muft be fupprerted with a (how of wonder and ai- 
borrency in the parents and governours. 

Locke on Education, § 1 10. 

Abho'rrekt. adj. [from fl^ar.] 

1 . Struck with abhorrence ; loathing. 

For if the worlds 
In worlds inclos'd could on his fenfes burft. 
He would abhorrent turn. 

Thomjons Summer, I. 3io» 

2. Contrary to, foreign, inconfiflent with. 
It is ufed with the particles from or to, 
but more properly w\t.\ifrom. 

This I conceive to be an hypothefis, well worthy 
a rational belief; and yet it is fo abhorrent frr.m 
the vulgar, that they would as foon believe Anaxa. 
goras, that fnow is black, as him that Ihould af- 
firm it is not white. 

GlantiiUe' s Sceffis Sciem. c. 12. 
Why then thefe foreign thoughts of ftate em- 
Abhorrent to your funftjon and your breeding ? 
Poor droning truants of unpraftis'd cells, 
Bred in the fcUow(hip of bearded boys. 
What wonder is it if you know not vntrs ? 

Abho'rrer. n.f. [from abhor.] The per- 
fon that abhors ; a hater, deteller. 

The lower clergy were railed at, for difputing 
the power of the bilhops, by the known ahborrers 
of cpifcopacy, and abuli^d for doing nothing in 
the convocations, by thefe very men who wanted 
to bind up their hands. Siuifl. Examiner, N° 2i. 

Abho'rring. The objeft of abhorrence. 
This feems not to be the proper uie of 
the participial noun. 

They (hall go forth, and look upon the carcafes 
of the men that have tranlgreflcd againft Me : 
for their worm (hall not die, neither (hall their 
fire be quenched, and they ihall be an abhorring 
unto all fie(h. Ij'aiab, Ixvi. 44. 

To ABI'DE. -K. n. I abode or abid. [from 
bibian, or aubibian. Sax.] 

1 . I'o dwell in a place ; not remove ; t» 


Thy fervant became furety for the lad unto my 
father, faying. If 1 bring him not unto thee, then 
I (hall bear the blame to my father for ever. Now 
therefore I pray thee, let thy fervant abide inftead 
rf the lad, a bondman to my lord j and let the 
lad go up with his brethren. Gen. xliv. 31, 33-. 

2. To dwell. 

The Marquis Dorfet, as I hear, is fled 
To Kichmond, in the parts where he abides. ■ 

Shakejp. Richard III. 

Thofe who apply themfclves to learning, are 
forced to acknowledge one God, incoriuptible and 
unbegotten ; who is the only true being, anu aliJei 
for ever ibove th- higheft heavens, from whence 
He beholds all the things thac are done in heaven 
Md earth. 

StilHngfi. Defence of Di/c. on Rom. Ido/ai, 

3. To 

A B I 

3. To remain ; not ceafe or fail} to be 

They chat truft in the Lord (hall be as mount 
ZioPi whxh cannot be removed, but ahUdtb for 
ever. PJa/m cxxv. 1. 

4. To continae in the fame ftate. 

The tejr of the Lord toiJcth to life ; and hs 
that hath it (hall ao:Je fatistied. Pr',v. xix. 23 

There can be no ftuJy without time; and the 
mind mull j&iJi and dwell upon things, or be al- 
ways a ftranger to the infijc of them. South. 

5". To endure without offence, anger, or 

Who canaiiVr, that, againli their own doilors, 
fix whole books ^ould by their fatherhoods be im- 
periuuOy obtruded upon God and his church ? 


6. It is ufed with the particle ivit/f be- 
fore a perfon, and at or in before a place. 

It is tetter that I give her to thee, than that 1 
Jhould give her to another man : ylMde ivith me. 

G-.r, xx'ix, 19. 

For thy fervant vowed a vow, while I atoJt at 
Ge/hur in Syria, faying, if the Lord {ball bring me 
again indeed to Jerufalem, then 1 will ferve th:: 
Lord. 2 Sam. xv. S. 

7. It is ufed with hy before a thing; as, to 
abide by his teftimony ; to abide by his 
own (kill ; that is, to rely upon them ; to 
abide by an opinion ; to maintain it ; to 
abide by a man, is alfo, to defend or /up 
fort him. But thefe forms are fome- 
thing low. 

Of the participle aiid, I have found 
only the example in Woodward, and 
(hould rather determine thztabidein the 
aftive fenfe has no paflive participle, or 
compounded preterite. 
To Abi'de. t/. a. 

1. To wait for, e.-cpeft, attend, wait upon, 
await : ufed of things prepared for per- 
fons, as well as of perfons expecting 

Home is be brought, and laid in fumptuous bed, 
Where many Ikilful leeches him aliuie. 
To f:.Iwe his hurts. Fairy S^ueen, b. i. c, ^. fi. 17. 

Whil': lions war, and battle for their dens, 
Poor harmief; iambs thidt their enmity. 

Sbah^f. Hen. VI. f. 3. 

Bonds and affliOinns aiije mc. y^ffs, xx. 23. 

2. To bear or fupport the confequences of 
a thing. 

Ah me ! they little know 
How dearly I tt'ule that bead fo vain. 

Milloit'i Par. Left. 

3. To bear or fupport, without being con- 
quered or deftroyed. 

But the Lord lie is the true God, he is the 
living Cod, and an everlafling Icing : At his 
wrath the earth (hall tremble, and the nations 
Aallntbe .ible tOd^;i/r his indignation. Jtr. x. 10. 

It muft le allowed a fair prefumption in favour 
of the truth of my doilrines, that they hav3 abid 
a very rigorous teft now for above thirty years, 
and the mote ftiirtly they are looked into, the 
moie they are confirmed. IVxdviard, Litter i. 

4. To bear without averfion ; in which 
fenfe it is commonly ufed with a nega- 

Thou canit not abide Tiridates; thia is but 
iove of th)fcl(. Sidney, b. ii. 

Thy vile race, 
Though thou didA learn, had that io't, which 

g!>)i natures 
Gould not abide tube with; therefore wall thou 
Oefervcdly confin d unto this rock. 

Sbahff. Ttmfrft. 

J. To bear or uffcr, 

A B J 

Girl witk circumfluous tides, 
He ftiU calamitous conllraint abides. 

Pope'i Odyf b. iv. /. 750 
Abi'der. n.f. \^{iom abide.] The perfon 
that abides or dwells in a place ; per- 
haps that lives or endures. A word 
little in ufe. 
Abi'ding. ti.f. [from abide."] Continu- 
ance ; (lay ; fixed ftate. 

We arc (Irangers before Thee and fojourners, as 
were all our fathers : our days on the earth ate as 
a fliadow, and there is none abidirg. 

1 Ciyran. xxix, 15. 
The air in that region is fo violently removed, 
and carried about with fuch fwiftnefs, as nothing 
in tlut place can confifl or have abidirg. 

Raiv'eigl.'i Hift:iry ^ihe ffcrld. 

A'BJECT. adj. \^abjeifus, Lat. thrown 
away as of no value.] 

1. Mean; worthlefs ; bafe ; groveling: 
fpoken of perfons, or their qualities. 

Came like itfelf in bafe and ahjcS routs. 
Led on by bloody yourh grjaJed with rage. 
And counceoanc'd by boys and beggary. 

Sbahfprare't Henry IV. 
I wa? at fird, as other bealls thkr graze 
The trodJcn herb, of abjed thoughts and low. 

Milt. Para-.aje Left, b. ix. /. 571, 

Honed men, who tell ;heir fovereigns what they 

expeft from them, and what obedience they fliall 

be always ready to pay them, are not upon an 

equal foot with bafe and abjrfl flatterers. 

Aldifin'a fnig Examiner. 

2. Being of no hope or regard ; ufed of 

The rarer th^ example (lands, 
Ey how much trom the top of wond'rous gbry, 
Strongeft nf mortal men. 

To loweft pitch of aijeS fortune thou art fall'n. 
Milton's Sampfin ^gcmftcs. 
We fee man and woman in the higheft inno- 
cence and perfeflion, and in the moft abjc^ ftate 
of guilt and infir.nity. 

yfddijon. SftHator, N" 279. 

3. Mean and defpicable ; ufed of aflions. 

'1 he rapine is f) abjcfl and profane. 
They not from trifles, nor from gods refrain. 

Dryden'i Juvenal, Sat. 8. 

To what bafe ends, and by what abjea ways. 
Are mortals urg'd through facred lull of praif • ? 
^ P'.l>e's Ejjjy an Criticifm. 

Abject, n.f. A man without hope; a 

manwhofe miferies are irretrievable; 

one of the loweft -condition. 
Yea, the akjeHi gathered themfclvcs together 

againft m^c. pfalm xixv. 15. 

To Abje'ct. v. a. [abjicio, Lat.] To 

throw away. A word rarely ufed. 
Abje'ctedness. n.f. Ifrom abjed.] The 

ftate of an abjedt. 

Our Saviour would love at no !efs rate than 
death; and, from the fupereml:icr,t height of 
glory, ftooped and abafed himfejf to tire fuft^^rancc 
of the extremcft of indignities, and lunk himfelf 
to the bottom of abjifiidntfs , to exalt our condi- 
tion to the contrary extreme. B(,yle's fVorks. 
Abje'ction. w./. [homabjea.'] Mean- 
hefsofraind; want of fpirit ; fervility; 

That this (hould be termed bafenefs, abjeaitin 
of mind, or fervility, is it crcJijle ? 

H'yoier,,b. v. ^ 47. 

The juft medium lies betwixt pride and the 

abjcBian, the two extremes. VEftrange. 

A'bjectly. ad'u. [from abje^.] In an 

abjcft manner, meanly, balcly, fer- 

vilely, contemptibly. 

A'BJECT^•Ess, n./. [from abjea."] Ab- 

jeftiony fervility, meannefs. 

A B J 

Servility and aljeBncJs of humour is implicitlir 
involved in the charge of lying. 

Government of the Tongue, § 8. 
By humility I mean not the abjtlincjs of a bafa 
mind : but a prudent care not to over-value our- 
felves upon any account. 

Gn^u^s Cofmclogia Sacra, b. ii. e. 7. 
Abi'lity. n.f. [Babihte, Fr.] 
I. The power to do any thing, whether 
depending upon (kill, or riches, or 
ftrength, or any other quality. 

Of finging thou hall got tiie reputation. 
Good Thyrfis, mine 1 yield to thy ability j 
My heart doth feek another eftimation. 

Sidney, b, u 
If aught in my ability may ferve 
To lighten what thou iulier'll, and appeafe 
Thy mind with what amends is in my pow'r. 

Milton s Sumfjon Agoniftei, I. 74^ 
They gave after their ab'dity unto the treafure. 

Exra, ii. 69. 
If any man minifter, let him do it as of the- 
ability v^•hich God givcth ! that God in all things 
may be glorified through JefusChrift. i Pa. iv. 11. 
Wherever we find our abilities too weak for the 
performance, he affures us of the afliftance of his 
Holy Spirit, Rogeis's Sermons. 

z. Capacity of mind; force of underftand- 
ing ; mental power. 

Children in whom tjiere was no blemilh, but" 
well-favoured, and (kilful in all wifdom, and cun- 
ning in knowledge, and underllanding fcience, . 
and fuch as had ability in them to ftand in the 
king's palace. Can. i. 4. 

2. When it has the plural number, abi/i^ 
ties, it frequently fignifies the faculties 
or powers of the mind, and fometimes 
the force of underftanding given by na- 
ture, asdiftinguifhedfrom acquired qua- 

Whether it may be thought nccefTary, that in 
certain trails of country, like what we call pa- 
rities, there (hould be one man, at lead, of abili- 
ties to read and write ? Stuift. 
Abinte'state. adj. [of etb, from, and 
intejiatiis, Lat.] A term of law, im- 
plying him that inherits from a man„ 
■ who, though he had the power to mate 
a will, yet did not make it. 
To A'bjugate. 1/. a. [abjugc, Lat.] To 
unyoke, to uncouple. Bin 
To ABJU'RE. v. a. [abjuro, Lat.] 

1 . To caft off upon oath, to fwear not to 
do or not to have fomething. 

Either to die the death, or to abjure 
For ever the fociety •■» man. 

Sbakcjpeare's Midfum. Night's Dreaiir^ 

No man, therefore, that hath not abjured hi» 
reafon, and Ivvorn allegiance to a preconceived 
fantadical hypothefis, can undertake the defence 
of fuch a fuppofjtion. Hale, 

2. To retraci, recant„ on abnegate a po, 
(ition upon oath. 

Abjiira'tion. »./ [horn abjure.} The 
aft of abjuring^ The oath takea for , 
that end. 

Until Henry VIIL his time, if a man, havina 
committed felony, could go. inio a church, o» 
church-yard, before he were apprehended, he might 
not be takeji from thence to the ufual trial of law, 
but confcfling his fault to the juftices, or to thr 
coroner, gave his oath to forfakc tlie realm for 
ever, which wascalled abjuration. 

There are fome abjurations dill in force among 
U5 here in England ; a.», by the (latute of the 2jth. 
of king Charles II. all persons that are aitmittcd 
into any odice, civil or military, mud take the 
teft 5 which is an ahjuratim'oS iomcdoclrines ot 
the church of Rome. 

There is likewile another oath of clJuraiiM, 


A3 L 



-which laymsn and clergymen are bath obllgeil to 
take; and thai is to at jure tlic Pretender. 

Ail^e's Panrgrtn "Jurii Cutionici* 

To ABLA'CTATE. v. a. [ablaao, Lat.] 
To wean from the breaft. 

Ablacta't ION. n.j. One of the me- 
thods of grafting ; and, according to 
the fignification of the word, as it were 
X weaning ol a cyon by degrees from its 
mother ituck ; not cutting it off wholly 
from the Itock, till it is firmly united 
to that on which it is grafted. 

Ab I A qjj E a't ion. tt./. [^ahlaqueatie, Lat. ] 
The art or praftice of opening the 
ground about the roots of trees, to let 
the air and water operate upon them. 

Trench the 'ground, and make it ready Jor the 
fpting : Prepare alio foil, and ufe it where you 
have occafion : Dig borders. Uncover as yet roots 
oftieet, where ablajucmion is requifite. 

jLvtilyii's Kahndar, 

The tenure in chief is the very root that doth 
«iaint:iin this fihxr ^tm, that by many rich and 
fruitful branches fpreadcth itfelf : fo if it be luf- 
fered to ftarve, by want of ablatjueal'ion, and 
other good liulbandry, this yearly fruit will much 
decrcafe. Bacm's Office af AlUnaiions. 

ABLA'TION. »./ [ablatio, Lat.] The 

aft of taking away. 
A'hlative. n. a. [eblati'vus, Lat.] 

1 . That which takes away. 

2. Thefixth cafe of the Latin nouns; the 
cafe which, among other fignifications, 
includes the perfon from whom fome- 
thing is taken away. A term of gram- 

A'BLE. aJj. [habile, Fr. habilis, Lat. 
Ikilful, ready.] 

1. Having ftrong faculties, or great ftrength 
or knowledge, riches, or any otiier 
power of mind, body, or fortune. 

Henry VU. was not afraid of an able man, as 
LcwTs the Eleventh was. But, contrariwife, iic 
was ferved by the abUfi men that were to be found ; 
without which his aifairs could not have profpercd 
a? they did. Baccn's Henry VII. 

Such gambol faculties he hath, that (hew a 
weak mind and an abU body, for the which the 
prince admits him. Shakejf, Henry IV. f. ii. 

2. Having power fnfficient ; enabled. 

All mankind acknowledge tiiemfelves able and 
fulHcient to do many things, which aftually they 
never do. South", Serm. 

Every man (hall give as he is able, according to 

the bleliing of the Lord ».y God, which he hath 

■ given thee. _ Deut. xvi. 17. 

3. Before a verb, with the particle to, 
it fignifies generally having the power. 

Wrath is cruel, and anger is outrageous j but 
who is able to ftand before envy ? Prw, xxvii. 4. 

4. With /or it is not often nor very pro- 
perly ufed. 

There have been fome inventions alfo, which 
have been able for the utterance of articclate 
founds, as the fpeaking of ccrt.iin word*. 

Wi/imi'j Mathematlal Magic. 

To A'ble. v. a. To make able; to en- 
able, which is the word commonly ufed. 
See Enable. 

Plate fin with gold. 
And the ftrong lance of jufticc hurtiefs breaks ; 
Arm it with rags, a pigmy's ftraw doth pierce it. 
None does offend, none, I fay none, I'll able 'em ; 
Take that of me, my friend. 

Shakefpcare* s Kir.g hear. 

Able-bodied. o<^'. Strong of body. 

It lies in the power of every fine woman, to fe- 
«urc at leaft half a doaen able-h'Jicd men to his 
tn^eAj'l fervice. Add'ijai. FncbslJcr, N" 4. 

To A'BLEGATE. v. a. [ablep. Lat.] 

To fend abroad upon fome employment ; 

to fend out of the way. Di£l. 

Ablega'tion. tt./. [from abUgate.'\ The 

adl of fetiding abroad. Di£i. 

A'bleness. n.f. [from able.'] Ability of 

body or mind, vigour, force. 

That nation 4oth fo excel, both for comelinefs 
and abtenejs, that from neighbour countries they 
ordinarily come, fome to ftrive, fome to learn, 
fome to behold. SiJniy, b. ii. 

A'blepsy. a. / [aSxt-i'M, Gr.] Want 

of fight, blindnefs; unadvifednefs. D/V7. 
Abliguri'tion. n./. [abliguritio, hzt.] 

Prodigal expence on meat and drink. 

TV A'bligatb. v. a, [abligo. Lit,"] To 

tic up from. - Di<S. 

To A'BLOCATE. v. a. [abloco, Lat.] To 

let out to hire. 

Perhaps properly by him who has hired 

it from another. 

Calvin^ s Lexicon Juridicum. 
Abloca'tion. ti. j. [from ablocate.] A 

letting out to hire. 
To Ablu'de. -v. n. [abludo, Lat.] To be 

unlike. Dia. 

A'b l u e n t. adj. [abluens, Lat. from abluo, 

to wa(h away.] 

1. That which wafhes clean. 

2. That which has the power of cleanfmg. 

Ablu'tion. tt./. [ablttfio, Lat.] 
1 . The aft of cleanfmg, or walhing clean. 

There is a natural analogy between the ablution 
of the body and the purification of the foul ; be- 
tween eating the holy bread and drinking the facred 
chalice, and a participation of the body and blood 
of Chrift. Baylor t Worthy Covtmunicant. 

z. The water ufed in wafhing. 

Wafh'd by the briny wave, the pious train 
Are deans'd, and call th* ablutions in the main. 

Pope's Iliad. 

3. The rinfing of chemical preparations in 
water, to diffolve and walh away any 
acrimonious particles. 

4. The cup given, without confecration, 
to the laity in the popifli churches. 

To A'BNEGATE. i>. a. [from abnego, 
Lat.] To deny. 

Abnega'tion. n.f. [abnegatia, Lat. de- 
nial, from abtiego, to deny.] Denial, 

The abnegation or renouncing of all his own 
holds and intciefts, and trufts of all that man is 
mod apt to defend upon, that he may the more 
expeditely follow Chrift. Hammond. 

Abnoda'tion. n.f. [abnodatio, Lat.] 
The aft of cutting away knots from 
trees : a term of gardening. DiS. 

Abno'rmous. adj. [abnormis, Lat. out 
of rule.] Irregular, milhapen. DiSi. 

Abo'ard. adv. [a fea-term, but adopted 
into common language; derived im- 
mediately from the French a bord, as, 
aller a lord, eifvoyer a bord. Bord is 
itfelf a word of very doubtful original, 
and perhaps, in its different accepta- 
tions, deducible from different roots. 
Bopb, in the ancient Saxon, fignified a 
hatife ; in which fenfe, to go aboard, is 
to take up refidence in a Ihip. 

I. In a ihip. 

He loudly eall'd to fuch as were abnari. 
The little bark unto the Hiore to draw, 
And him to ferry over that deep ford. 

Fairy Sueeti, b. ii. cant. 6. 
He might land them, if it plcafcd him, or 
otlierwife keep them aboard. 

Sir W. Ratvleigb's EJ/ayt, 

2. Into a Ihip. 

When morning rofe, I fent my matea to bring 
Supplies of water from a ncighb'rlng fpring, 
Whilft I the motions of the wind expio: 'd ; 
Then fummon'd in ray crew, and went abcarJ, 

jiddifin'i Ovid's Mr:ami>rfht^es, i. iiK 
Abo'de. tt./. [from abide.] , 

1. Habitation, dwelling, place of refi- 

But I know thy abode and thy going out, and 
thy coming in, 2 ^'"gh »i»- -t?" 

Others may ufe the ocean as their road. 
Only the Englilh make it their abode; 
Whofe ready fa'ijs with every wind can fly. 
And make a cov'nant with th' inconftant flcy. 


2. Stay, continuance in a place. 

Sweet friends, your patience for my long abode; 
Not I, but my affairs, have made you wait, 

Sbakefpeare's Merchant o/V^mce, 

Making a Ihort abode in Sicily the fecond time, 
landing in Italy, and making the war, may be rea* 
fonably judged the bufinefs but often months. 

Dryden's Dedicat. to jSneiJ. 

The woodcocks early vifit, and abode 
Of long continuance in our temp'rate dime, 
Foretcl a liberal harveft. PhilUpt. 

3. To make abode. To dwell, torefide, to 
inhabit. . 

Deep in a cave the Sibyl makes abode ; 
Thence full of fate retum? , and of the God. 

Dryd. jEn. 6. 

7e Abo'de. i». a. [See Bode.] To fore- 
token or fbrefhow ; to be a prognoflic, 
to be ominous. It is taken, with its de- 
rivatives, in the fenfe either of good or 

Every man, 
After the hideous ftorm that follow'd, was 
A thing infpir'd ; and, not confulcing, broke 
Into a general prophecy, that this tempcft, 
Da/hing the garment of this peace, abodcd 
The fudden breach of it. Sbakrff. Henry VIII. 
Abo'dement. n.f. [frova To abode.] A 
fecret anticipation of fomething future ; 
an impreflion upon the mind of fome 
'event to come; prognoftication ; omen. 

I like not this. 
For many men that ftumbic at the thre/hold, 
Are well furttoid that danger lurJcs within.— 
— Tuih 1 man, abodimcnti muft not now affright us. 
Shakcjfcarc's Henry VI. f, ili. 
My lord bilhop alked him, Whether he had never 
any lecret abodcincnt iir his mind ? No, replied the 
duke; but I think fome adventure may kill me as 
well as another man, ff^ot/on* 

To AB'OLISH. -j. a. [aboleo, Latin.] 

1. To annul ; to make void. Applied to 
laws or inllitutions. 

For us to aboltjh what he hath cftablilhed, were 
prcfumption molt intolerable. Hcoktr, b. iii. ^ 10. 

On the paiilamcnt's part it was propoled, that 
all the biihops, deans, and chapters, might be im- 
mediately taken away, and abolijhcd. 

Clarendon, b, viii. 

2, To put an end to, to deftroy. 

The long continued wars between the Engli/h 
and the Scots, had then raifed invincible jea- 
loufies and hate, which long continued peace hath 
fince abitijhfd. Sir Jchn Hayward. 

Tiiat Jhall Perocles well requite, I wot, 
And, with thy blood, aboltfi fo reproachful blot. 

Fairy S^uecn, 
More deftroy'd than they. 
We ihould be quite abolyb'd, and expire, 

« Or 


Or wilt thou tJijfsIf 
Abtl'i/h thy CT«3tion, and unrrake 
For him, what for thy glory thou haft made ? 

Miltin, t- iii. A 163. 
Nor cotild Vuicjnian flame 
The ftench abuhjh, or the favour tame. 

Dryd. yirg, Geo, iii. 
Fermented Tpirits contraft, harden, and con- 
folidate many 6bres together, abolUhing many ca- 
nals ; efpecinlly where the fibres are the tendereft, 
as in the brain. Arhutb, en Altttunti. 

Abo'i. !SH ABLE. a;^'. \^xova abolijh .'\ That 

which may be abolifhed. 
Abo'lisher. «,/. [from ahelijh.l He that 

Abo'lishment. n./. [from aiolijh.'] The 
aft of aboliftiing. 

The plain and dircfl way had been to prove, 
that all fuch ceremonies, as they require to be 
aboli/hcd, are retained by us with the hurt of the 
church, or with lefs benefit than the abalipmcr.! 
of them would bring. Jiccirr, b. iv. 

He Ihould think the thchjhmert of cpifcopacy 
among us, would prove a mighty Icandat and cor- 
ruption to our faith, and manifeftly dangerous to 
our monarchy. SiL'ifri Cburcb of Enfrland Man. 
Aboli'tion. n.f. [from a^c/r/A.] The aft 
of aboliftiing. '1 his is now more fre- 
quently ufed than aboUjhment. 

From the total abdiihn of the popular power, 
may be dated the ruin of Rome : for hi;u the re- 
ducing hereof to its ancient condition, propofeil 
by Agrippa, been accepted inllead of Matcenas's 
model, that ftate might have continued unto this 
day. Crt%o*i Cofmclogia Sacra, b, iii. r. 4. 

An apoplexy is a fudden abelitUn of all tht- 
fenfes, and of all voluntary motion, by the ftop- 
page of the flux and reflux ot the animal fpirits 
through the nerves dellined for thofe motions. 

Arbuttnu on Our. 

Abo'minable. aJj. [alominabilij, Lac] 

1. Hateful, deteilable ; to be loathed. 

This infernal pit 
yiiom'waile, accurs'd, the haufe of woe. 

Aiilun . 
The queen and miniftry might eafily redref 
this abominab/e grievance, by endeavouring t» 
choofc men of virtuous principles. 

Sivifi^s Przjffifor the Advancement of Relighn. 

2. Unclean. 

The foul that Ihall touch any unclean beaft, or 
any abominable unclean thing, even that foul Ihall be 
cut off from his people. Leviticus, vii. 21. 

3. In low and ludicrous language, it is 
a word of loofe and indeterminate cen- 

They fay yon Me a melancholy fcllow.^I am 
fo ; I do love it better than laughing. — Thofe 
th-t are in extremity of cither, arc abominab/e 
fellr'jvs, and betray themfelves to every modern 
cenfurr, worfe than drunkards. 

Stakeffeare'i As you fUeir. 
Abo'minableness. n. / [from abomin- 
able.] The quality of being abomin- 
able ; hatefulncfs, odioufnefs. 

Till we have proved, in its proper place, the 
eternal and cffcnlial difference between virtue And 
»i<e, we muft forbear to urge athcifts with the 
corruption and abominablinefs of their principles. 

Bentley's Sermors. 

A B o'm I !« A B I, Y . adv. [from abominable.] 
A word of low or familiar language, 
fignifying exccflively, extremely, ex- 
ceedingly ; in an ill fcnfe. It is not 
often fenoufly ufed. 

I have obicrved great abufea and diforders in 
your family ; your ferv.int3 are mutinrru* and 
i]uarielfome, and cheat you mod abonisahly. 


To ABO'MINATE. -v. a. [alminor, Lat.] 
To abhor, decdt, hate utterl/ 


Pride goes, bated, curfcd, and ahmtnated t>y 

all, Hammond* 

We arc not guilty of your injuries, 
No way confent to them ; but do ai>Iior> 
Abominatef and loath thJs cruelty. 

Southern*! Oroonok^* 

He profened both to ahommate and defpife all 

myftery, refinement, and intrigue, either in a 

prince or minifter. S^vift. 

A BO MI N a'tION. «.y*. 

1. Hatred, detertation. 

To affift king Charles by Engllfli or Dutch 

forces, would rendi^r him odious to his new fub- 
jefls, who have nothing in fo great abomination, 
as theft: whom they hold for heretic?. Sivift^ 

2. The objed of hatred. 

Every ilicphcrd is an abomination to the Egyp- 
tians. Gentjis, xlvi. 34. 

3. Pollution, defilement. 

And there fhall in no wife enter Into it any 
thing that defileth, neither whatfocver worketh 
ahminaticny or maketh a lie. Rt'v, xxi. 27. 

4. Wickednefs ; hatefol or fhameful vice. 

Th' adulterous Antony, n»eft large 
In his abcminationtf turns you oft. 
And gives his potent regiment Co a trull. 
That nofcs it agaioil: us. 

Sbakefp, Antan^ and Cleopatra, 

5. The caufe of pollution. 

And the high places ihat were before Jerufa- 
Icm, which, wcce on the right hand of the mount 
of corruption, which Solomon the king of Ifrael 
had builded for Aihtorcth the abominatkn of the 
Zldonians, and for Chemo/h the ab'.minaticn of 
the Moabites, and iot Milcom the abomination ot 
the children cf Ammon, did the king defile. 

2 fCirgSj xxiii, 13. 

JBORIGINES. n.f. [Lat.] The earlieft 
inhabitants of a country ; thofe of whom 
no original is to be traced; as, the Welfli 
in Britain. 

To ABO'RT. -v. n. [abcrto, Lat.] To bring 
fxth before the time ; to mi(carry. /)/<?. 

Abo'rtion. n.f. [uborlio, Lat.] 

1. The aft of bringing forth untimely. 

Thefe then need caufe na aborticn. Sandyi. 

2. The produce of an untimely birth. 

His wife mifcarricd ; but, as the abortion proved 
only a female foetus, he comforted himlclf. 

Arbutknot and't Martinus Scribkrui. 
Behold my arm thus blaftcd, dry and withcr'd, 
Shnjnlc like a foul alortif^n, and decay'd, 
Lilce fome untimely produ£l of the feafons. 


Abo'rtive. n.f. That which is born be- 
fore the due time. Perhaps anciently 
any thing irregularly produced. 

No common wind, no cultomcd event. 
But they wi lipluck away its nat'ral caufes. 
And call them meteors, prodigies, and figns, 
Abortives, and prcfages, tongues ot heav'n. 
Plainly denouncing vengeance upon John. 

Shakejp. King yobn. 

Take the fine (kin of an abortive, and, with 

Aarch thin laid on, prepare your ground or tablet. 

Peacbam on Dratvirtg. 

Many are preferved, and do lignal fervicc to 
their cnintry, who, without a provifion, might 
have perilled as abcrtit-es, or have come to an 
untimely end, and perhaps have brought upon 
their guilty parents the like dcftruftion. 

AJdifon. Guardian, N" 106. 

Abo'rtiyI!. ac/J, [abortiviis, Lat.] 
I . That which u brought forth before the 
due time of birth. 

If ever he have child, abtrtive be it. 
Prodigious, and untimely brought to light. 

Sbakefp. Richard n\. 
All th' unaccomplifli'd works of nature's hand. 
Abortive, monftrous, or unkindly mix'd, 
Diflo.v'd on earth, fleet liithcr. 

Mi Umi ' > Paradif; LcJI, bXa, 56. 

A B a 

Nor will his fruit expeft 
Th' autumnal fjafon, but, in fummer's pride 
When other orchards fmile, abortive fail. 


2. Figuratively, that which fails for want 
of time. 

How often haft thou waited at my cup. 
Remember it, and let it make thee creft-fall'n y 
Ay, and allay this thy abortive pride. 

Sbakefp. Henry VI. f. iu 

3. That which brings forth nothing. 

The void profound 
Of nneffential night receives him next. 
Wide-gaping ; and with utter lofs of being 
Threatens him, plurgM in that abcrtive gulfl 

Milton's Pnradifc Loji, b. ii. /. 4jr» 

4. That which fails or mifcarries, from 
whatever caufe. This is lefs proper. 

Many politic conceptions, fo elaborately formed 
and wrought, and grown at length ripe for delivery, 
do yet, in the iffue, mifcarry and prove abortive. 

South^s Sermins* 

Abo'ktively. ach). [from aborti-T.'e.'] Born 
without the due time; immaturely, un- 

Abo'rtiveness. ft. y. [from abortive.^ 
The ftate of abortion. 

Abo'r.tment. «. /. [from abort.] The 
thing brought forth out of time ; an un- 
timely birth. 

Concealed treafures, now loft to mankind, (hall 
be brought into ufe by the induftry of converted 
penitents, whole wretched carcafes the impartial 
laws dedicate, as untimely tcafts, to the worms 
of the earth, in whofe womb thofe dcfcrted mi- 
neral riches muft ever lie buried as loft aborttnen's^ 
unlefs thofe be made the adlive midwives to de- 
liver them. Bacon^s Pbyjical Remains*, 

ABO'VE. fref. [from a, and bupan, 
Saxon ; bo'ven, Dutch.] 

1. To a higher place; in a higher place. 

So when with crackling flames a cauUlron fries^ 
The bubbling waters from the bottom rife ; 
Above the brims they force their fiery way ; 
Black vapours climb aloft, and cloud the day, 

Dryden, ^mid vii. /. 643* 

2. More in quantity or number. 

E\cry one that palTeth among then), that are- 
numbered from twenty years old and above, IhaU 
give an ofF.ring unto the J^ord; 

Exodus, XXX. 14. 

3. In a fuperiour degree, or to a liiperiour 
degree of rank, power, or ex'Ccllence. 

The Lord is high above all nations, and hi» 
glory above the heavens. PJalm. cxiii. 4. 

The public power of all focicties is above every 
foul contained in the fame focicties. 

Hooker, b. i. 
There is no riches above a found body, and no 
joy above the joy of the heart. 

To her 
Thn^ didft refign thy manhood, and the place 
Wherein God fet thee above her, made of thee. 
And for thee : whofe perfc^ion far exceU'd 
Hers, In all real dignity. ' 

Milton's Paraiiife Loji. b. X. /. 147^ 
Latona fees her ihiae above the reft. 
And feeds with fecret joy her filent breaft. 

Drydeirs j-EntiJ, 

4. In a (late of being faperior to ; unai- 
• tainable by. 

It is an old and true dift'nfiion, that things 
may be above our reifon, without being contrary 
to it. Of this kind are the power, the nature, 
and the univerfal prefence of God, with innu- 
merable other points. Swift* 

5. Beyond; morfe than. 

We were prcfl'ed out of meafure, above ftrength } 
iofomuch that we defpaired even of life. 

2 Cor. \. 8. 
Jo baling thoughts voconfufed, and bciiig ab'^ 


to JiftmEulfti one thing from another, where there 
is bat the le»ft diflcrencc, confifts the exaflnefs of 
judgment »nd cleirnefs of reafon, which is in one 
man ebtn'C another. L^ckt. 

The inhabitants of Tirol liave miny privileges 
eh(n/e tliol'e of the other hereditary countries of 
thf emperor. MJifir. 

6. Too proud for ; too high for. A phrafe 
chiefly ufed in familiar expreffion. 

Kings and princes, in the earlier ages of the 

world, laboured in arts and occupations,, and were 

thvc notliing that tended to promote the con- 

\enienccs of life. I'tft'i Oiiyjly; r.Ms. 

Abo've. adv. 

I. Over-head ; in a higher place. 

To men (landing below, men Handing aloft 
feem much lelTcned ; to thofc ahcvc, men Handing 
below, feem not fo much k-fl'encd. Bacon, 

When he cftabllflied the clouds above; when 
he Ihcngtlitncd the fountains of the deep ; when 
he gave to the fca bis decree, that the waters fliould 
not pafs his ccmmandment; when he appointed 
tlie foundations of the earth ; then 1 was by him, 
us, one brought up with him ; and I was daily his 
delight, rejoicing always befire him. 

Pnyterbs, viii, 48. 

Every good gift, and every fti(a& ^ift, is from 
atovty and comcth down from the Father of 
lights, witli whom is no variablencfs, neither 
fliadow of turning., i. ij. 

The TrojansyVoBi ai^t their foes beheld ; 
And with arm'd legions all the rampircs fiil'd. 

Dryden, yEmid. 
a. In the regions of heaven. 

Your prailc the birds (hall chant in every grove, 
And winds /hall waft it to the pow'rs above. 

Pope's Pajiorah. 

3, Before. [See Above-cited.] 

I faid ahove, that thefe two machines of the ba- 
lance, and the dira, were only ornamental, and 
that the -fuccefs of the duel had been the fame 
without them. Diyd. Vedicat. ^ne'id. 

Above all. In the firft place ; chiefly. 

I ftudied Virgil's defign, his difpofition of it, 
his manners, his judicious management of the 
ii jures, the fober retrenchments of his fenfe, which 
always leaves fomethlng to gratify our imagina- 
tion, on which it may enlarge at pleafure ; but 
above ati, the elegSnce of bis expreffion, and th? 
harmony of his numbers. 

Dryden' s Dedieat'ion to the JEmid. 


I. In open fight ; without artifice or trick, 
A figurative expreffion, borrowed from 
gamefters, who, when they put their 
hands under the table, are changing 
their cards. It is ufed only in familiar 

It is the part alfo of an honed man to deal 
above-board, and without tricks. L'EJIratige. 

a. Without difguife or concealment. 

Though there have not been wanting fuch 
heretofore, as have praftifed thefe unworthy arts, 
for as much as there have been villains in all 
placet and all ages, yet now-a-days they are 
owned above-board. Soutb's Sermons. 

Above-cited. Cited before. A figu- 
rative expreffion, tak?n from the ancient 
manner of writing books on fcrolls ; 
where whatever is' cited or mentioned 
before in the fame page, mull be abeme. 

It appears from the authority abcve-cited, that 
this is afaQ confcfled by heathens thomfclves. 

yiddifon on the Cbtijiian Religion, 

Above-crovnd. An expreffion ufed to 

fignify alive ; not in the grave. 
ABOVE-MENTiONED.See Above-cited. 

1 do not remember, that Homer any whi-re falls 
into the faults above-meniioned, which were indeed 
tbe falTc refincmcats of latter ages. 

.^ddijon, Sfel}aiir,'ti<' z-jij. 


To ABO'UND. Vi n. [abundo, Ltt. abonJer, 

1. To have in great plenty; to be co- 
pioufly ftored. It is ufed fometimes 
with the particle in, and fometimes the 
particle luiih. 

The king-becoming graces, 
I have no relilb of them, but abound 
In the divifion of each fevetal crime, 
Afting it many ways. Shakejpeare's Macbeth, 

Com, wine, and oil, are wanting to this ground. 
In which our countiies fruitfully abound. 

Drydcn's Indian Emperor. 

A faithful man fliall abound tvilb bleffings : 
but he that maketh hafte tu be rich, fliall not be 
innocent. Prov. xxviii. 20. 

Now that languages are made, and abound with 
words (landing for combinations, an ulual way of 
getting complex ideas, is by the explication of 
thofe terms that (land for them. Locke. 

2. To be in great plenty. 

And becaule iniquity (hall abound, the love of 
many (hall wax cold. Matthew, xxiv. 12. 

Words are like* leaves, and where they moft 
Much fruit of fenfe beneath is rarely found. 

Pope's EJJay on Criticiftn. 

ABO'UT. frep. [abutan, or aburon. Sax. 

which feems to fignify encircling on the 

I. Round, furrounding, encircling. 

Let not mercy and truth forlake thee. Bind 
them about thy neckj write them upon the table 
of thy heart. Proverbs, iii. 3. 

She cries, and tears her cheeks, 
Her hair, her veft j and, (looping to the fands, 
Mout his neck (he cad her trembling hands. 

Dry den's Fables. 

z. Near to. 

Speak unto the congregation, faying, get you 
up from about the tabernacle of Korah, Dathan, 
and Abiram. Exodus. 

Thou doft nothing, Sergius, 
Thou cand endeavour nothing, nay, not thin?:, j 
But I both fee and hear it; and am with thee. 
By and before, about and in thee too. 

Ben yonf. Cataline. 

. Concerning, with regard to, relat- 
ing to. 

When Conrtantine had (inifhed an houfe for 
the fervice of God at Jcrufalem, the dedication 
he judged a matter not unworthy, about the fo- 
Icmn performance whereof, the greatcft part ol 
the bifliopsin Chriftendom (hould meet together. 

The painter is not to take fo much pains about 
the drapery as about the face where the principal 
refemblance lies. Drydrn. 

They arc moft frequently ufed as words equi- 
valent, and do both of tliem indifferently fignify 
either a fpeculative knowledge of things, or a 
praftlcal (kill about them, according to the exi- 
gency of the matter or thing fpoken of. 

^ill.t. Sermon i. 
Theft is always a fin, although the particular 
fpecies of it, and the denomination of particular 
a^s, doth fuppofe pofitivelawstf^cur dominion and 
property. SiilUn^Jlcct. 

Children (hould always be heard, and fairlj and 
kindly anfwcred, when they afk after any thing they 
would know, and defire to be informed abcut. 
Curiofity (hould be as carefully cheridied in chil- 
dren, as other appetites fupprefled* Locke. 
It hath been pra^ifed as a method of making 
men's court, when they are a(ked abiut the ratr 
of lands, the abilities of tenants, the (late of 
trade, to anfwer that all things are in a flourifh- 
ing condition. Sivift's Short yie^u of Inland. 

^. In a ftate of being engaged in, or em- 
ployed upon. 

Our blelfed Lord was pleafed to command the 
rcprefentation of his death and facrilice on the 
crofi (hould be made by bieaking of bread and 


elTufion of wine ; to fignify to ui the nature anl 
facrednefs of the liturgy we an about. Taykr. 

Labour, for labour's fake, is againll nature. 
The underftanding, as well as all the other fa- 
culties, choofcs always the /horted way to iu 
end, would prefently obtain the knowledge ir is 
about, and then fet upon fome new enquiry. But 
this, whether laainefs or hafte, often mKleada 
«• Locie. 

Our armies ought to be provided with fecre- 
Urics, to tell their ftory in plain tngliih, and to 
let us know, in our mother tongue, what it is 
our brave countrymen are about. 

Mdifin. Spelt. N" 309. 

5. Appendant to the perfon ; as deaths. 

If you have this about jou. 
As I will give you when we go, you may 
Boldly affault the necromancer's hall. 

Milton's Comus, 

It is not ftrange to me, that perfons of the 

fairer fex (hould like, in all things about them, 

that handfomenefs for which they find themfelves 

moft liked. Boyle on Colours. 

6. Relating to the perfon, as a fervant, or 


Liking very well the young gentleman, fuch I 
took him to be, admitted this Deiphantus about 
roe, who well (hewed, there is no fervice like hi* 
that ferves becaufe he loves. Sidney, b. ii. 

7. Relating to perfon, as an aft or office. 

Good coiporal, for my old dame's fake, ftand 
my friend : (he hath no body to do any thing 
about her when I am gone, and die is old and can- 
not^ help herl'clf. Sbakcjpeare's Henry IV. 
Abo'ut. ati'v. 

I. Circularly, in a round ; eircum. 
The weyward fiders, hand in hand, 
Pofters of the fea and land. 
Thus do go about, about. 
Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine. 
And thrice again to make up nine. 

Sbakefp, Macleti. 

:. In circuit, in compafs. 

I'll tell you what I am about. — Two yards and 
more.— No quips now, Piftol : indeed I am in 
the waid two yards about} but I am about no 
wade, I am about thrift. Shake/pearl. 

A tun about was ev'ry pillar there, 
A polifh'd mirrour (hone not half fo clear. 

Diyd. Fables. 
j. Nearly; circiler. 

When the boats were come within about fixty 
yards of the pillar, they found themfelves all 
bound, and could go no farther; yet fo as they 
might move to go about, but might not approach 
nearer. Bacon's New yitalantis. 

J.. Here and there ; every way ; circa. 
Up role the gentle virgin from her place, 
And looked all about, if (he might fpy 
Her lovely knight. 

Fairy Sluecn, b. i. cant. 'u. Jlanx, 33. 

A wolf that was pad labour, in his old age, 

borrows a habit, and (b about he goes, begging 

charity from door to door, under the difguife of a 

pi'gfim. L'E/lrange, 

5. With to before a verb ; as, about to fly, 
upon the point, within a fmall dirtance 

Thefe dying lovers, and their floating fons, 
Sufpend the fight, and filence all our guns : 
Beauty and youth, abjut to pcrilh, finds 
Such ncble pity in brave Englilh minds. Waller, 

6. Round ; the longeft way, in oppofition 
to the Ihort llraight way. 

Gold had thefe natures; gieatnefs of weight; 
dofenefs of parts ; fixation; pliantncfs, or I'oft- 
ncfs ; immunity from raft ; colour, or tindlure 
of yellow: Therefore the fure way (though mod 
about) to make golcl,>s to know the caulcs of the 
fevcral natures before rehearftd. 

Baccn'i Natural Hift. N" yii. 
Spies ot the Volfcians 
Held me ia chacc, that i was forced to wheel 


A B R 

Three or faar miles aiout ; elk h«J I, Sir, 
Hall an hour fince brought my report. 

_ Sbakrfp, Corklanu$, 

7. To bring about ; to bring to the point 
or ftate defired ; as, he has brought about 
his furpofes, 

Wiiether this will be brought aioof, by breaking 
his Iiead, I very much queition. Spfdanr. 

8. To come about ; to ccjie to fbme certain 
iiate or point. It has commonly the 
idea of revolution, or gyration. 

Wherefore it cime to pals, when the time was 
come ahcu!, alter Hannah had conceived, that (he 
*>"« ' fo"- I Snm. i. 20. 

One evening it befel, that looking out, 
The wind they long had wirtid was come aio/,/ ; 
Well pleas'd they went to reft ; and if the gale 
Till morn continu'd, both refolv'd to fall. 


9. To go about ; to prepare to do it. 

Did not Mofes give you the law, and yet none 
o( you keepeth the law ? Why go ye about to kill 

^^ • y^b"t vii. 19, 

In common language, they fay, to 

come about a man, to circum-vent him. 
Some of thefe phrafes feem to derive 

their original from the French a bout ; 

'veitir a bout d'une cho/e ; njcnir a bout de 

A. Bp. for Archbifhop ; which fee. 
^BRACADA'BRJ. A fuperftitious charm 

againft agues. 
To ABRA'DE. v. a. [abrado, Lat.] To 

rub off ; to wear away from the other 

parts ; to wafte by degrees. 

By thi« itieanj there may be a continued fap- 
ply of what IS lucccflively ahradid from them by 
dccurfinn of wale t. Hale. 

Abraham's Balm. The name of an 

Abra'siom. (I./ [See Abrade.] 

1. The adl of abrading, or rubbiog off. 

2. [In medicine.] The wearing away of 
the natural mucus, which covers the 
membranes, particularly thofe of the 
ftomach and guts, by corrofive or Iharp 
medicines, or humours. ^'>uincy. 

3. The matter worn off by the attrition of 

ABRE'AST.a^/t;. [See Breast.] Side by 
fide ; in fuch a pofition that the breads 
may bear againft the fame line. 

My coufin Suffolk, 
My foul (hall thine keep company to hcav'n ! 
Tarry, fweet foul, for mine, then fly abrraft. 

_ . Xhakrff. H,nry V. 

For hon.iur travels in a Sreight fo narrow. 
Where one but goes abicajl, 

_, . Stakcff.TnUuiandCreJpJa. 

The riders rode abrtaft, and one his (hielH, 
His lance of cornel wood another held. 

4. _ Drydtn't Fttla. 

ABRicoT. See Apricot. 

To nRI'DGE. -v. a. [abreger, Fr. abbre- 

•vio, Lat.] 
I. To make Ihorter in words, keepine 

ftill the fame fubftance. 

All thefe fayings, being declared by Jafm of 
Cyrene in 6ye books, we will effay to abridit in 
one volume. i Af^rr.ii. 23. 

3. To contraa, to diminifti, to cut (hort. 

. 7,^' determination of the will, upon enouiry, 
IS following the direftion of that guide : and he, 
that ha. a power to aO or not to aft, according 
as fuch determination direfls, i. free. Such de- 
termination abridga not that power wherein li- 
berty confifts. Loikc 

3. To deprive of ; to W off from. In" 
Vol. I. 

A B R 

which fenfe it is followed by the particle 
from, or of, preceding the thing uken 

I have difaWed mine eftate. 
By (hewing fomcthing a more fwelling poit. 
Than my faint means would grant continuance ; 
Nor do I now make moan to be abridgd 
From fuch a noble rate. 

Shaktjpcare'i Merchant of Venice. 
They were formerly, by the common law, dif- 
charged from pontage and murage j but this pri- 
vilege has been abridrid them fince by fe>eral 
ftatutes. Ayhfe~! PaiergcK Jurn CwrMci 

AhKi DGED OF. fa-t. Deprived of, de- 
barred from, cut fliort, 
Abri'dger. n.f. 

1. He that abridges ; a Ihortener. 

2. A writer of compendiums or abridg- 

A B R i'd G M E N T. »./. [abregcfnent, French.] 

1. The epitome of a larger work con- 
tradled into a fmall compafs ; a com- 
pend ; a fummary. 

Surely this commandment containeth the law 
and the prophets; and, in thi; one word, is the 
abridgment of alt volumes of Icripture. 

Hookcry b. ii. ^ 5. 
Idolatry is certainly the firft-born of folly, the 
great and leading paradox ; nay, the very abridg- 
ment and fum total of all abfu.ditics. 

. Soutb*s Sermon:, 

2. A diminution in general. 

All trying, by a love of littlcncfs, 
To make abrid^menti, and to draw to lefs. 
Even that nothing, which at firft wc were. 
_^ . Dcnne. 

3. Contraction ; redudion. 

The conftant delire of happincfs, and the con- 
ftraint it puts upon Us, no body, I think, ac- 
counts an abridgment of liberty, or at lead an 
abridgment of liberty to be complained of. Locke. 

4. Rertraint from any thing pleafing ; 
contraftion of any thing enjoyed. 

It is not barely a man's abridgment in his ex- 
ternal accommodations which makes him mife- 
rable, but when his confcieoce (hall tell him that 
It was his fin and his folly which brought him 
under that abridgment. South. 

Abro'ach. ad'i/. [See 7"o Broach.] 

1. In a pofture to run out, or yieltl the 
liquor contained; properly fpoken of 

The jars of genVous wine 
He fet abroach, and for the fcaft prepar'd. 

Dryd. Virgil. 
TheTempler fpnice, while ev'ry (foui'tabroach. 
Stays till 'tis fair, jet feems to call a coach. 

S-wifi't Mifcel. 

2. In a figurative fenfe ; in a ftate to be 
diffufed or extended, in a ftate of fuch 
beginning as promifes a progrefs. 

That man, that fits within a monarch's heart. 
And ripens in the funlhinc of his favour. 
Would he abufr the count'nance of the king. 
Alack ! what mifchiefs might be let abroach. 
In (hadow of fuch greatncfs ! 

, Shakefprari't Henry IV.p.W. 

Abroad, adv. [compounded of a and 
broad. See Broad.] 

1. Without confinement; widely; at large. 

Intermit no watch 
Againft a wakeful foe, while I abroad. 
Thro' all the coafts of dark dcrtruclion feek 
Ucliverancp. Mihon'i Paradife Loft, b. ii. /. 463. 

Again, the lonely fox roams (it abroad. 
On Itcret rapine bent, and midnight fraud; 
Now haunts the cli(r, now traver(es the lawn. 
And flies the hated neighbourhood of man. Prior. 

2. Out of the houfe. 

Welcome, Sir, 
This cfU'« my coyrt ; here h»v« I few attendants. 

A B R 

And fubjefts t\one abroad. Shaicfpeare'iTcmpeJl, 
Lady — walked a whole hour abroad, with- 
out dying after it, Pope's Letters. 

3. In another country. 

They thought it better to be fomewhat hardly 
yoked at home, than for ever abroad, and difcre- 
dited. Hooker, Prrf. 

Whofoever olTers at verbal tranflatioii, (hall 
have the misfortune nf that young traveller, who 
loft his own language abroad, md brought home 
no other inftead of it. Sir J. Denham- 

What learn our youth abroad, but to refine 
The homely vices of tlieir native land ? 

Dryd. Span. Friar, 

He who fojoums in a foreign country, relera 
what he krs and hears abroad, to tlie ftate of 
things at home. _ Atfrrb. Serm. 

4. In all dire<5lio!is, this way and that ; 
with wide expanfion. 

Full in the midft of this infernal road. 
An elm difplays her dulky arms abroad, 

Dryd, Virg, Mh, Tl. 

5. Without, not within. 

Bodies politic, being fubjcdl, as much as na- 
tural, to dili'olurion, by divers means, there are 
undoubtedly more ftatcs overthrown through dif- 
oaiei bred within themlelves, than through vio- 
lence from abroad. Hooker, Dedication. 

To A'BROGATE.i-.a. [abrogo, La.t.] Ta 
take away from a law its force ; to re- 
peaL; to annul. 

Laws have been made upon fpecial occafions, 
which occailons cealing, laws of that kind do ab~ 
rotate themlelves. Hooker, b. iv. (j 14. 

The negative precepts of men may ccafe by 
rnany inftrumcnts, by contrary cuftoms, by pub- 
lic difrelilh, by long omiflion : but the negative 
precepts of CoJ never can ceafe, but when they 
are exprefsly abrogated by the fame authority. 

Taylor's Rule of living holy, 
Abro'gation. n.f. [abrogatio, Lat.] 
The ad of abrogating ; the repeal of S 

The commi/Tionen from the confederate Ro. 
man catholics, demanded the ahregatioinnA repeal 
or all thofe laws, which were in force againft the 
exercife of the Roman religion. Clarendon, b. viii. 
Ta Abro'ok. <v. a. [from To brook, with 
^ fuperabundant, a word not in ufe.] 
To brook, to bear, to endure. 

Sweet Nell, ill can thy noble minJ abrott 
The abjcd people gazing on thy face 
With envious looks, ftill laughing at thy (hnme. 
Shake/peare's Henry VI. p. ii. 

ABRU'PT. adj. [abruftus, Lat. broke* 

1. Broken, craggy. 

Refiftlcls, roaring, dreadful, down it come* 
From the rude mountain, and the mo4ry wild. 
Tumbling through rocks abrupt. ThomJ. fVintfr, 

2. Divided, without any thing intervening. 

Or fprcad his airy flight. 
Upborn wi^h indefatigable wings. 
Over the vaft abrupt, ere he arrive 
Tlic happy ide. 

Milton's Paradife Loft, A ii. /. 409s 

3. Sudden, without the cuftomary or pro- 
per preparatives. 

My lady craves 
To know the caufe of your aira^r departure. 


The abrupt and unkind breaking off the two 

(irft parliaments, was wholly imputed to the duke 

of Buckingham. Clarendon, 

Abrupt, with eagle-fpeed (he cut th« flcy j 
Inftant invifible to mortal eye. 
Then (irft he recognii'd th' ethereal gueft. 

Pope's Odyff. b, !, 

4. Unconnefted. 

The abrupt ftile, which hath many breache% 
and doth not fccm to end but fall. 

Btn Jonjon't Difcoverj. 
C AfiRv'pTeU. 

A B S 

Abhu'pteo. aJj. [ahruptui, Lat. a word 
little in ufe.] Broken off fuddenly. 

The tffcCti of their afl. . ity »r« not prccipi- 
toudy atmftal, but grjdunlly proceed to their 
ccfTitions. Bntvii'i Vulgar F.rnurt, h. vi. lo. 

Abru'ption. »./[a^-«,v/(>,Lat.] Break- 
ing ofF, violent and fudden reparation. 

Thofe which are inclofcd in rtone, marble, or 
fuch other fdid matter, being difficultly feparable 
from it, becaufe of its adhefion to all fides of 
them, ba»e commonly fome of that matter ftill 
adhering to them, or at leaft marks of its «i- 
npiiiti from them, in all their fides. 

H'rtil'aHird'i Nal. Uift. p. 4- 

ABRu'pTLY.a/f. [See Abrupt.] Haf- 
tily, without the due forms of prepara- 

The fvreetnefs of virtue's difpofition, jealous 
nen over itfclf, fuffered her not to enter ahrufily 
into queftions of Mufidorus. Sidney, h.W. 

Novn miffing from their joy fo lately found, 
So lately found, and fo abruptly gone. 

Par. Regained, h, il. 
They both of them punftually obfervcd the 
time thus agreed upon, and that in whatever com- 
pany or bufinefs they were engaged, they left it 
atruplh, as foon as the clock warned them to 
retire. yiddijoit, Sfeflalor, tt" z^i. 

Abru'ptness. »./ [from airuft.] 
I. An abrupt manner, halle, fuddennefs, 

ujitimely vehemence. 
3. The ftate of an abrupt or broken thing ; 
roughncfs, cragginefs ; as of a fragment 
violently disjoined. 

The cryftalliied bodies found in the perpendi- 
cular intervals, have always their root, as the jew- 
ellers call it, whicl\ is only tlie airufrne/s, at ihc 
end of the body whereby it adhered to the ftonc, 
or fides of the intervals; which ahruftne/i is 
cauled by its being broke off from the faid ftone. 
lymdiv. Nat, Hiji.f. 4. 

A'bscess. »./. [ahfceffui, Lat.] A mor- 
bid cavity in the body ; a tumour filled 
with matter ; a term of chirurgery. 

If the patient is not relieved, nor dies in eight 
days, the inflammation ends in a fimpuration and 
an abjeeft in the lungs, and fometimes in fome 
other part of the body. Arbuth. of Diet. 

Lindanus conjcfturcd it might He fome hidden 
ebftefi in the mefenlery, which, breaking fome 
few days after, was difcovered to be an apoftem of 
the mcfentery. Harvey w Confumptiom. 

To Absci'nd. oi. a. To cut off, either 
in a natural or figurative fenfe. 

ABSCrSSA. [Lat.] Part of the diame- 
ter of a conic fedion, intercepted be- 
tween the vertex and a femi -ordinate. 

Absci'ssion. n.f. \_abfc}JJio, Lat.] 

I . The aft of cutting off. 

Fabricius ab Aquipendente renders the abfcif- 
Jim of them difficult enough, and not without 
danger. Hfifeman's Surgery. 

X. The (late of being cut off. 

By cefTation of oracle;, with Montacutius, wc 
may u.idcrfland this inteicilian, not ahfcij^m, or 
confummate defolaiion. 

Brown's y^Igar Errours, h. vi. e. it. 

To ABSCCyND. -v.n. [ah/condo, Lat.] To 
hide one's felf ; to retire from the pub- 
lic view : generally nfed of perfons in 
debt, or criminals iluding the law. 

The macrootte or mas alpinut, w'.iich ahfcindt all 
winter, liv-:" on its own Ut ; for ia autumn, when 
it fhbU itfelf up in iu hole, it is very fa:; hit 
in the fprlog-time, when it cumes forth again, very 
lean. Ray on the Creation. 

Absco'nder. n./. [£.-osa at/conJ.] The 

perfon that abfconds. 
A'ssENCk. «./ [Sec Absent.] 

A B S 

1. The Rate of being abfettt, oppofed to 

Sir, 'tis fit 
You hxve ftrong party to detend yourfelf 
By calmuefs, or by abfence: all's in danger. 

Sbakcjpeare^ i Coriolanut* 
His friends beheld, and pity'd him in vain. 
For what advice can eafe a lover's pain ? 
Ahjtnte, the belt enpedient they c^iuld find. 
Might bve the fortune, if not cure the mind. 


You have given no dilTertation upon the ab- 

feme of lovers, nor laid down any methods how 

they diould fupport theinfelves under thofe fcpa- 

rations. j-lMiifon, Spe^atcr, t^° ztyi. 

2. Want of appearance, in the legal fenfe. 

MJence is of a fourfold kinji or fpccies. The 
firft is a neccflTary abfence, as in baniihed pcifons ; 
this is entirely neceffary. A fccond, neceflary 
and voluntary ; as, upon the account of the com- 
monwealth, or in the fervice of the church. 
The third kind the civilians call a probable ab- 
fence; as, that of Undents on the fcore of ftudy. 
And the fourth, an ai/<rnf« entirely voluntary ; as, 
on the account of trade, merchandife, and the 
like. Some add a fifth kind of abfence, which is 
committed cum dolo fif culpa, by a man's non- 
appearance on a citation ; as, in a contumacious 
perfon, who, in hatred to his contumacy, is, by 
the law, in fome refpe^s, reputed as a perfon pre- 
fcnt. Ayl'tffc's Parergon Juris Canonici. 

3. Inattention, heedleffnefs, negleft of the 
prefent objeft. 

I continued my walk, rcfleSing on the I'ttle 
abfences and diftradlions of mankind. 

Addifon, SpeSiator, N° 77. 

4. It is ufed with the particle/rom. 

His abjence from his mjther oft he'll mourn. 
And, with his eyes, look wifhes to return. 

Dryd. Juv. Sat. ii. 

A'BSENT. fl^-. [a/5>/, Lat.] 

1. Not prefent: ufed with the particle 

In fpring the fields, in autumn hills I love ; 
At morn the plains, at noon the fhady grove ; 
But Delia always : abfentfrom her fight. 
Nor plains at morn, nor groves at noon delight. 


Where there is advantage to be given. 
Both more and lefs have given him the revolt ; 
And none fervc with him but conftraincJ things, 
Whofe hearts are abjent too. Stake/p. Macbeth. 

Whether they were abfcnt or prefent, they were 
vexed alike. If^fJ. xi. 11. 

2. Abfent in mind, inattentive ; regard- 
lefs of the prefent objeft. 

I diftinguifh a min that is abfcnt, becaufe he 
thinks of fomething clfe, from him that is aijeni, 
becaufe he thinks of nothing. 

Mdifon, SpeHator, N° 77. 

To Abse'nt. v. a. To withdraw, to for- 
bear to come into prefence. 

If thoa didft ever hold me in thy heart, 
Mjtnt thee from felicity a while. 
And in this harfli world draw thy breath in pain. 
To tell my tale. Shakejpenre i Hamlet, 

Co.— for thy ftay, not free, abfenis thee more. 

Ml/ton I Paradife Loft, b.\x. I. 372. 
Tho' I am forc'd thus to a!>frnt myfelf 
From all I love, I Qiall contrive fome means. 
Some friendly intervals, to vifit thee. 

Southern's Spartan Dame, 

The ^engo it ftlll called together in cafes of 

important; and if, after due fummons, any 

member ahfenis himfelf, he is to be fined to the 

' value of about a penny Engtith. 

Addifon's Remarks on Italy, 

Absent a'neous. aJj, Relating to ab- 
fence ; abfent. Did. 

Ausente'e. It./. He that is abfent from 
his llation or employment, or country. 
A word ufed commonly with regard to 
IriQimen living out of their country. 

A B S 

Then w»l the firft ftatute made agaioft ahfmttei, 
commanding all fuch as had land in Ireland, to 
return and refide tlie«upon. 

S:r yobn Davies en Irelard* 
A f real part of ellaDes io Ireland are ownei by 
abfeniat, and fuch as draw over the profits raifed 
out of Irrland, refunding notlung. 

Child's Di/coarfe en Trade, , 
Absi'nthi ATED. fart, [(rova ai/iiilhitim, 
Lat. wormwood.] Imbittercd, impreg- 
nated with wormwood. DUi, 
To Absi'st. nj. It. [aifi/o, L^t.] To Hand 
off, to leave off. />'<*• 
To ABSCLVE. i). a. [ab/olvo, Lat.] 

1. To clear, to acquit of a crime in a ju- 
dicial fenfe. 

Your great goodnefs, out of holy pity, 
Abjulv'd him with an axe. Shakrjp, Henry VIII. 

Our vidlort, bleftin peace, forget their wars. 
Enjoy pad dangers, and abfilve the ftars. Tickell. 

As he hopes, and gives out, by the influence of 
his wealth, to be here abfil-ved ; in condemning 
tliis man, you have an opportunity of belying 
that general fcandal, of rediiiir.lng the cr-dit loli 
by former judgments. Stvift's Mifelltmej. 

2. To fet free from an engagement or 

Compell'd by thrratJ to take that bloody oath. 
And the aft ill, I am abfoh'd by both. 

IVatlers Maid's Tragedy, 
This command, which muft neceffarily com- 
prehend the perfons of our natural fathers, muft 
mean a duty we owe them, diHinft from our obe- 
' dience to the magiflrate, and from which the 
mjft abfolute power of princes cannot ahfolvt 
us. . . Laete. 

3. To pronounce fin remitted, in the ec- 
clefiaftical fenfe. 

But all is calm in this eternal fleep ; 
Here grief forgets to groan, and love to weep ; 
Ev'n fupcrftition lofes ev'ry fear ; 
For God, not man, abfohes our frailties here. 

Pope's Eloifa to Aitlari, 

4. To finilh, to complete. This ufe is 
not common. 

What caiife 
MoT'd the Creator, in his holy reft 
Through all eternity, fo late to build 
In chaos ; and the work begun, how foon 
Ahjolv'd, Milton's Paradije LoH, b. vii. /. 94. 

If that which is fo fuppoled infinitely dillant 
from what is now current, is d'ftant from us by 
a finite interval, and not infinitely, then that on* 
circulation wiiich preceded it, muft necelTarily be 
like ours, and confcquently abjolved in the fpace 
of twenty-four hours. Hale's Origin of Mankind, 
A'bsolute. ezif/, [ahfolutus, Lat.] 

1. Complete; applied as well to perfons 
as things. 

Beciule the things that proceed from him art 
perfedl, without any manner of defeft or maim ; 
it cannot be but that the words oi his mouth ate 
alfolute, and lack nothing which they fliouid have, 
for performance of that thing whrreunto they 
tend. Hcokcr, i. ii. ^ 6. 

What is his ftrength by land ? — 
—Great and increafing : but by fea 
He is an aiflule miftcr. ' 

Shakefpeare's Antony and Cleopatra, 

2. Unconditional ; as, an abfolute promife: 

Although it runs in forms alf'uie, yet it ij 
indeed conditional, as depending upon the qualifi- 
cation of the perfon to whom it is pronounced. 

S'Mth'i Sermmi, 

3. Not relative ; as, abfolute fpace. 

I fee ftill the diftinQions of fovert'ign and in- 
ferior, of abhlute and relative worlhip, will bear 
any man out in the worrtiip of any creature with 
rcfpcfl to Cod, as well at leaft as ic doth in the 
worlhip of images. 

HiiHingf. Def, of Dife. m Rom, Idol, 

An abfolute mode is that which belongs to ic« 

fubjeil, without rcfpeft to any other biings what'. 

locvet J 

A B S 

ftntr; but > relative mode is derived from the 
regird that one being has to othert. 

fKitts's Lsgici, 

In this fenfe we fpeak of the ablative 
cafe ahfoiute in grammar. 

4. Not limited ; as, ahfohite power. 

My crown is ahj(^viey a^ holds of none; 
I cannot in a bale fubjeftion live. 
Nor fuffcr you to take, tho' I would give. 

Dryd, Ud. Emp. 

5. Pofitive ; certain ; without any hefita- 
tion. In this fenfe it rarely occurs. 

Long is it fince I faw him, 
But time hath nothing blurr'd thofc lines of favour, 
Which then he w.:re; the fnatches in his voice. 
And burtl of fpcaking, were as his : I'm ahfoiute, 
'Twas very Cl<iten, Shakeflieare^i Cymbefwe. 

A'bsolutei.y. aJ'v. [from abfoluteJ] 
1. Completely, without reftriftion. 

All the conirad^^ions which grow in thofe 
mind-:, that neither cbfoiutely climb the roclc oi 
Ttrtue, nor freely Gnlc into the fea of vanity. 


What merit they can build upon having joined 
with a proteliant army, under a king they ac- 
knowledge, to defend their own liberties and pro- 
perties, !», to me, ahJrJvtety inconceivable ; and, 
1 believe, will equally be fo i^r ever. 

Sic'iji's Vrijh. Plea. 

z. Without relation ; in a ftate uncon- 

Alj'Auuly we cannot difcommend, we cannot 
abjr)iutely approve either willingnefs to live, or for- 
wardncfs to die, hooker, b, v. 

Thefe then being the perpetual caufes of leal ; 
the grejtcft good, or th-: grcateft evil; cither o^- 
fblu'ely fo in th^mtelvc, or relatively fo to usj it 
is theieforeg'vd to bezealoully aSe^ed for the one 
agiinft the titlicr. Sfrofs Sermoai. 

■No fenfible quality, as light, and colour, and 
heat, and found, can be lublilrent in the bodies 
themfelves, uhjolutely coadticred, wirhouta relation 
to our eyes and ears, and other orgini of fenle. 
Thefe qualities are only the efiedls of our fenfa- 
tlor, which ariic from the different motions, upon 
our nervcv from ol.jefts without, according to 
•heir various modiiicationa and pofitions. 

Ecntley^i Sermonu 

3. Without limits or dependance. 

The prnvc long time bad courted fortune's love, 
But, once puli(!.i'd, did jbfclurely reign : 
Thus, with their Arnazons, the heroes drove. 
And coiT^uer'd fiill thofe beauties they would gain. 
Drydm'i jliiTtut M:rabilii. 

4. Without condition. 

And of that nature, for the mnft part, are 
things abfilutely anto all men's filvation neccffary, 
either to be held or denied, either to be done 01 
avoided. Jlccier'i Preface. 

5. Peremptorily; pofitively. 

Being as I am, why didll not thoa 
Command me abj^lutrly not to go, 
Going into fuch danger, as thou fiidft } 

Farad. X-c^, h. Ix. 
A'bsoluteness. n.f.\^\om.abfjMt.'\ 

1. Completenefs. 

2. Freedom from dep£ndance, or limits. 

The abjotuttneji and illimitednefs of his com- 
irJlTiun was generally much fpoken of. 

Clarendon, b. viii. 

There is nothing that can raife a man to that 
generous abfo'utinejt of condition, as neither to 
ctingc, to fawn, or to depend meinly ; but that 
wbich gives hiin that happinefs within himfelf, for 
which men depend upon othersi Seulb'i Serm. 

3. Defpoticifm. 

He kept a ftrait hand on his nobility, and chofe 
rather to ailvance clergymen and lawyers, which 
were more obfcquinus to him, but had lefs inti.-eft 
in the people ; which made for his abjotuieneft, but 
not for his fafety. Bacon'i Henry VII 

They dref? up ^ower with all the fplendor and 
temptation abfilutrr-js can add to it. Lo it. 

Absolu'tion. «./ [ai/hlulie, Lat.] 

A B S 

1. Acquittal. 

jibjohithn, in the civil law, imports a full ac- 
quittal of a perfon by fome final fenience of law ; 
alfo, a temporary difchargc of his farther atten 
dance upon a mefne procefs, though a failure or 
defeft in pleading j as it does likewifc in the canon 
law, where, and among divines, it likcwife figni- 
fies a relaxation of him from the obligation of 
fome fentence pronounced either in a court of l.iw, 
or eife \nforo paemteniiol'i. Thus there is, in this 
kind of law, one kind of ahjohuton, termed ju- 
dicial, and another, ftyled a declaratory or extra- 
judicial abjotution^ 

Ayliffe'i Parergon Jur'n Canor.ici. 

2. The remiflion of fins, or penance, de- 
clared by ecclefiaftical authority. 

The abjalutkji pronounced by a prieit, whether 
papiftor proicftant, is nota certain infallible ground 
to give the perfnn, fo abfolved, confidence towards 
God. Soutb't Sermons. 

A'bsolutory. eie/J. [ab/olutorius , Lat.], 
That which abfolves. 

Though an abfoiiit'.ry fentence (hould be pro- 
nounced in favour of the perlons, upon the ac- 
count of nearnefs of blood ; yet, if adultery fliall 
afterwards be truly proved, he may be ajain pro- 
ceeded againll as an adulterer. A\!\^e'i Ptrergon. 

^ nQfi f,i>T . adj . [SeeAssoNOus.] Con- 
trary to reafon, wide from the purpofe. 

A'bsbnous. adj. [ai/oims, Lzt. ill-found- 
ing.] Abfurd, contrary to reaibn. It 
is not much in ufe, and it may be 
doubted whether it fhould be followed 
by to or_/rj«. 

To fuppofe an uniter of a middle conltitution, 
that Ihculd partake of fome of the qualities ot 
both, is unwarranted by any of our faculties j yea, 
moft abjorous to our reafon. 

Clanx'iile't Scepjis Siientijtea, c- 4. 

To Abso'rb. f . a. \ahforbeo, Lat. preter. 

abjorbed; part. pret. abjorbed, or ab- 

I . To fwallow up. 

Mofes imputed the deluge to the difiuption of 
the abyfs ; and St. Peter to the particular conltitu- 
tion of that earth, which made it obnoxious to be 
abftrpt in water. Burn. Tbeory. 

Some tokens fliew 
Of fearlefs friendftirp, and their finking mates 
Sullain ; vain love, tho" laudable, al.j'.rft 
By a fierce eddy, they together found 
The vaft profundity. Pbillift. 

z. To fuck up. See Absorbfnt. 

The evils that come of rxercife are that it doth 
abforb and attenuate the moillurc of the body. 

Suppofing theforementinnedconfumption fliould 
prove fo durable, as to abforb and extenuate the 
faid fanguine parts to an extreme degree, it ii 
evident, that the fundamental parts mu^ necclfa- 
riiy come into danger. Hanvey on Confum/nhni. 
While we perfpire, we abforb the outward air. 

Abso'rbent. »./. \abforbem, Lat.] 

A medicine that, by the foftnefs or 
porofity of its parts, either cafes the 
afperities of pungent humours, or dries 
away fupcrfluous moillure in the body. 

There is a third dafs of fubftances, commonly 
called abforbentt ; as, the various kinds ai (hell-, 
coral, chalk, crabi eyes, feft. which likewife laUc 
an etftrvefccnce with aclds,and are therefore called 
alkalis, though not fo properly, for they are not 
f-ilts. Arbuthnot on Altmenti. 

Abso'rpt. /«»-/. [{rom ab/orb.] Swallow- 
ed up ; ufed as well, in a figurative 
fenfe, of perfons, as, in the primitive, 
of things. 

W^iiat can you cxpe£l from a man, who has not 
talked thefe five days? wb» is withdrawiog his 

A B 9 

thoughts, as far as he can, from all thi preftnt 

wjild, its cuftoms and its manners, to be fully 
poffiilVed and abforft in the part. Pope's Letters, 

Abso'rption. )',yi [from fl^''"'^-] "^^^ 
&&. of fwallowing up. 

It. was belowtlie dignity of thofe facred penmen, 
or the Spirit of God that direQed them, to fliew 
us the caufes of this difruption, or of this abfrp- 
tion J this is left to the enquiries of men. 

Burnet's Theory of the Earth. 
To ABSTA'IN. t;. r. [abjiineo, Lat.] To 
forbear, to deny one's felf any gratifi- 
cation ; with the particle_/ro/». 

If thou judge it hard and difficult, 
Converfing, looking, loving, to abflain 
Friminvc's due rites, nuptial embraces fweet; 
And, with defires, to languiih without hope. 

Miilon's Paradife Loft, b. I. /. 993. 

To be perpetually lonjing, and impatiently dc- 

firous of any thing, fo that a man cannot abftam 

from it, is to lofe a man's liberty, and to become 

a fervant of meat and drink, or fmoke. 

'Taylor s Rule of Iwing bolyt 
Even then the doubtful b;ilows fcarce abfiain 
From the tofs'd vcflel on the troubled main. 

. Drydens Vtrgil. 

ABSTE'MIOUS. adj. {abjiemius, Lat.] 
Temperate, fober, abftinent, refrain- 
ing from excels or pleafur^s. It is ufed 
of perfons ; as, an abjitmious hermit: 
and of thiivgs ; as, an abjiemhus diet. 
It is fpoken likewife of things that caufc 

The inllances of longevity are chiefly amongft 
the abfiemious. Abftinencc in extremity will prove 
a mortal dileafe; but the experiments of it ate 
very rare. Arbuthnot on Aliments. 

Clytorean ftreams the love of wine expel, 
(Such is the virtue of th'^ wk-W) 
Whether the colder nymph that rules the flood, 
Extinguiflies, and balks the drunken god : 
Or that Mclampus (fo have fome alfur'd) 
When the maJ Pi.-etides with charms he cur'd, 
And pow'rful lierba, both charms and fimples call 
Into the fober fpring, where itill their virtues laft. 
Drydens Fables. 

Abste'miously. adv. [from abjlemious.^ 
Temperately, foberly, without indul- 
Abste'miousness. n. f. [See Abste- 
mious.] The quality of being ablle- 
Abste'ntion. n.f. [fromab/fitteo, Lat.] 
The ad of holding off, or reftraining ; 
rellraint. Z>;V?, 

To ABSTE'RGE. 'V. a. [abjlergo, Lat.] 

To cleanfe by wiping ; to wipe. 
Abste'rcient. adj. Cleanfing; having 

a cleanfing quality. 
To Abste'rse. [See Absterg-e.] To 
cleanfe, to purify ; a word very little 
in ufe, and lefs analogical than abjierge. 
Nor will \vc affirm, that iron receivcth, in ths 
ftomach of the oftrich, no alteration j but we fuf- 
peit tills effeil rather from corrofion than digeA 
tion J not any tendence to chilification by the na- 
tural heat, but rather fome attrition from an acid 
and" vitriolous humidity in the ftomach, which 
may abflerfe and ihavc the fcorious parts thereof. 
Br'jtvns Vulgar Errours, b. iii. 

Abste'rsion. 11. j'. [abjlerjio, Lat.] The 
aft of cleanfing. See Absterge. 

Ahjlerfian is plainly a fcouring off, or incifion of 
the more vifcous humours, and making the hu- 
mours more fluid, and cutting between them and 
the part; as is found in nitrous water, whicb' 
fcoureth linen cloth fpcedily from the foulnefs. 

Baccn's Natural Hifiory, N" 42, 

Abstb'rsive. a<^'. [_(tQm abjltr^«.'\ That 
C 2 hu 

A B S 

has the quality of abllerging or cleanf- 

It is good, aftfr purging, to uTe apozrmes ana 
brothi, not (o much opening as thofe ufed before 
purging i but atfierfivt and mundiTving clyfttrs 
alfo are good to conclude wkh, Co draw awajr the 
reliquct of the humuuri> 

Bacon's Natural Hifttry. 
A tablet fttwd of that ahftirfi-ve tree. 
Where /Ethiopi' fwarthy bird did build to ned. 

Sir Jihn Dinbam, 
There, many a flow'r ahjitrftyt grew. 
Thy fav'rite flow'rs of yellow hue. S%vifi't MifccU 
A'bstinence. «./ [abfiinentia, Lat.] 

1. Forbearance of any thing; with the 
particle _/r6«i. 

Becaufe the ahjlinttice frcm a prefcnt pleafurc, 
that offers itfelf, is a pain, nay, otti-ntimcs a ver) 
great one : it is no wonder that that operates after 
the fame manner pain does, and lefl'cns, in our 
thoughts, what is future ; and fo forces us, as it 
were, blindfold into its embraces. Locke. 

2. Fading, or forbearance of nec«nary 
food. It is generally diftinguifhed from 
temperance, as the greater degree from 
the lefj ; fometimes as fingle perform- 
ances from habits ; as, a day of aifii- 
nrnct, and a Life of temperance. 

Say, can you fall ? your llomadu are too young : 
And abfi'mcnce ingenders maladifel. 

Shakefpeare's Lovis Labour Lop. 
And the faces of tiiem, which have ufed ah- 
Jlirnce, Ihall &ine above the ftars j whereas our 
Ijces ihall be blacker than darkncfs. 

1 EfJras, v'li. 55. 
Religious men, who hither mull be fent 
A^ awful guides of heavenly government ; 
To teach you penance, falls, and abJi'mtMtf 
la punifli bodies for the foul's ollence. 

Drydms Indian Emf. 

A'bstinency. n./. The fame with Ab- 


Were our rewards for the ahfiinencin, or riots, 
of this prefent life, under the prejudices of Ihort 
or fioite, the promifcs and threats of Chrifl would 
lofe much of their virtue and energy. 

Hammond^ I Fundam. 
A'bstinenT. at//. \_abJHnens, Lat.] That 
ufes abftinence, in oppofition to covet- 
ous, rapacious, or luxurious. It is ufed 
chiefly of perfons. 
Absto'rt E D . adj. \abJ{ortus,'L^X..'\ Forced 
• away, wrung from another by vio- 
lence. DiS. 
Te ABSTRA'CT. v. a. [abjlraho, Lat.] 

1. To take one thing from another. 

Could we abfiraB from thcfc pernicious efftfts, 
and fuppofc this were innocent, it would be too 
light to be matter of praile. Dtcay of Ficty. 

2. To feparate by didillation. 

Having dephlegmed fpirit of fait, and gently ab- 
frarlcd the whole fpirit, there remaincth in the 
retort a ftyptical fubftance. Soyii. 

3. To feparate ideas. 

Thofe who cannot dillinguifli, compaie, and 
ahjirafi, would hardly be able to undcrlland and 
make ufe of language, or judge or reafon to any 
tolerab't degree. Locke. 

4. To reduce to an epitome. 

If wc Mfould fix in the memory the difcourfcs 

we hear, or what we defign to fpcak, let us ab- 

firad them into brief comprnds, and review them 

often. H-'aitt'tlmp.ofibcMind. 

A'bstract. adj. [abjlraaus. Lit. See 

the verb To Abstract.] _ 
I. Separated from fomething elfe ; gene- 
rally ufed with relation to mental per 
ceptions ; as, abJiraH mathematics, ab- 
firaH terms, in oppofition to concrete. 

A B S 

Mathismatics, in its latitude, li ufualty divided 
Into pure and mixed. And though the pure do 
handle only abfiraB quantity in general, as geo- 
metry, arithmetic j yet that which is mixed, doth 
confider the quantity of fome particular determi- 
nate fubjefl. So allionomy handles the qumtity 
of heavenly motions, mulic of founds, and me- 
chanics of weights and puArrs. 

tVilkxnii Malttmatical Magick. 

jlbjirali terms fignify the mode or quality of 
a being, without any regard to the fubjc^l in 
which it is ; as, whitcnei's, roundnefs, length, 
breadth, wifdom, mortality, life, death. 


z. With the particle//»»f. 

Another fruit from the confidering things in 
themfelves, ahjlraft from our opinions, and other 
men's notions and difcourfcs on them, will be, 
that each man will purfue his thoughts in that 
method, which will be mod agreeable to the na- 
ture of the thing, and to his apprehcnlion of what 
it fuggells to him. Locke. 

A'bsthact. n./ [from the verb.] 
I. A fmaller quantity, containing the vir- 
tue or power of a greater. 

You (hall there find a man, who is the abftraH 
of all faults all men follow. 

Shakefpearc' t Antony and Cleopatra. 

If you are falfe, thefe epithets are fmall ; 
You're then the things, and abfiraB of them all. 

Drydcn'i Aur. 

2. An epitome made by taking out the 
principal parts. 

When Miiemon came to the end of a chapter, 
he recollefled the fentiments he had remarked j 
fo that he could give a tolerable analyfis and ab- 
firaB of every tteatife he had read, juft after he 
had finiflied it. IVattCs Imp. of the Mind. 

3. The ftate of being abftrafted, or dif- 

The hearts of great princes, if they be confi- 
dcred, as it were in abfiraB, without the neccf- 
fity of dates, and circun3(lanc« of time, can 
take no full and proportional pleafure in the ex- 
ercife of any narrow bounty. H^otton. 

.^BSTR a'xted. part. adj. [itomabjiracl.^ 

1. Separated; disjoined. 

That fpace the evil one abfiroBcd ftood 
From his own evil, and for the time remain'd 
Stupidly good. Milton, 

2. Refined, purified. 
AbfiraBcd fpiritva) love, they like 

Their fouls exhal'd. Donne. 

3. Abftrufe ; difficult. 

4. Abfent of mind, inattentive to prefent 
objefts ; as, an ahjiraaed fcholar. 

Abstra'ctedly. ad'v. With abftrac- 
tion, fimply, feparately from all con- 
tingent circumftances. 

Or whether more ohfiraBedly we look. 
Or on the writers, or the written book : 
Whence, but from heav'n, could men unlkill'd in 

In fevcral ages born, in fi!veral parts. 
Weave fuch agreeing truths ? or how, or why 
Should all confpire to cheat us with a lie ? 
Unaik'd their paios, ungrateful their advice. 
Starving tiwir gain, and martyrdom their price. 

DtytUns Religio Laid. 

Abstr a'ction. »._/! [abfiraSio, Lat.] 
1 . The aft of abftrafting. 

The word alfiraBitn lignifies a withdrawing 
fome part of an idea from other parts of it ; by 
which means fuch abftraOed ideas are formed, 
as neither reprefent any thing corporeal or fpi- 
ritual ; that is, any thing peculiar or proper to 
mind or body. fKo.-rj'j Logick. 

z. The ftate of being abftrafted. 
5. Abfence of mind ; inattention. 
+1 Difregard of worldly objefts. 

4 hecmit wiiltet to be praifed for his ahfiraBion. 
Vopt't Lctttn. 

A B S 

ing the power or quality of abftrafting. 

Abstra'ctly. adv. [from ab/lraS.] In 
an abllraft manner, abfolutely, without 
reference to any thing elfe. 

MitKr abfiraBly and abfolutely confidered, can- 
not have born aa infinite durition now pail and 
expired. Bentley's Sermon* 

Abstr a'ctness. n. /. [from ab/fraff.^ 
Subtilty ; feparation from all matter or 
common notion. 

I have taken fome pains to make plain and fa- 
miliar to your thoughts, truths, which edablilhcd 
prejudice, or the abfiraBnefi of the ideas themfelves, 
mijjht render difficult. Licke* 

Abstri'cted. part. adj. [abftri3ut, Lat.] 
Unbound. Dia^ 

To Abstri'nce. v. a. Tounbind. Di3. 

To ABSTRU'DE. -v. a. [abjirudo, Lat.] 
To thruft off, or pull away. Z);<3. 

Abstru'se. adj. \abjirufus, Lat. thruit 
out of fight.] 

1. Hidden. 

Th' eternal eye, whofe fight difcerns 
Abfirufefi thoughts, from forth his holy mount, 
And from within the golden lamps that burn 
Nightly before him, faw, without their light. 
Rebellion riling. 

Milton'i ParadifeLtfi, h.y, I. 71a. 

2. Difficult ; remote from conception or 
apprehenfion. It is oppofed to obvious 
and eajy. 

S'jfpakeour Sire, and by his countenance feem'd 
Ent'ring on lludious thoughts abfiruje. 

Paradtfe Lofi, b. viii. 
The motions and figures within the mouth are 
abfirufc, and not cafy to be didinguiflied, efpecially 
thofe of the tongue, which is moved through the 
help of many mufcles, fo eafily, and habitually, 
and varioully, that we arc fcarce able to give a 
judgment of motions and figures thereby framed. 

No man could give a rule of the greatell beau- 
ties, and the knowledge of them w.^s fa abfiruje, 
that there was no manner of fpeaking which could 
exprefs them. ' Dryden'i Dufnfnoy. 

Abstru'sely. adv. In an abllrufe man- 
ner ; obfcurely, not plainly, or obvi- 
Abstru'se NESS. n.f. [from abfiru/e.'] Th« 
quality of being abftrufe ; difficulty, 

It is not oftentimes fo much what the fcripture 
fays, as what fome men perfuade others it fays, 
that makes it feem obfcutv, and that as to fome 
other palTages that are fo indeed, ftnce it is the 
aifirufenejs of what is taught in them, that makes 
them almoft inevitably fo ; it is little lefs faucy, 
upon fuch a fcorc, to find fault with <hc dyle of 
the fcripture, than to do fo with the author for 
making us but men. Boyle on the Scripture* 

.Abstru'sity. >t./. [from abjlru/e.'] 

1. Abftrufenefs. 

2. That which is abftrufe. A word feldom 

Authors are alfo fufpicious, nor greedily to be 
fwallowed, who pretend to write of fecrets, to de- 
liver antipathies, fympathies, and the occult ab.. 
finijitici of things. Brvivn'' i Vulgar Errotin. 

7e Ab su' M E . I", a. [abfumo, Lat. J To bring 
to an end by a gradual walte ; to eat up. 
An uncommon word. 

That which had been burning an infinite time 

could never be burnt, no not (a much as any part 

of it ; for if it had burned part after part, the 

whole mull needs be ab/umed in a portion of time. 

Hale's Origin of Mankind. 

ABSU'RD. adj. [ab/urdus, Lat.] 

I. Unreafonable ; without judgment, at 

, ufed of men. 



_ Seeming wife men may make fliift to get apj. 
■»ion i but let no man chuie them for employment; 
for certainly ^ou had better take forbuCnefi a man 
fomewhat ehjfurj, than over formal. Bacon, 

A man, who cannot write with wit on a proper 
fubjeft, is dull and ftupid ; but one, who {hews it 
in an improper place, is as irnpeitinent and ai- 
furd. Mdijin, Spiaater, N° zgu 

2. Inconfiftent, contrary to reafon, ufed of 
fentiments or pradices. 

The thing itlelf appeared defirable to him, and 
accordingly he could not but like and defire it • 
but then, it was after a very irrational ai/urd way, 
and contrary to all the methods and principles of 
a rational agent; which ne%er wills a thing really 
and properly, but it applies to the means, by which 
it is to be acquired. Saatb's Sermtni. 

But grant that thofe can conquer, thefc can cheat, 
'Tis phrafe ahjuri to call a villain great : 
Who wickedly is wife, or madly brave. 
Is but the more a fool, the more a knave. 

^ Pofe't Effay m Man. 

Absu RDiTT. n./. [from ah/urd]. 

1, The quality of being abfurd ; want of 
judgment, applied to men; want of 
propriety, applied to things. 

How clear foever this idea of the infinity of 
number be, there is nothing more evident than 
the ahfurdliy of the afluaj idea of an infinite 
number. io^^, 

2. That which is abfurd; as, his travels 
were full of abfurditits. In which fenfe 
it has a plural. 

That fatisfadtion we receive from the opinion of 
fome pre-eminence in ourfelves, when we fee the 
atfurdiiiis of another, or when we reflea on any 
part <ii/Br</m« of our own. Addihtj. 

Absu'rdly. adv. [from ai/urd."] After 
an abfurd manner ; improperly ; unrea- 

But man we find the only creature, 
Who, led by folly, combats nature ; 
Who, when (he loudly cries. Forbear, 
With obftinacy fires there ; 
And where his genius leaft inclines, 
Ji/urdly bends his whole defigns. Sicift't Afifttl. 
We may proceed yet further with the atheill, 
and convince him, that not only his principle is 
abfurd, but his confequences alfo as abfurdly de- 
duced from it. B'niity't Scrmcni. 
Absu'udwess. n.f. [hom ah/urd.] The 
quality of being abfurd ; injudiciouf- 
nefs ; impropriety. Sec Absurditv ; 
which is more frequently ufed. 
Abu'ndance. n.f. [aiondance, Fr.] 
1. Plenty ; a fenfe chiefly poetical. 

At the whifper of thy word, 
Crown'd abundance fpreads my board. Crajhaw. 

The doubled charge his fubjefts' love fupplies. 
Who, in that bounty, to themfelves are kind j 

So glad Egyptians fee their Nilus rife. 
And, in hii plenty, their abundance find. 

Drjd. Aniu Mir. 

i. Great numbers. 

The river Inn is fliut up between mountains, 
covered with woods of fir-trees. Abundance of 
peafants are employed in hewing down the largcft 
of thefe tree*, that, after they arc barked and cut 
into (hapr, are tumbled down. Add'ijun on Italy. 

J. A great quantity. 

Their chief entcrprize was the recovery of the 
Holy Land ; in which worthy, but extremely dif- 
ficult, ailion, it IS lamentable to remember what 
abundance of noble blood hath been flied, with very 
fmall benefit unto the.Chri(lian ftate. 

Sir IValiir Raleigb'i £j/ayi. 

4. Exuberance, more than enough. 

For w.ll I wot, moi» mighty fovereign. 
That all thii fan.ous antique hiftory. 
Of fome, th' abundance ri an idle brain. 
Will judged be, and painted forgery. Sfenfer. 

Aiv'uDKHT.adJ. {abundant JLiX.1 


I. Plentiful. 

Good, the more 
Communicated, more abundant grows ; 
The author not impair'd, but honour'd more. 

Paradiji Laji, b. v. 

2. Exuberant. 

If the veffels are in a ftate of too great rigidity, 
fu as not to yield, a ftrong projcaile motion occa- 
fions their rupture, and haemorrhages ; efpecially 
in the lungs, where the blood is abundant. 

Arbutbnitt an Aliments. 

3. Fully ftored. It is followed fometimes 
by in, commonly by tvitJb. 

The world began but fome ages before thefe were 
found out, and was abundant -with all things at 
firft ; and men not ver)- numerous ; and therefore 
were not put fo much to the ufe of their wits, to 
find out wain for living commodioufly. Burmt. 

4. It is applied generally to things, fome- 
times to perfons. 

The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, 
long-fuffering and abundant in goodnefs and truth. 
Exod. xxxiv. 6. 
Abu'ndaktly. ay-i;. [iiom abundant.] 

1 . In plenty. 

Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving 
creature that hath life. Genrfs, i. 20. 

God on thee 
Abundantly his gifts hath alfo pour'd ; 
Inward and outward both, his image fair. 

Paradife Lafl, b.vm. 

2. Amply, liberally, more than fufficiently. 

Ye faw the French tongue abundantly purified. 

XI • sprat. 

Heroic poetry has ever been efteemed thegreatelt 
work of human nature. In that rank has Ariftotle 
placed it; and Longinus is fo full of the like ex- 
prcfTions, that he abundantly confirms the other's 
teftimony. . Drydcns State 0/ Innocence, Pref. 

What the example of our equals wants of au- 
thority, is abundantly fupplied in the imaginations 
of friendfliip, and the repeated influences of a 
conftant converfation. Rogers', Serm. 

To ABU'SE, 'V. a. [abutor, abufui, Lat.] 
In abu/e, the verb, / has the found of 
X ; in 'the noun, the common found. 

1 . To make an ill ufe of. 

They that ufe this world, as not abufng it; for 
the fafliion of this world paffeth away. 

_, , . I Cor, vii. 31, 

He has fixed and determined the time for our 
repentance, beyond which he will no longer await 
the perverfenefs of men, no longer fufter his com- 
panion to be abujed. Rogers', Sermons. 

2. To violate ; to defile. 

Arachnc figured how Jove did abuji 
Europa like a bull, and on his back 
Her through the fea did bear. Spenjer. 

3. To deceive ; to impofe upon. 

He perhaps. 
Out of my weaknefs and my melancholy. 
As he is very potent with fuch fpirits, 
Abujes me to damn me. Shakefpeare's Hamlet. 

The world hath been much abufed by the opinion 
of making gold : the work itfelf I judge to be 
poflible ; but the means hitherto propounded, are, 
in the pradlicc, full of error. 

Bacon's Natural Hiftory, N" ji6. 

It imports the mifreprefentation of the qualities 
of things and aflions, to the common apprehen- 
fions of men, abufing their minds with falfe no- 
tions ; and fo, by this artifice, making evil pafi 
for good, and good for evil, in all the^reat concerns 

ii"'K- -l. „ L, South- s Sermons. 

Nor be with all thefe tempting words abus'd; 
Thefe tempting words were all to Sappho us'd. 

4. To treat with rudenefs ; to reproach. 

I am no ftrumpel, but of life as honed 
As you that thus abuje me. Shakefp. Othello. 

But he mocked them, and lauglied at them, 
and <ii»/<i them Ihamcfully, and fpake proudly. 

] Mac, vii. 34. 


Some praife at morning what they blame atnighl^ 
But always think the laft opinion right. 
A mufe by thefe is like a mirtrefs us'd. 
This hour /he's idolii'd, the next abus'd. 

Pope's EJfmy on Criticifm^ 

The next criticifm feems to be introduced for 
no other reafon, but to mention Mr. BickerftafF, 
whom the author every where endeavours to imi- 
tate and abufe. Addjfoit. 

Abu'se. «.'/. [from the verbal//?.] 

1 . The ill ufe of any thing. 

The calling away things proHtable for the fufte- 
nance of man's life, is an unthankful abufe of the 
fruits of God's good providence towards mankind. 
Hooker, b. v. § ^* 
Little knows 
Any, but God alone, to value right 
"The good before him, but perverts belt things 
To worft abufe, or to their meaneft ufe. ^ 

Paradife Loft, b. iy* 

2. A corirupt pradtice, bad cuftom. 

The natune of things is fuch, that, if abufes be 
not remedied, they will certainly encreafe. 

Stuiftfor Advancement of Relig'um^ 

3. Seducement. 

Was it not enough forhim-to have deceived me»^ 
and, through the deceit abufed me, and, after the 
abufe, forfaken me, but that he muft now, of all 
the company, and before all the company, lay 
want of beauty to my charge. Sidney, b. ii. 

4. Unjuft cenfure, rude reproach, com- 

I dark in light, expos'd 
To daily fraud,, contempt, abufe, and wrong. 

Samfon Agoniflciw 

Abu'se R, »./. [from the verb «^«/f,]; 

1. He that makes an ill ufe. 

2. He that deceives. 

Next thou, the abufer of thy prince's ear. 

Denham't Sofhlf*- 

3. He that reproaches with rudenefs. 

4. -A. ravifher, a violater. 
Abu'sive, ad/', [hoai abu/e.] 

1 . Praftifmg abufe. 

The tongue mov'd gently firft^nd fpeech was low^ 
Till wrangling fcicnce taught it noife and (how. 
And wicked wit arofe, thy moft ahufive foe. 

Pope's Mifullaniu^ 

Dame Nature, as the learned (liow. 
Provides each animal its- foe ; 
Hounds hunt the hare, the wily, fox 
Devours your geefe, the wolf your flbcks. 
Thus envy pleads a natural claim. 
To prrfecute the mufe's fame. 
On poets in all times abuji've. 
From Homer down to Popeindufive. Stvi/t'sMifccL 

2. Containing abufe; a«, an abn^-ve lam- ■ 

Next, Comedy appcar'd with great applaufe, 
Till her licentious and abufive tongue 
Waken'd the magilhates coercive power. Rofcom. 

3. Deceitful; a fenfe little ufed, yet not 

It is verified by a number of examples, that 
whatfoever is gained by an abujive treaty, ought 
to be rcfVired in 'integrum. 

Bacon's Conjidc'ralicns on H'ar with Spain, 

Abu'sivsly. ad-v. [from abuje.] 

1. Improperly, by a wrong ufe. 

The oil, ahuf-vely called ipirit, of rofes, fwlms at 
the top of the water, in the firm of a white butter; 
wh'ch 1 remember not to haveobfcrved in any other 
oil drawn in any limbeck. Boyle's Sceptical Ciym'i/k. 

2. Reproachfully. 

Abo'siveness. «./. [from abu/e.] Th* 
quality of being abufive ; fbulnefs of 

Pick out of mirth, like ftonescatof thy ground,. 
Profancncfs, filthinefs, abufivenefs. 

Thefe are the fcum,with which coarfe wi ts abound t 
The fine may fpare thefe well, yet not go Icfs. 


A C A 

f» ABUT. V. n. obfelete.[fl^fl»//V,to touch 
at the end, Fr.] To end at, to border 
upon ; to meet, or approach to, with the 
particle upoa. 

Two mighty monarcliies, 
Whofe high uprcared and abutting fronts 
The narrow perilous occun parts afunder* 

Shakcjptare I lltnry V. 

The Lo(>«i are two fcveral corporations, diOin- 

goilhed by the addition or eaft and weft, aiuiiing 

u'fM a navigable creek, and joined by a fair bridge 

ot" many arches. Cttrnv. 

Abu'tment.w./ [fr«ma^K/.] That which 
abuts, or borders upon another. 

Abu'tta!.. n.f. [from abut.'\. The but- 
ting or boundaries of any land. A wri- 
ting declaring on what lands, highways, 
or other places, it does abut. Difl. 

Aby'sm. n.f. [a^jy»»<, old Fr. now writ- 
ten contrafledly abiine.'\ A gulf; the 
fame with ahy/s. 

My good ftars, that were my former guides. 
Have empty left their orbs, and fliot their fires 
Into the ahyfm of he!l. 

Stakcfpeare^s Antcry and Cleopatra* 

Abv'ss. n.f. \abyffus, Lat. aS>vaa^, bot 
tomtefs, Gr.] 

X. A depth without bottom. 

Who /hall tempt with wandVing feet 
The dark, unbottom'd,, inBnite aliyjs. 
And, through the palpable obfcure, find out 
This uncouth way. 

M./tcn't ParaJ'iJe LoJI, b. ii. /. 405. 

Thy throne is darknefs in th' abyfi of light, 
A blaze of glory that forbids the fight; 
O teach me to biiic\c tliee thus conceai'd, 
And fearch no farther than thyfclf reveal'd. 

Tore was not more pleased 
With infant nature, when his fpacious hand 
Had rounded this huge ball of earth and feas 
To give it the firft pulh, and fee it roll 
Along the vaft abyj'i. Mdijcn, Guard. No no. 

s. A great depth, a gulf; hyperbolical! y. 

The yawning earth difclos*d th* tf/»>yi of hell. 

Dryiieni l^ir^ Gtorg, i. 

3. In a figurative fenfe, that in which any 
thing is loft. 

for fepulchres themfelves muft crumbling fall 
In Umc^saby/tj the common grave of all. ^ 

Drydens jfwvenalj Sal, x. 

If, difcovering how far we have clear and diftindt 
ideas, we confine our thoughts within the contem- 
plation of thofe things that are within the reach of 
our underllandings, and lavmch not out into that 
thyji of darknefs, out of a prcfumption that no- 
thi'ig is beyond our comprehenfion. Locke. 

4. The body of waters fuppofed at the 
centre of the earth. 

We are here to confider what is generally under- 
ftood by the great atyft, in the common explication 
«f the deluge; and 'tis commonly interpreted either 
to be the fea, or fubterraneous waters hid in the 
bowels of the earth. Burmt't thimy. 

5. In the language of divines, hell. 

From that infatiable ahyjs. 
Where flames devour, and ferpcnts hifa, 
Promote me to thy feat of blifs. Rijcimmtn. 

Ac, Ak, or Ake. 

Being initials in the names of places, as j^San, 
fignify an oak, from the Saxon ac, an uak. 

Oibji/n't Camden, 

ACACJA.n,;, [Lat.] 

I. A drug brought from Egypt, which, 

being fuppofed the infpiflated juice of a 

tree, is imitated by the juice of floes, 

boiled to the fame confiftence. 

Diiiionaire de Comm, Sazrary. Trevoux. 

X. A tree commonly fo called here, though 

different from that which produces toe 

A C C 

trne afada ; and therefore termed f>/eii- 
Jocacia, or Virginian acacia. Miller. 

Acade'mi Ai.. a<^. \ixom academy. '\ Re- 
lating to an academy, belonging to an 

AcADfc'MiAN. n.f. [from acad(my.'\ A 
fcholar of an academy or univerfity ; a 
member of an univerfity. ff'ood, in his 
Athetitr Oxonienfes, mentions a great 
fcaft made for the academians. 

Acade'mical, cdj. [academicus, Lat.] 
Belonging to an univerfity. 

He drew him firft into the fatal circle, from a 
kind of refolved privatcnefs; where, after the aca- 
demical life, he had taken fuch a taftc of the rural, 
as 1 have heard him fay, that he could well have 
bent his mind to a retired courfe. fyott^n. 

Academi'cian. «. /. [academician, Fr.] 
The member of an academy. It is ge- 
nerally ufed in fpeaking of the profeflbrs 
in the academies of France. 

Acade'mick. «./. [from academy.} A ftu- 
dent of an univerfity. 

A young academic fiiall dwell upon a journal that 
treats of trade, and be lavilh in the piaife of the 
author ; while perfons fkilled in thofe fubjefts, 
hear the tattle with contempt. 

IValit'i Imprcmemcnt of ike Mind. 
Acade'mick. a^. [academicus, hzx-l Re- 
lating to an univerfity. 

While through poetic Icenes the genius roves. 
Or wanders wild in academic groves. 

Dunciad,h.\v. !. 481 

Aca'demist. n.f. [from academy. "} The 
member of an academy. This is not 
often uied. 

It is obferved by the Parifian acadcmtfti, that 

fome amphibious quadrupeds, particularly the fea- 

calf or feal, hath his epiglottis extraordinarily large. 

Ray on the Creation. 

A'CADEMY. n. f. [anciently, and pro- 
perly, with the accent on the firft fyl- 
lable, now frequently on the fecond. 
Acadimia, Lat. from Academus of Athens, 
whofe houie was turned into a fchool, 
from whom the Groves of Academe in 

I . An alTembly or fociety of men, uniting 
for the promotion of fome art. 

Our cou:'C fhall be a little academy. 
Still and contemplative in living arts. 

Stakefpcare^i Lct/r'j Labour Loft. 

z. The place where (ciences are taught. 

Amongft the acadimiei, which were compofed by 
the rare genius of thofe great men, thcfe four are 
reckoned as the principal ; namely, the Athenian 
fchool, that of Sicyon, that of Rhodes, and that 
of Corinth. Dryden'i Dufrefiuy. 

3. An univerfity. 

4. A place of education, in contradiftinc- 
tion to the univerfities or public fchools. 
The thing, and therefore the name, is 

ACANTHUS, n.f [Lat.] The name of 
,the herb bears-breech, remarkable for 
being the model of the foliage on the 
Corinthian chapiter. 

On cither Mc 
Acanliu!, and each od'rous bulhy fhrub, 
Fenc'd up the verdant wall. 

Mill. Parad. Loftf b. iv. /. 696. 

AcaTALe'ctIC.»._/.' [axaxaXrifli*®-, Gr."] 

A verfe whidi has the complete number 

of fyllables, without defedl or fuperfluity. 

TiACCE'DE. 'V. n. [accede, 'Lzx.'l To be 

added to, to come to ; generally ufed 

A C C 

in political accounts ; as, another power 
\i3L% acceded to the treaty; that is, hst 
become a party. 
To ACCE'LERATE, 'v.a. [accelere, Lat.] 

1. To make quick, to liaften, to quicken 
motion ; to give a continual impulfe to 
motion, fo as perpetually to increafe. 

Take new beer, and put in fome quantity of 
ftale beer into it ; and fee whether it will not acce- 
Itrjte the clarification, by opening the body of the 
beer, whereby the grolfer parts may fall down into 
Ices. Bacon's Natural Hifttry, N° 307. 

By a fkilful application of thofe notices, may be 
gained the accelerating and bettering of fruits, and 
the emptying of mines, at much more eafy ratet 
than by the common methods. Glanvil/e^Scepftt, 

If the rays endeavour to recede from the denleft 
part of the vibration, they may be alternately acce- 
lerated and retarded by the vibrations overtaking 
them. Nenjjtons Of tics. 

Spices quicken the pulfe, and accelerate the mo- 
tion of the blood, and difiipate the fluids ; from 
whence teannefs, pains in the ftomach, loathing;, 
and fevers. Arbutknot on Aliments* 

Lo I from the dread immenfity of fpace 
Returning, with accelerated courfe. 
The rufhing comet to the fun defcends. 

tbomf. Sum. I, 1 690. 

2. It is generally applied to matter, and 
ufed chiefly in philofophical language ; 
but it is fometimes ufed on other occafions. 

In which council the king himfelf, whofe con- 
tinual vigilarcy did fuck in fometimes caufelefs 
fufpicions, which few eife knew, inclined to the 
- accelerating a battle. Bacon's Henry Vll. 

Perhaps it may point out to a ftudenc now and 
then, what may employ the moft vifcful labours of 
his thoughts, and accelerate his diligence in the moft 
momentous enquiries. iVatts, 

AccEl. ER a'tion. n.f [acceleralio, Lat.] 

1. The aft of quickening motion. 

The law o{ the acceleration of falling bodies, dif- 
covered firil by Galileo, is, that the velocities ac- 
quired by falling, being as the time in which the 
body falls, the fpaces through which it palTes will 
be as the fquares of the velocities, and the velocity 
and time taken together, as in a quadruplicate rati>) 
of the fpaces. 

2. The fiate of the body accelerated, or 
quickened in its motion. 

The dejirees o( acceleraiisn oi motion, the gravi-. 
tatien of the air, the exiftence or non-exiltence of 
empty fpaces, either coacervate or interfperfed, and 
many the like, have taken up the thoughts and 
times of men in difpules concerning them. 

HaU^s Origin of MankineU 

3. The att of haftening. 

Confidcring the languor enfuing that a^ion in 
fome, and the vifible acceleration it maketh of age 
in moft, we cannot but think venery much abridg- 
eth our days. Broivn, 

To ACCE'ND. -v. a. [acceudo, Lat.] 'I'o 
kindle, to fet on fire ; a word very 
rarely ufed. 

Our devotion, if fuHiciently acetnded, would, as 
theirs, burn up innumerable books of this fort. 

Decay of Piety. 
Acce'nsion. n.f [acccttfo, Lat.] The 
aft of kindling, or the ftate of being, 

Tile fulminating damp will take fire at a candle, 
or other flame, and, upon its accenfion, gives a 
crack or report, like the difcharge of z. gun, and 
makes an cxplofion fo f.ircibi; as fometimes to kill 
the miners, ihake the earth, and force bodies, of 
great weight and bulk, from the bottom oi the pic 
or mine. WsoJivard' s Natural Hiftory, 

A'CCENT. n.f [accentus, Lat.] 
1 . The manner of fpeaking or pronoun- 
cing, with regard either to force or ele- 

I know. 

A C C 

I know. Sir, I am no flatterer; he that be. 
guited you in a plain accent was a plain knave 3 
which, for my pJrt, I will not be. ' 

Sbakefpeare's King hear, 

2. The found given to the fyllable pro- 

Your accent is fomething finer than ycu could 
purchafe in lb removed a dwelling. 

Sbalb^eare^s Asyou like it. 

3. In grammar, the marks made upon fyl- 
lables, to regulate their pronunciation. 

Accent f as in the Greek names and ufage, feems 
to have regardeJ the tune o^ the voice ; the acute 
accent raifing the voice in fome certain fyllables to 
a higher, i. e, more acute pitch or tone, and the 
grave deorefling it lower, and both having fome em 
phafts, i. e* more vigorous pronunciation. Holder. 

4. Poetically, language or words. 

How many ages hence 
Shall this our lofty fcene be a£led o'er. 
In Hates unborn, and accintsyex. unknown. 

Sbahjpeare' i jfuliui Cafar. 
Winds on your wings to heav'n her accents bear ; 
Such words as heav'n alone is fit to hear. 

DtyJ. Virg. Paji. 3. 

5. A modification of the voice, expreffive 
of the paflions or fentiments. 

The tender accent of a woman's cry 
Will pafs unheard, will unregarded die ; 
When the rough feaman's louder fliouts prevail, 
When fair occafion (hews the fpringing gale. Prior. 

?« A'ccENT. -v. a. [from accentus, Lat.] 
formerly elevated at the fecondfyllable, 
now at the firft. 

1. To pronounce, to fpeak words with 
particular regard to the grammatical 
marks or rules. 

Having got fomebody to mark the laft fylhblc 
but one, where it is long, in words above two fyl- 
lables (which is enough to r"gi!a;e her pronuncia- 
tion, and accenting the words , let her read daily in 
the gofpeis, and avoid underrt.mdirjj them in La- 
tin, if rtic can. hjcke on Edu:amny ^ 177. 

2. In poetry ; to pronounce or utter in ge- 

O my unhappy lines ! you that before 
Have fcrv'd my youth to vent fome wanton cries. 

And, now congeal'd with grief, can fcare implore 
Strength to accent. Here my Albertus lies 1 fftinn. 

3. To write or note the accents. 

Ti Acce'ntu ATE. f. a. [accentuer, Fr.] 
To place the proper accents over the 

Accentua'tion. n,/. [^(xoxa accent uate.'\ 

i . The a£l of placing the accent in pro- 

2. Marking the accent in writing. 

7» ACCE'PT. 1). a. [accipio, Lat. accepter, 

1. To take with pleafure ; to receive 
kindly ; to admit with approbation. 
It is diflinguilhed from recei've, iisype- 
afic from general ; noting a particular 
manner of receiving. 

Neitlierdo ye kindle fire on my altar for nought. 
I have no pleafure in you, faith the Lord of hofts, 
neither will 1 accept an offering at your hand. 

Mclachi, i. 10. 

God is no relpeOer of perfons : but, in evfrj 
nation, he that feareth him, and worketh rlghte- 
oufnefs, is accrf,ieii ivith him. Afli, x. 34, 35. 

You have been gracicuHy pleafed to accept this 
tender of my duty. 

Dryden'i Dedicatinn f) hit FaLlet. 

Charm by acc^ting, by fubmitting fway. 
Vet have your hjmourmoft whf^n you nbcy. Pope. 

2. It is ufed in a kind of juridical fenle ; 
as, to accept terms, accept a treaty. 

They flaughter'd many of the gentry, for whom 
BO fcx or age could be aceifieJ for excuf:. S'lttney. 

A C C 

His promife Palamon accepts, but pray'd 
To keep it better than the firft he made. 

Dry den's Tables. 

Thofe who have defended the proceedings of 
our negociators at the treaty of Gertruydenburgh, 
dwell upon their zeal and patience in endeavouring 
to work the French up to their demands, but fay 
nothing of the probability that France would ever 
accept them. Stvift, 

3. In the language of the Bible, to accept 
perfons, is to aft with perional and par- 
tial regard. 

He will furcly reprove you, if ye do fccretly ar- 

rc/r perfons. _ ^oi, xiii. 10. 

4. It is fometimes ufed with the particle 

I will appeafe him with the prefcnt that goeth 

before me, and afterward 1 will fee his face: per- 

adventure he will accept of mz. Gencjis,x%xn. 2.0. 

AccEPTABi'i-iTY. n.f. Thc quality of 

being acceptable. See Acceptable. 

He hath given us his natural blood to be flied, 
for the remiflion of our fins, and for the obtaining 
the grace and acceptability of repentance. 

Tayhr's tVcrthy Ccmmumcant. 
Acce'ptable. adj. {acceptable, Fr. from 
the Latin.] It is pronounced by fome 
with the accent on the firlb fyllable, as 
by Milton ; by others, with the accent 
on the fecond, which is more analogical. 
I. That which is likely to be accepted ; 
grateful ; pleafing. It is ufed with the 
particle to before the perfon accepting. 

Thi:i wuman, whom thou niad'fl :o be my help. 
And gav'rt me as thy perfefl gift, fo good. 
So fit, fo acceptable, fo divine. 
That fiom her hand I could expefi no ill. 

Paradife LciJ}, b. ii. 
I do not fee any other method left for men of 
that funftion to take, in order to reform the 
world, than by ufing all honell arts to make them- 
fclves acceptable to the laity. Sivi/t. 

After he had made a peace fo acceptable to the 
church, and fo honourable to himfelf, he died with 
an extraordinary reputation of fan3ity. 

Addifon on Italy. 

Acce'ptableness. n.f. [from accepi- 

able.'\ The quality of being acceptable. 

Itwill thereby take ivmy the acceflaileneji of thut 

coijun£lion. Crew'' s Ccfmologia Sacra, b< ii. c. 2. 

Acce'ptably. ai/'u. [from acceptai/e.] 
In an acceptable manner ; fo as to 
pleafe ; with the particle to. For the 
accent, fee Acceptable. 

Do not omit thy prayers, fur want of a good ora- 
tory J for he that prayeth upon Cod's account, 
cares not what he fuffers, fo he be the friend of 
Chriil; nor where nor when he prays, fo he may 
do it frequently, fervently, and acattablf, Taykr. 
If you can teach them to love and rclpe^V other 
pe tple, they will, as your age requires it, find 
way s to cxprefs it acceptably to every one. 

Locke on Education, § 145. 
Acce'ptance. n.f. [^acceptance, Fr.] 

1. Reception with approbation. 

Ey that acceptance of his I'overeignty, they alfo 
a cepteJ of his lawsj why then Ihould any other 
laws now be ufed amongl^ them } 

Spenjcr's Stale of Ireland, 
If he tells us his noble deeds, we mud alfo tell 
him our noble acceptance of them. 

Sbakcfpeare's Coriolanui. 
Thus 1 imbold^i'd fpake, and freedom us'd 
Permi/five, and aitcplance found. 

Paradife Lojf, ^. viil. A 43 5. 

Some men cannot be foolswith fo good acceptance 

as others. South's Xrrm^ns, 

2. The meaning of a word as it is received 
or underftood; acceptation is the word 
now commonly ufed. 

A C C 

That pleafure is man's chiefeft gsod, becfufe 
indeed it is the peixeption of good that is properly 
pleafure, is an aifertionmoft certainly true, though, 
under the common acceptance of it, not only falfe 
but odious: for, according to this, pleafure ani 
fenfuality pafs for terms equivalent; and therefore 
he, who takes it in this fenfe, alters the fubjeft of 
the difcourfc, South, 

Acce'ptance. [inlaw.] Thc receiving 
of a rent, whereby the giver binds him- 
felf, for ever, to allow a former aft done 
by another, whether it be in itfelf good 
or not. Co'wel, 

Accepta'tion. n.f. [Jrom. accept.] 

1. Reception, whether good or bad. This 
large fenfe feems now wholly out of ufe. 

Vet, poor foul ! knows he no other, but that I 
do fufpeft, negled^, yea, and deleft him -^ For, 
every day, he finds one way or other to fet forth 
himfelf unto me; but all are rewarded with like 
coldnefs oi acceptation, Sidney, b, ii. 

What is new finds better acceptation, than what 
is good or great. Dcnbam's Sophy„ 

2. Good reception, acceptance. 

Cain, envious of the acceptation of his brother's 
prayer and facrifice, flew him ; making himfelf 
the firft manflayer, and his brother the firft mar- 
tyr. Raleigh's Hiftcry of the World, b. i. 

3. The ftate of being acceptable ; regard. 

Some things, although not fo required of necef- 
fity, that, to leave them undone, excludeth from 
falvation, are, nntwithftandirg, of fo great dig- 
nity and acceptation with Cod, tliat moft ample 
reward in heaven is laid up for them. Hooker^ b. ii* 

They have thofe enjoymcnt^only as the confe- 
qucnces of the ftate of efteem and acceptation they 
are in with their parents and governours. 

Locke on Education, § 5 J. 

4. Acceptance in the juridical fenfe. This 
fenfe occurs rarely. 

As, in order to the pafling away a thing by gift, 
there is required a furrcnder of all right on his part 
that gives ; fo there is required alfo an acceptation 
on his part to whom it is g'ven. South's Seiwoiis, 

5. The meaning of a word, as it is com- 
monly received. 

Thereupon the earl of Lauderdale made a dif- 
courfc upon the feveral queffions, and what ac- 
ceptation thefe words and expreflions had. 

Clarendon, b. viii» 
All matter is either fluid or folid, in a large 
acceptation of the words, that they may compre- 
hend even all the middle degrees betwren extreme 
fixednefs and coherency, and the moft rapid in- 
teftinemotionof the particles of bodies. Boitl. Serf?;, 

Acce'pter. a./, [from accept.] The per- 
fon that accepts. 

Acceptila'tion. n.f. [acceftilatio, Lat. J 
A term of the civil law, importing the 
remiflion of a debt by an acquittance 
from the creditor, teftifying the receipt 
of money which has never been paid. 

Acce'ption. a. f. [acceptiort, Fr. from 
ncceptio, Lat.] The received fenfe of a 
word ; the meaning. Not in ufe. 

That this hath been cliecmcu thc due .ind prd- 
per acception of this word, 1 fhall teftify by one 
evidence, which gave me the firft hint of this no- 
tion. Hammond on Ft/rrdatnentals, 

ACCE'SS. n.f. [In fome of its fenfes, it 
leems derived from accefj'us ; in others, 
from acccfjio, Lat. acces, Fr] 

I. The way by which any thing ;nay be 

The accefs of the town was only by a neck of 
land. .Bacon, 

There remained very advantageous aeC'fh for 
temptations to enter and invade men, the fortifi- 
cations being very fl-ndcr, little knowledge of im- 
mo.'tality, or an; thing beyond tliis life, and no 


A C C 

•ffuraace tlut rrptatance wouM be iJmitted Tor I 
<in. Hammof^d on yundamntalu 

And hrrt th* aceejt a gloomy grove defends { 
And hrie th* unnuvigabic lake extendSi 
H>'cr whofe unhappy waters, void of lights 
'No bird prerames to (leer his airy flight. 

Orjdrnt j^netd, vi, 

i. The means, or liberty, of approaclung 
either to things or men. 
When we are wrong'd, and would unfold our 
We «re deny'd acf^i unto hii perfon« 
£v'n by thofe men that moft have done us wrong. 

They go commiflion'd to require a peace, 
And carry prefenti to procure «c^. 

Drydcni ^neid, vii. /, tOg. 
He grants what they befought j 
InftruAed, that to Cod js ao-acceft 
Without Mediator, whofe high office now 
Mofcs in figsre bears. 

Afilicn's Par, Lut, h.xi'i. l.ijg, 

3. Encreafe, enlargement, addition. 

The gold was accumulated, and (lore treafures, 
for the moll part; but the filver is ftill growing. 
Befides, infinite is the aectfi of territory and em- 
pire ij tlie fame enterprise. Bacon. 

Sot think fuperfluous their aid ; 
I, from the influence of thy iooks, receive 
jtcceji in every virtue ; in thy fight 
Wore wife, more watchful, ftronger. 

Paradije hufi, h. !x. 
Although to opinion, there be many gods, may 
fc::m an aueji in religion, and fucli js cannot at ail 
confiH with athclfm, yet doth it dcduflivcly, and 
upon inference, include the fame; for unit) is the 
jnfcparable and eHential attribute of Deity. 

Brii'wnt Vulgar ErrcurSf h, u f . 10. 
The reputation 
Of virtuous aftions paft, if not kept up 
■With an accefs, and frei>. fupply, of new ones, 
Is loft and loon forgotten. Daihant^s So/>hy, i 

4. It is fometimes ufed, after the French, 
to fignify the returns or fits of a diftem- 
per j but this fenfe feems yet fcarcely 
received into our language. 

For as relapfes make difcafes. 
More defperate than their firll accrffes. Itudihrat. 
A'ccEssARiNESS. ». /. [froiB accejpxry.'\ 
The ftate of being acceflary. 

Perhaps this will draw us into a negative accrf- 
farirfefi to the mifchiefs. Dtcay cf Piety. 

A'ccEstAHY, *dj. [A corruption, as it 
feems, of the word acceffory, which fee ; 
but now more commonly ufed than the 
proper word.] 1 hat which, without 
being the chief conllituent of a crime, 
contributes to it. But it had formerly a 
good and general fenfe. 

As for thofe, things that are accejpiry hereunto, 
thofe things that fo belong to the way of falvation, 
&c. Il(ioktr,h,\\\,^ ■^, 

He hath taken upon him the government o( 
HuU, without any apprehenfion or imagination, 
that it would ever make him aicijj'ary to rebellion. 
C/arendon, h. viii. 
Acce'ssible. aifj. [accejpbilii, Lat. ac- 
ctjjible, Fr.] That which may be ap- 
proached ; that which we may reach or 
arrive at. 

It is applied both to perfons and 
thing.'v, with the particle tt. 

Sonic lie more open to our fenles and daily ob- 
fervation \ others are more occult and hidden, 
and though accejfibUy '\n fome meafure, to our 
fenfes, yet not without great fearch and fcrutiny, 
or fome happy accident. HaJt'i Origin of Mankind, 

Thofe things, which were indeeid inexplicable, 
liave been rackt and tortured to difcover tbem- 
felves, while the plainer and more acctffihie truths, 
«s if defpicablc while caf^i ait clouded and ob- 
jfcurc^. Dkoj of Piety, 

A C C 

Al an ifland, we are atceJUU oB every fide, and 
expofed to perpetual invafions ; againft which it i< 
impoflible to fortify ourfelvea fufficiently, without 
a power at fea. Addifint Frteboldtr. 

In converfation, the tempers of men are open and 
tremble, their attention is awake, and their minds 
difpofc-d to receive the ftrongeft impreffions ; and 
what is fpnken is generally more affeding, and 
more appofite to particular occafions. Rcgrrs. 

Acce'ssion. »./ [acctj/!e. Lit, accejion, 

1. Increafe by fomething added, enlarge^ 
ment, augmentation. 

Nor could all the king's bounties, nor his own 
large acccffom, raife a fortune to hi« heir ; but af- 
ter vaft fums of money, and great wealth gotten, 
he died unlamented. Clarendon. 

There would not have been found the difference 
here fct down betwixt the force of the air, when 
expanded, and what that force (hould have been 
according to the theory, but that the included inch 
of air received fome little accejjion during the trial. 
Boyle" i Spring &/* the j^ir. 

The wifeft among the nobles began to appre- 
hend the growing power of the people j and there- 
fore, knowing what an accejjion thereof would ac- 
crue to them, by fuch an addition of property, 
ufed all means to prevent it> Sivift. 

Charity, indeed, and works of munificence, are 

the proper difcharge of fuch over-proportioned 

accejiom, and the only virtuous enjoyment of tliem. 

Rogirs^s Serm^ni. 

2. The aft of coming to, or joining one's 
felf to ; as, accejjion to a confederacy. 

Befidc, what wile objeaions he prepares 
Againft my late acciJJMn to the wars ? 
Does not the fool perceive his argument 
Is with more force againft Achilles bent } 

Dryden'i Fah/ei. 

3. The adl of arriving at ; as, the king's 
accejfioH to the throne. 

.A'ccfiSiORlLV. adv. \it<3sa accejjory .^ In 

the manner of an acceflbry. 
A'ccESSORY.flf^'. Joined to another thing, 

fo as to increafe it ; additioaal. 

In this kind there is not the leaft a£lion, but it 
doth fomewhat make to the accejfory augmentation 
ofourblifs. Hxkrr. 

A'ccessory. h. /. \acce^oria!, Lat. ac- 
cijfoire, Fr. This word, which had 
anciently a general fignification, is now 
almoft confined to forms of law.] 

\. Applied to perfons. 

A man that is guilty of a felonious ofl'ence, not 
principally, but by participation ; as, by com- 
mandment, advice, or concealment. And a man 
may be acceijory to the offence of another, after 
two forts, by the common law, or by ftarute : and, 
by the common law, two ways alfo; that is, be- 
fore or after the fatl. Before the rafl j as, when 
one commandeth or advifeth another to commit a 
felony, and is notprefentat the execution thereof; 
for his prcfence makes him alfo a principal ; wheie- 
fore there cannot be an acccjjory before the fa£l in 
manftaughter ; becaufe manflaughtcr is fudden 
and not prepcnfed. Accijjhry after the fadl, is, 
when one receiveth him, wW>m he knoweth to 
have committed leiony. A<ctjrory by ftatute, is 
he that abets, counlels, or hides any man com- 
mitting, or having committed, an offence made fe- 
lony by ftatute. Cewel. 

By the common law, the accijfories cannot be 
proceeded againft, till tlie principal has received 
his trial. SpenJ. Stale of JreUnd. 

But paufe, my foul ! and ftudy, ere thou fall 
On accidental joys, th^ effential. 
Still before accejjbriei to abide 
A trial, muft the principal be try'd. Dcnnt. 

Now were all transform'^ 
Alike, to ferpents all, as aceeffirirt 
To his bold riot. Milton' t P»r. t,^, h, X, U 510. 

2. Applied to things. 

A C C 

An atttjforj it faid to b« that which it*» tlv 
cede unto fome principal fad or tiling in law ( 
and, as fuch, generally fpeakiog, follows tlie rci- 
foir and nature of its principal. Aylife, 

A'cciDENCE. n. f. [a corruprion of^ /jr- 
cidents, from accidentia, Latin.] The 
little book containing the firft ru- 
diments of grammar, and explaining 
the properties of the eight parts of 

I do confefs I do want eloquence. 
And never yet did learn mine accidence. 

Taylor the tTatrr-poet, 
A'CCIDENT. n./, [accident, Lat.] 

1. The property or quality of any being, 
which may be feparated from it, atleafl 
in thought. 

If ftie were but the body's accident. 
And her fole being did in it fubfift. 

As white in fnow ihe might herfclf abfent, 
And in the body's fubftance not be mif&'d. 

Sir y. Dav'el. 

An accidental mode, or an accident, is fuch a 
mode as is not neceffary to the being of a thing ; 
for the fubjeft may be without it, and yet remain 
of the fame nature tliat it was before ; or it is that 
mode which may be feparated or aboliftied from 
its fubje£l. IVatti's Lo^ick, 

2. In grammar, the property of a word. 

Tile learning of a language in nothing elfe but 
the informing of ourfelvei, what compufurei of 
letters arc, by confent and inftitution, to fignify 
fuch certain notions of things, with their nioda. 
lities and accidents. H'ilderi Elements ofSpeccb* 

3. That which happens unfbrefeen; ca- 
fualty, chance. 

General laws are like general rules in phyfick, 
according whereunto, as no wife man will dclire 
himfelf to be cured, if there be joined with his 
difcal'c fome fpecial accident, in regard whereof, 
that whereby others in the fame infirmity, but 
without the like accident, recover health, w«uld 
be, to him, either hurtful, or, at the leaft, un- 
profitable. Hooker, b. v. ^ 9. 

The flood, and other accidents of time, made 
it one common field and pafture with the land of 
Eden. Raleigh's Hifior/ of the World, 

Our joy is tum'd 
Into perplexity, and new amaze ; 
For whither is he gone ? \f\sM accident 
Hath rapt him from us ? Parajife Regained, 

And trivial accidents Ihall be forborn. 
That others may have time to uke their turn. 

Dryden's Failet, 

The reformation owed nothing to the good in- 
tentions of king Henry. He was only an inftru- 
mentof it (a« the logicians fpeak) by accident. 

Sivift's Mijcellanies, 

Accide'ntal. ft./, [accidental, Fr. See 
ACCIDENT.] A property nonefTeii- 

Conceive, as much as you can, of the efTentiaU 
of any fubjed, before you confider its accidentals, 
fVaits's Logick. 
Accide'ntal. adj. [from accident.] 

1. Having the quality of an accident, 
nonefTential ; ufed with the p.irticle to, 
before that in which the accident in- 

A diftinflion is to be made between what 
plcafcs naturally in itfclf, and what pleafcjs upon 
the account of machines, atlors, dances, and 
circumftances, which are merely accidental to the 
tragedy, Rymer's Tragedies of the laft Age, 

This it ecc'idental to a ftate of religion, and 
tlierefore ought to be reckoned among the ordinary 
difficulties of it. Tithtjan, 

2. Cafual, fortuitous, happening by chance. 

Thy fin's not accidental, but a trade. 

Shakefpeare's Mcaf. fjr Mcaf, 
So fhall you hear 
01 tcddinltl jai^tMaf) cafual flaughteis ; 


A C C 

Of deatht put on by cunning, and forc'd caufe. 

Shakeff. Hdmlct. 
Look upon things of the mod acddtual and 
mutablf! nature; accidenlal in their produSion, 
and mutable in their continuance ; yet God's 
prefc'ence of them is as certain in him, as the 
memory of them is, or can be, in us. 

Smith' t Sc mors. 

3. In the following paflage it feems to 

flgmfy adiientitious. 
Ay, luch a minifter as wind to fire, 

Tha: adds an accidtntal fiercenefs to 

Its narural fury. Dcnbam'% Sc;>h. 

Accidentally, aJi>. [from accidental] 

1. After an accidental manner ; noneffen- 

Other points no lefs concern the Common- 
wealth, though but accidentally depending U3 .n 
the former. «>>«/«■•, St. :fir.l. 

I conclude choler acciJetuaUy bitter, and acri- 
monioui, but not in idilf. Harvey on Cmfum^tkns. 

Z, Cafually, fortuitoufly. 

Although virtuous men do fometimes acciJer 
tally make their way to preferment, yet t'.ic 
world is fo corrupted, that nu man can reafon- 
»bly hope to be rewarded in it, merely upon ?c- 
count of his virtue. Swift', MijccHanics. 

Accide'ntalness. n./. [from acciden- 
la/.] The quality of being accidental. 

Acci PIENT. n./. [accipient, Lat.] A re- 
ceiver, perhaps lometjmes ufed for re- 
cipiint.^ j)jg 

To Acci TE, -V. a. [accito, Lat.] To call, 
to fomrnons ; a word not in ofe now. 

Our coronation done, we will accit^, 
(As I before x:.n:r.i'xt'i) all our ftate, 
Ani (h'eavV, cwifi^r'-j to :- y good intents) 
No pnnre, :jo peer, : t c^ufc £„ fj„ 

Hcav n ihjrtrn Ha: c 3^5 day. 

AccLA iM,»./ [flfi^/owo, Lat. from which 

n.^-„K;. Crftthe rerU-^f/a/w. jiwloli, 

lenoon.] A (hout of praife, 

jrfoitthypow'n, with load tfrt/dim, 

.,-1 L . ■ ^''"'» P'r. Lofi, b. iii. /. ,07. 
The herald end* ; the vaulted firmament 
With loud acc:amt, and vaft applaufe, is rent. 
. , t>ryd. FM,t. 

ACCLAMA rioN. n.f. [acclamatio, Lat.] 
Shouts of a;>plaufe ; fuch, as thofe with 
which a viftorious army falutes the ge- 
neral. ° 

It hath been the cuftom of Chriftian men, in 
token of the gieater reverence, to «and, to utter 
ceruin word* o{ atcUmatio,, and, at the name of 
Jefus, to bow, 11,^1,^, i. V. ^ ig. 

Gladly then he mix'd 
Among thofe friendly pow'rs, who him teceiv'd 
With joy, and acclamathm loud, that one, 
That, of fo many myriads faU'n, yet one 
Retum'd, not loft. Milt, farad. Left, i.vU l.zi 
Such an encliantment is the.e in words, and 

1 ?!,* "f ^'^f '' ''"'" '" '■<""«> to be ruined 
plaufibly, and to be ulhered to their dcrtruaion 
with paacg)nck and acclamation. South 

AccLi'viTY. n.f. [from acclit-ut, Lat.] 
The Ikepnefs or rtope of a line inclin- 
ing to the horizon, reckoned upwards • 
«, the afcent of an hill is the acc/intt/j] 
the defcent is the declivity. P«/«A>. 

The nien, leaving their wives and younger 
children below, do, not without fome difficttltv, 
clamber up the accli^itie,, dragging their kine them, whe-e ll«y feed them, aod milk 
thew, and make butter and cheefe, and do all 
.he *a,;y-work. Ray o„ th Crtat,.,,. 

Accii vous. adj. {accli-vu,, Lat.] Rifinp 
with a (lope. *■ 

Vol. L I 

A C C 

A C C 

To Accto'r. v. a. [See CLOY.] 

1. To fill up, in an ill fenfe ; to crowd, to 
Huff full ; a word almoft obfolete. 

At the well head the pureft ftreamsarife; 
But mucky filth his branching arms annoys, 
And with uncomely weeds the gentle wave arr/oyj. 

'Fdi}y ^cen. 

2. To fill to fatiety ; in which fenfe clov is 
itill in ufe. 

They that, efcapc bed in the temperate zone, 
would be acchyid with long nights,' very tedious, 
no lefs than forty days. Ray o-l the Creatim. 

To Acco'iL. v. IT. [See Coil.] To 
crowd, to keep a coil about, to buftle, 
to be in a hurry: a word now out of 

About the cauldron many cooks accoiTd, 
With hooks and hJles, as need did require ; 
The while the viands in the veOel boil'd. 
They did about their bufinefs fweat, and forely 
'^"i''''- Tairi Suten. 

A'ccOLENT. n.f. \accokns, Lat.] He that 
ribabits near a place ; a borderer. Dia. 
Acco'mmodable. adj. [accommodabilis, 
Lat.] That which may be fitted ; widi 
the particle to. 

As there is infinite variety in the circumftances 

of pe.f.ns, thing,, anions, times, and places; fo 
we muft be furniihed with fuch general rulei a; 
arc auommaMt to a';l this variety, by a wife judg- 
ment and diforeti.n. WattC, Logici. 

To ACCO'MMODATE. v. a. [acccm- 
mcdo, Lat.] 

1. To fupply with conveniencies of any 
kind. It has tuiih before the thing, 

1 hcie three, 
The .eft io nothing ; with this word, ftand, flanj, 
j1(ccmm,dalcj by the place (more charming 
With rheirown noblenefs, which could haveturn'd 
A diftaff to a lance), gilded pale looks. 

Sbakcfp, CytnbcUre. 

2. With the particle /<7, to adapt, to fit, to 
make confiiient with. 

He had altered many things, not that they 
were not natural before, but that he might accom- 
xKdait himfelf to the age in which he lived. 

,_ . Dryden on Dramatic Poetry, 

rmt hit ronfijrtune to li^bt upon an hypo- 
thefis, that could not be acotr.modaiid to the na- 
ture of things, and human aftliiis ; his principles 
could not be made to agree with that conftitution 
and order which God hatli fettled in the world. 

3. To reconcile ; to adjuft what feems in- 
confiftent or at variance ; to make con- 
fillency appear. 

Part know how to accomodate St. James and 
St. Paul better than fome late reconcilers. Norri:. 

To Acco'mmodate. f. n. To be con- 
formable to. 

They make the particular enfigns of the twelve 
tribes accommodate unto tiie twelve figns of the 
zodiac. n 

»T • L r , . Brown. 

Neither fort of chymifts have duly confidcred 

how great variety there is in the textures and 

confiftencics of compound bodies; and how little 

the confiftince and duration of many of them 

feem to accommodate and be explicable by the pro 

pofed^ notion. Boyle; Sce/>t. Chym. 

Acco'mmodate. adj. [accommodatut, Lat.] 

Suitable, fit; ufed fometimes with the 

particle/iir, but more frequently with to. 

They are fo aftcd and directed by nature, as 

to caft their eggs in fuch places as arc moft ac- 

ccmmadate for the cxcluCon of their young, and 

where there is food ready for them fo foon as they 

be hatched. Ry on the Creation. 

In thefe cafes we examine the why, the what, 

and the how, of things, and ptopofc means ac- 

ttmmodttt It ti>c end. VEJtran^c, , 

God did not primarily intend to appoint th!» 
way of worfliip, and to impofe it upon them aj 
that which was moft proper and agreeable to him, 
but tliat he condefcended to it as moft accommodate 
to their prefent ftate and inclination. Tillotfon. 
Acco'mmodately. adv. [from accom- 
modate.] Suitably, fitly. 

Accommoda'tion. n.f. [ham accommit' 

1. Provifion of conveniencies. •v, 

2. In the plural, conveniencies, things re- 
quifite to eafe or refrefhment. 

The king's commiilioncrs were to have fuch 
accommodations, a;; the other thought fit to leave t» 
them ; who had been very civil to tlie king's 
commiflioners. Clar.„don, b. yiii. 

3. Adaptation, fitnefs ; vvith the particle /o. 

Indeed that difputing phyfialogy is no accommo- 
dation to your defignf, which are not to teach men 
to cant endlefsly about ittateria and frma. 

Glan-vilU's Scepfts* 

The organization of the body, with accommoda- 
tion to its funitions, is fitted with th: moft curious 
mechanifm. //a/«i Origin. 

4- Compofition of a difference, reconcili- 
ation, adjulhnent. 

Acco'mpanable. adj. [from accompany.'\ 
Sociable : a word now not ufed. 

A (hiw, as it were, of ui accomparfable folita. 
rincfs, and of a civil wildnefs. Sidney, b. i. 

Acco'mpanier. »./ [from accompany.] 
The perfoii that makes part of the com- 
pany ; companion, Dia. 

To ACCO'MPANY. -v. a. [accompagntr, 
Fr.] To be with another as a compa- 
nion, it is ufed both of perfons and 

Co vjfit her, in her chafte bower of reft, 
Accompany'd with angel-like delights. 

, Sfenfer, Sonnet iii. 

The great bufinefs of the fenfe* being to ^lake 

u: take notice of what hurts or advantages the 

body, it is wifely ordered by nature, that pain 

fhould accompany the reception of feveral ideas. 


As folly IS ufually accompanied with perverfc- 

nefs, fo it is here. Stvift's Short yie-w of Ireland. 

To Acco'mpany. 'v.n. To aflbciate with; 
to become a companion to. 

No maninrSccl doth accompany mth others 
but he learneth, ere he is aware, fome gcfture* 
voice, or faftiion. Bacon's Nat. Hi/lory', 

Acco'mplice. »./. [complice, Fr. from 
complex, a word in the barbarous Latin, 
much in ufe.] 

I. An aflbciate, a partaker, ufually in aa 
ill fenfe. 

There were feveral fcandalous reports induftri . 
oudy fpread by Wood, and his accomplices, to dif- 
courage all oppofition againft liis infamous projert. 


2. A partner, or to-operator j in a fenfe 

If a tongue would be talking without a mouth, 
what could it have done, when it had all it» 
organs of fpccch, and accomplices of f<,und, about 
''• . AddiJ'ontSpiaatorfti" zn_j. 

3, It is ufed with the panicle to before a 
thing, and •with before a perfon, 

Childlefs Arturiua, vaftly rich before. 
Thus by his lolfes multiplies his ftore, 
Sufpedled for accomplice to the fire, burnt his palace but to build it higher. 

Who, ftiould theyft^l for want of his rcliet 
He judg'd himfelf flr«»i^/(« ■with the thief, 

Diydcn't Fables. 

To ACCOMPLISH. -J. a. [aaompUr, tr. 
from coinpUo, Lat.] 

D i.T« 

A C C . 

». To complete, to execute fully; as, to 
atamflijb a dcfign. 

He that U fir oft (hall die of the peftilence, and 

lie that is near (hall fall by the fword, and he that 

temaineth, and is befieged, (hall die by the fa- 

mine. Thus will I eccimflifr my fury upon them. 

Extkkl, vi. la. 

». To complete a period of time. 

He would accampli/h Icventy years in the defo- 
lations of Jerulilcm. Danitl, ix. a. 

3. To fulfil ; as, a prophecy. 

The vifion, 
Which I made known to Lucius ere the ftroke 
Of this yet fcarce cold battJe, at this in(»ant ' 

Is full accmflijh'd. ShaUfra-t'i Cymhlint. 

We fee every day thofe events eaaflly aaom- 
pTilhtd, which our Saviour foretold at fo great a 
diftance. , ^**''/°«- 

4. To gain, to obtain. 

Tell him from me (a» he will win my love) 
He bear himfelf with honourable aftion ; 
Such as he hath obferv'd in noble ladies 
Unto their lords, by them aecomplilhtd. 

_ Stakrjf. 7am. of a Sircw. 

I'll make my lieaven in a lady's lap. 
Oh miferable thought, and more unlikely. 
Than to accompli/h twenty golden crowns. 

'^•^ Hhakijf.litnryy 

5. To adorn, or furnifh, either mind or 

From the tents 
The armourers uctmfTtp'ing the knights. 
With bufy hammers clofmg rivets up. 
Give dreadful note of preparation. Shakefp. Htri, V. 
Ac co'm p I, I s H E D . participial adj. 

1. Complete in fome qualification. 

For who cxpcfts, that, under a tutor, a young 
gentleman Ihould be an ammflj/hiJ publick ora- 
tor or logician. Ltcie. 

2. Elegant ; finiftied in refpea of embel- 
lifiiments ; ufed commonly of acquired 

. qualifications, without including moral 

The next I took to wife, 
O that I never had ! fond with too late. 
Was in the valeof Sorec, Dallla, 
That fpteious' nJon(Ver, my acccmfli/h'rl fnare. 

Sam/on Agcn. 

Acco'mplisher. n.f. [from accompliJh.'\ 

The pcrfon that accompliflies. DiSl. 

Acco' a PLiSHUBKr. It./. lac<ompliJ~ement, 

1 . Completion, full performance, perfec- 

This would be the acccmpCi/hment of their com- 
mon felicity, in cafe, by their evil, either through 
<lcftiny or advice, they fuffered not the occ.ilion to 
^( loft. Sir Jibn Hayward. 

Thereby he might evade the aatmfl'^nur.t of 
thofe affliftions he now but gradually end urcth. 

BrtnvH^s Vulgar Errours. 

He thought it impo(rible to (inJ, in any one 
body, all thofe perfcSions which he fought for 
the acitmflijimtnt of a Helena j becaufc nature, 
In any individual ptrfon, makes nothing that is 
perfed in all its parts. Drydm'i Dufrtjiry, Pre/. 

2. Completion ; as, of a prophecy. 

The miraculous fuccefs of th; apo.lles preach- 
ing, and the acampliJhiKer.t of miny of their pre- • 
i'ldt'ions, which, to thofe early Chriiiians, were 
matters of fath only, are, to us, matters of figh: 
and expetience. ^iitriury'tSirmoin. 

3. Embelli(hm«nt, elegance, ornament of 
mind or body. 

Young heirs, and elder brothers, from their 
cwn refleifling theeftatestheya.e born to, and 
therefore thinking all other accimplijhmntt unne- 
celTary, arc iff no manner of ufc but to keep 
op their families. Aldifin, Speftator, N" 123. 

4. The a£l of obtaining or perfefting any 
thing; attainment; completion. 

A C C 

The means fuggcfted by policy and worldly 
wifdom, for the aitainmcnt of thofe earthly cn- 
joymer.ts, are unfit for that purpofe, not only 
upon the account of their for, but 
alfo of their frequent oppofit'.on and contrariety 
to, the aiccmplipmir.i of fucli ends. South' t Scrm. 
Acco'mpt. It./. [Fr. compter And compte, 
anciently accompier. Skinner.^ An ac- 
count, a reckoning. See Account. 

The foul may have time to call itfelf to a juft 
accompt of all things paft, by means whereof re- 
pentance is perfefled. Hotter, i.v. §46. 

Each Cbriftmas they accanpn did dear; 
And wound their bottom round the year. Pritr, 
Acco'mptant. It./, [accomptant, Fr.] A 
reckoner, computer. See Account- 

As the accompt runs on, generally the accompt- 
ant goes backward. Souib's Sermors. 

Acco'mpting DAY. The day On which 
the reckoning is to be fettled. 
To whom thou much doll owe, thou much 
maft pay; 
Think on the debt againft th' accompt'wg day. 

Sir J. Dnkam, 

To ACCO'RD. f. a. [derived, by fome, 
from corda, the firing of a mufical in- 
ilrument, by others, from corda, hearts ; 
in the firft, implying harmony, in the 
other, unity.] 

. To make agree ; to adjuft one thing to 
another ; with the particle to. 

The (irft fports the (hepherds (hewed, were full 
of fuch leaps and gambols, as being accardeii to 
the pipe which they bore in their mouths, even 
as they danced, made a right piilure of their chief 
god Pan, and his companions the fatyrs. 

Siilnty, b.\. 
Her hands accorded the lute's mufic to the voice; 
her panting heart danced to the mufick. 

Sidney, h. ii. 
The lights and (hades, whofe well acardeJ ftrife 
Gives all the (irength and colour of our life. 

Pope's Epift. 

2. To bring to agreement ; to compofe ; 
to accommodate. , 

Men would not reft upon bare contrafts without 
reducing the debt into a fpecialty, which created 
much certainty, and acctrdtd many fuits. 

Sir M. Hale. 

To Acco'r D. f. n. To agree, to fuit one 
with another ', with the particle w/VA. 

1 hings are often fpoke, and feldom meant ; 
But that my heart acccrdtth ivitb my tongue. 
Seeing the deed is meritorious, 
And to prefervc my fovereign from his foe. 

Several of the main parts of Mofcss biftory, as 
concerning the flood, and the (irft fathers of the 
fcve:al nations of the world, do very well acctr.i 
ivith the mod ancient accounts of pmfane hiliory. 
Till tfon. Sermon i. 
Jarring int'refts of themfelves create 
Th" accorditg mufick of a well-mixt (late. Pope. 
Aoco'r-D. n./. [accord, Fr.] 
I. Acompaft; an agreement ; adjuftment 
of a difference. 

There was no means for him to fatisfy all 
obligations to God and man, but to ofler himfelf 
for a mediator of an accord and peace between 
them. Bacon's Hen, VII. 

If both are fatisfy'd with this accord. 
Swear by the laws of knighthood on my fword. 

Dryd. Fat. 

z. Concurrence, union of mind. 

At laft fuch grace I found and means I wrought, 
That I that la 'y to my Ipoufe had won, 

Accord of friends, confent of parents fought, 
Affiance made, my happincfs begun. 

Spenfir's Fairy Sheer. 
. They gathered tlicniiyvcs together, to fight 

A C C 

with Tofliua and Urael, with one eccorj. 

•■ Jtpua, IX. 1. 

Harmony, fymmetry, juft correfpond- 
ence of one thing with another. 

Beauty is nothiii^ clfc but a juft acard and mu- 
tual harmony of the members, animated by a 
healthful conftitution. Drydm't Dujrejnoj, Pre/. 

. Mufical note. 

Try, if there were in one ftceple two bells of 
unifon, whether the ftriking of the one would 
move the other, mire than If it were another 
accord. Bacons Natural Hljlorj, No 281. 

We muft not blame Apollo, but his lute. 
If falfe accords from her diit fttings be fent. 

Sir y. Daviet. 

. Oxvn accord ; voluntary motion : ufed 
both of perfons and things. 

Ne Guyon yet fpal^e word. 
Till that they came unto an iron door. 
Which to them open'd of its own accorr!. 

ta'ry Stuetn. 
Will you blaxe any man for doing that of hia 
own accord, which all men (hmld be compelled to 
do, that are not willing t th.mfelvea. Hocier. 
All animal fubftance.-, eipofed to tlie air, turn 
alkaline of their f wn accord; and fome vegetables, 
by heat, will not turn acid, but alkaline. 

jlrbuthnit en 

in fpeaking, correfpondent to 

6. Aftion 
the words. 
Titus, I am come to talk with thee. — 

No, not a word: how can I grace my talk, 

Wanting a hand to give it that accord? 

Sbate/p. Titus And. 
Acco'rdance. n./. [from accord.] 

1 . Agreement with a perfon ; with the 
particle iMith. 

And prays he may in long accordance bide, 
With that great worth which hath fuch wonder* 
wrought. Fairfax, h.'n.Jlan*ab%' 

2. Conformity to fomething. 

The only way of defining of fin, is, by the con- 
trariety to the will of God ; as of good, by the 
accordance vntl) that will. 

Hammond's Fundamentals. 

Acco'rdant. adj. [accordant, Fr.] Wil- 
ling ; in a good humour. Not in ufe. 

1 he prince difcovered that he loved your niece, 
and meant to acknowledge it this night in a dance; 
and, if he found her accordant, he meant to take 
the prefent time by the top, and inftantly break 
with you of it. Skakefp. Muck ado ahout Nothing. 
Ac co' R D I N c . prep, [from accord, of which 
it is properly a participle, and is there- 
fore never ufed but with to.] 
. In a manner fuitable to, agreeably to, 
in proportion. 

Our churches are places provided, that the peo- 
ple might there alTemble themfelves in due and 
decent manner, according to their feveral degrees 
and orders. Hooker, h. v. ^ 13. 

Our leal, then, (houlJ be according to know- 
ledge And what kind of knowledge ? Witli ut 
all queftion, firft, according to the true, faving, 
evangelical knowledge. It (liould be according to 
the gofpcl, the whole gcfpel : not only according to 
its truths, but precepts : not only according to its 
fiee grace, but necelTary duties : not only accord- 
ing to its mjfteries, but alfo its commandments. 

Sprat's Sermtm. 

Noble is the fame that is built on candour and 
ingenuity, according to thofe beautiful lines of Sir 
John Denham. Addijon, Sptaalor. 

1. With regard to. 

God made all things in number, weight, and 
meafure, and gave them to be confidercJ by us ac- 
tording to thefe propeities, which are inherent in 
creatcJ beings. Hc:dcr en Time, 

3. In proportion. The following phrafe 
is, I think, vitious. 

A man may, with prudence and a good con- 
fclencc, approve of the profeiTed principles of one 


A C C 

party more than the other, according as he thinks J 
they bell piomotc the good of church and ftate. 

Sivlft'i Church tf England Man. 

Acco'roinclv. aJ'v. [from accon/.] A- 
greeably, faitably, conformably. 

As the a'Sions ot men are of fundry diilmft 
kinds, fo the laws thereof -oiuft accori'wg'.y be dif- 
tinguiihed. Ho'.kcr, b.i. 

Sirrib, thou'rt faid to have a ftubborn fouf. 
That apprehends no fuit'ier than this world; 
And ftjuar'U thy life accord n^fy. 

Shakilp. Mcufurefor Meaj. 
Whoever is fo aflTuted of the authuricy and f:nk 
of fcrirture, as to believe ths doSriae of it, and 
to live acccjdinglyt fliall be laved. 

TilUtfon's Prifacc. 

Mealy fubftances, fermented, turn four. Ai- 

cordinglj, given to a weak child, they dill retain 

their future; fot bread will give them the cholit. 

Arbutbnor en AHmcnts. 

To ACCO'ST. -v. a. \accofttr, Fr.] To 
fpcik to firft ; to addrefs ; to falute, 

Vou millake. knight : a.-ct/? her, front her, 
board her, woo her, alTail her. 

Sbakfj'ftare'l Tvjelfth Night. 
At length, ciiUcaing ail his ferpent wiles, 
Witii foothmg words renew d, him thus accoSs. 

Paraa. Reg, 
I firft aca^-d him : I fu'd, I (ought, 
Aod, with a loving force, to Phencus brought. 

Dryd. j'Ene'td. 

Acco'sTABLE. <i<^'. [from flffo/?.] Eafyof 
accefs ; familiar. Not in ufe. 

They were both indubitable, ftron^-, and high- 
minded men, yet of fwect and accnjiahU nature, 
almod equally del ghting in theprefsand affluence 
of d'pendents and fultors. yf^atsn. 

ACCO'UNT. n. f. [ftom the old French 
accomft, from computui, Lat. it was ori- 
ginally written accimpt, which fee ; but, 
by gradually foftening the pronuncia- 
tion, in time the orthography changed 
to account. \ 

.1. A computation of debts or expences ; a 
regifter of facts relating to money. 
At many tJm^s I brought in m^^ 
Laid them before you ; you would threw them off, 
And fay you found them in mine honefly. 

Shakcfp. Timcn. 
When my young mader has once got the ikill 
of keeping accounti (which is a bulincfs of rear>n 
more than arithmetic) i>erhaps it will not be amlfs, 
that his father frj;n thenceforth require him to do 
it in all his concernments. Lacke on Educ. 

2. The ftate or refult of a computation ; 
as, the acccunt ftands thus between us. 

Behoid this have 1 fnund, faith the Preacher, 
counting or.e by one, to Bnd out the acatint. 

EcclefipJIkus, vii. 17. 

3. Such a ftateofperfons or things, as may 
make them more or lefs worthy of being 
confidered in the reckoning. Value, or 

For the care that they toik for their wives and 
their children, their brethren and kinsfolks, was 
in leafl iictuni with them : but the greatell and 
principal fear was fur the holy temple. 

z Maccah. xv, 1 1. 

That good affcAion, which things of fm.Tller ar- 
ttutt have once fet on work, is by fo much the 
more calily raifed higher. Hocker, h. v. ^ 35. 

1 fliould make more account of their judgment, 
who arc rnen of fenfe, and yet have never touched 
a pencil, than of the opinion given by the grcatcO 
part of painters. Dryden^t D.'ijrrfr. 

4. Profit ; advantage ; to /«r« to account 
is to produce advantage. 

We wouiJ eftablifl) our fouls in fuch a folid and 
fubftintial virtue, as will turn to aacuni in that 
great day, when it mull Hand the tc!l of infinite 
wifdom and juflicc. Add, Sji{l, N^ 399. 

A C C 

. Dlftlnflion, dignity, rank. 

There is fuch a peculiarity in Homer's manner 
of apostrophizing Eumaus: it is generally applied, 
by that poet, only to men v^ account and diftinc- 
ti'on. Pope's OdylTey; *.'«. 

. A reckoning verified by finding the va- 
lue of a thing equal to what it was ac- 

Confidering the ufual motives of human aflions, 
which are pleafure, profit, and ambition, I cannot 
yet comprehend howthofe pcrfons find theirarroir:; 
in any of the three. Swift. 

. A reckoning referred to, or fum charg- 
ed upon any particular peribn ; and 
thence, figuratively, regard; confidera- 
lion ; fake. 

If he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee aught, 
put that on my account, Philemon, i. S, 

This mull be always remembered, that liothiiig 
can come into the account .>f recreation, that is not 
done with delight. Liciecn Education, ^ 197. 

In matters vvlierc his judgment led him to op- 
pofe men on a public acccunt, he would do it vigo. 
roufly and heartily. jitierhury's Seimoia. 

The afTertion is cur Saviour's, though uttered 
by him in the perfon of Abraham the father of the 
faithful; who, on the <rri rant of that charafler, is 
very fitly introduced. Attcrbury. 

Thele tribunes kindled great dilTenfions between 
the nobles and the commons, on the account of Co- 
riolanus, a nobleman, wh^m the latter had im- 
peached. Stvifi's Conlcfti in Athens and Rome, 

Nothing can recommend itfelf to our love, on 

any other account, but either as it promotes our 

prefent, or is a means to alTurc to us a future Iiap- 

pinefs. Rogers, Sermon v. 

Sempronius gives 00 thanks on this account, 


J. A narrative, relation ; in this ufe it 
may feem to be derived from cenie, f i . 
a tale, a narration. 

J. The review or examination of an affair 
taken by authority ; as, the magiftrate 
took an account ot the tumult. 

Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened 
onto a certain king, which would take acccuni of 
his fervants ; and when he had begun to reckon, 
one was brought unto him, which owed him ten 
thoufand talents. Matt, xix. 23, 24. 

10. The relation and reafons of a tranfac- 
tion given to a perfon in authority. 

What need we fejr who knows it, when none 
can call our power f) accour.t ? ' 

Shitkefpiare'i Macbeth, 

The true ground of morality tan only be tlie 
will and law of a Cod who fris men in the dark, 
has in his hands rewards and punilhments, and 
power enough to call to account the proudell offen- 
der. Lccki, 

11. Explanation; aflignment of caufes. 

It is eafy to give account, how it comes to pafs, 
that though all men defire bappinefs, yet their wills 
carry them fo contrarily. Locke, 

It being, in our author's arroonr, a right acquired 
by begetting, to rule over thofc he had begotten, it 
Wis not a power poflible to be inherited, becaufe 
the right, being confequcnt to, and built on, an aft 
perfedlly perfonal, made that power fo too, and 
impoHible til be inherited. Locke, 

iz. An opinion previoufly eftablinied. 

Thefc were detigned to join with the forces at 
fra, there being prepared a number of fiat-bo!tomed 
boats to tranfport the land forces under the wing 
of the great navy : for they made no account, but 
that the navy Hiould be abfolutely mafter of the 
fcas. Baccn't Conftdcrations on War luiib Spain, 

A prodigal young fellow, that had fold his 
clothes, upon the fight of a fwallow, made account 
that fummerwas at band, and away went liis fliirt 
too. L'Efirange, Fab, cxxvii. 

13. The reafons of any thing colleftcd. 
Being convinced, upon all account!) that tbey 

A C C 

had the fame reafon to believe the hiftoryof our 

Saviour, as that of any other perfon to which they 
themfelves were not aftually cye-witneffcs, they 
were bound, by all the rules of hiftorical faith, and 
of right reafon, to give credit to this billory. 


14. In law. 

Account is, in the common law, taken for a writ 
or adion brought againft araan, that, by means of 
office or bufincl's undertaken, is to render an <if- 
ccunt unto anothe'r ; as a bailiff toward hismiiftcr, 
a guardian to his ward. C-tvcf, 

To Acco'uNT. -v, a. [See ACCOUNT.] 

1 . To efteem, to think, to hold in opinion. 

That alfo was accounted a land of giants. De/it. 

2. To reckon, to compute. 

Neither the motion of the moon, whereby 
months are computed, nor the fun, whereby years 
are accounted, conCfteth of who'e numbeis. 

Bronvn's Vulgar Errours, 

3. To affign to, as a debt ; with the parti- 
cle to. 

For fome years really accrued the yearly fum of 
two hundred thoufand pounds to the king's cofi'er* : 
and it was, in truth, the only projcdl that was ac- 
counted to his own I'ervice. Clarendon, 

4. To hold in efteem ; with of. 
Silver was nothing accounted of in the days of 

Solomon. • - Chrtin. 

ToAcco'uNT. 1/. a. 

1. To reckon. 

The calendar months are likewlfe arbitrarily 
and unequally fettled by the fame power; by 
which months we, to this day, account, and they 
meafure and make up, that which we call the Ju- 
lian year. Holder on Time. 

2. To give an account, to aflign the caufes ; 
in which fenfe it is followed by the par- 
ticle /t/r. 

If any one (hould a(k, why our general conti- 
nued fo eafy to the lad ? I know no other way to 
account for it, but by that unmeafurable love of 
wealth, which his bell friends allow to be his pre- 
dominant paffion. Swift, 

3 . To make up the reckoning ; to anfwer ; 

Then thou flialt fee him plung'd, when lead he 
At once accounting for his deep arrears. 

Vryd. fu-u. Sat. xiii. 
They have no uneafy prefages of a future reckon- 
ing, wherein the pleafures they now talle mud be 
accounted for; and may, perhaps, he outweighed 
by the pains which fliall tiien lay hold of them. 

Alteibury's SermoK', 

4. To appear as the medium, by which 
any thing may be explained. 

Such as have a faulty circulation through the 
lungs, ought to eat very little at a time; becaufe 
the increafe of the quantity of frelh chyle mtill 
make that circulation Hill more uneafy ; which. 
Indeed, is the cafe of confumptivc and fome afih- 
matic perfon', and accounts for the fymptoms they 
are troubled with after eating. 

Arbuthnot on Aliment!. 
Acco'uNTABLE. «<^'. [from «CfO«»/.] Of 
whom an account may be required ; who 
mult anfwer for : followed by the parti- 
cle te before the perfon, and_/ir before 
the t'hing. 

Accountable to none. 
But to my confciencc and my God alone. 

Thinking themfelves excufed from (landing 
upon their own legs, or being accountable for their 
own condufl, they very feldom trouble themfelves 
with enquiricf^, Locke on Education, 

The good magiftrate will make no diftinftion ; 
fir the judgment is God's; and he will look upon 
himfelf as accountable at bis bar for the equity of 
it, Attcrbury's Sermons, 

Accot/'Nt ANT,<ti^'. [ftom account.} Ac- 
D z countable 

A C C 

countable to; refponfible for. Not in 

His offence is To, as it appurs 
jtcamnttnt n the law upon tiiat pain. 

Stakrff,. Mtaf.fvMiaf. 
I love her too, 
Not out oribfolute lull (though, peradventure, 
J ftand acccuntant for as great a Tin) 
But partly led to diet iry revenge. 

Sbaifffeari'i Othtlls. 

Acco'uNTANT. n. /. [See Accompt- 
ANT.] A computer ; a man fciUcd or 
employed in accounts. 

The different compute ef divers dates ; thefliort 
and irieconcilcable years of fome ; the exceeding 
crrour in the natural frame of others ; and the 
falfc deduAiona of ordinary orrwnr^nfi in molt. 

Brown^s Vulgar Erroun, 

Acco'uNT-BOOK. »./ A book Contain- 
ing accounts. 

1 would endeavour to comfort myfelf upon the 
• lofs of friends, as I do upon the lofs of money ; 
by turning to my account-book, and feeing whether 
I have enough left for ray fupport. Sivifl. 

Acco'dnting. n.f. [from account.] The 
aft of reckoning, or making up of ac- 

This method faithfully obfenrcd, muft keep a 
man from breaking, or running behind-hand in 
his fpiritual eftatej which, without frequent af- 
(luitiing), he will hardly be able to prevent. 

Sourb*t Sermons* 
To Acco'uPLE. -v. a. [accoufler, Fr.] To 
join, to link together. We now nfe 

He fent a folemn embaflage to treat a peace 
and league with the king; accoupimg it with an 
article in the nature of a requeft. 

Bacon's HcirjWl. 

Tfl Acco'uRACE. f. a. [Ofafolete. See 
Courage.] To animate. 

That forward pair ihe ever would alTuage, 
When they would ftrive due reafon to exceed ; 

But that fame /roward twain vouM accouragi. 
And of her plenty add unto her need. 

Fairy Sluten, i. ii. c. 2. 

To Acco'uRT. -v. a. [See To COURT.] 
To entertain with courtfhip, or courtefy ; 
a word now not in ufe. 

Who all this while were at their wanton reft, 
.^ccourting each her friend with lavirti feaft. 

Fairy f^een. 

To ACCOTTTRE. t,. a, laccouirer, Fr.] 
To drefs, to equip. 

Is it for this th«y ftujy ? to grow pale. 
And niifs the plealurcs of a glorious meal f 
For this, in rags accculred are they feen. 
And made the May-game of the public fpleen ? 


Drefs, equipage, furniture relating to 
the perfon ; trappings, ornaments. 

I profefs requital to a hair's breadth ; not ojjly 
in tht finr.plc office of love, but in all the accc-iire- 
metst, complement, and ceremony of it. 

Sbair/fearc's Merry If^mcs of lyinjfor. 

Chtiftianity is loft among them in the trappings 
and accoutrctncnrs of it; with which, infteid of 
adorning religirm, they have ftrangelj difguifed it, 
and quite ftifled it in the crowd of external rites 
and ceremonies. Tillotfin, Sermon xxviii. 

I have feen the pope officiate at St^ Peter's, 
■where, for two hours tog':ther, he was bufied in 
putting .in or off his different accoulrmntt, accord- 
ing to die different parts he was to aft in them. 
AeUlfon, Sfeaaii-T, N" 201. 

How gay with all th' accoulrcmenis of war. 
The Britons come, with gold well-fraught thev 
come. p/,i/, 

ACCRETION. »./ [accreii,, Lit.] The 

A C C 

a£l of ^rmving to another, fo ai to in- 

creafe it. 

Plants do nourifli ; inanimate bodies do not : 
they have an accretion, but no alimentation. 

Bac.ns Am. Hft. N" 6c2. 

The charges feem to be eftcdcd by the exhaling 
of the mo'fture, which may leave the tinging cor- 
pufcles more denl'e, and fomcihing augmented by 
the accretion of the oily and earthy parts of that 
moifture. Nrwt'jn^s Ofttict, 

Infants fupport abftinence worft, from the quan- 
tity of aliment confumcd \r\ accretion, 

Arhuthnot or Aliments. 

Accre'tive. adj .[ftomaccretion.] Grow- 
ing ; that which by growth is added. 

if the motion be very (low, we perceive it not : 
we have no fenfe of the accreiite motion of plants 
and animals : and the fly fliadow fteals away upon 
the dial; and the quickelt eye can difcover no 
more but that it is gone. Glanville's Scepjis. 

To ACCRO'ACH. -v. a. [accrocher, Fr.] 
To draw to one as with a hook ; to gripe ; 
to draw away by degrees what is ano- 

Accro'achment. tt.f. [ftom accroach.l 
The aft of accroaching. DiS. 

To ACCRU'E. "J. n. [from the participle 
accru, formed from «f<Tc;/n», Fr.] 

1. To accede to, to be added to ; as, a 
natural produftion or efFeft, witliout any 
particular refpeft to good or ill. 

The Son of God, by his incarnation, hath 

changed the manner of that perfonal fubfiftence ; 

no alteration thereby accruing to the natu re of God . 

Hooker, h. v. § 54. 

2. To be added, as an advantage or im- 
provement, in a fenfe inclining to good 
rather than ill ; in which meaning it is 
more frequently ufed by later authors. 

From which compaft there ariling an obligation 
upon every one, fo to convey his meaning, there 
accrues alfo a right to every one, by the fame (igns, 
to judge of the fenfe or meaning of the perfon fo 
obliged to exprefs himfelf. Souths Sermons. 

Let the evidence of fuch a particular miracle be 
never fo bright and clear, yet it is ftill but particu- 
lar ; and muft therefore want that kind of force, 
that degree of influence, which accrues to a land- 
ing general proof, from its having been tried or 
approved, and confented to, by men of all ranks 
and capacities, of all tempers and interefis, of all 
ages and nations. Atterhury^s Sermons. 

3. To append to, orarife from : as, an ill 
confequence ; this fenfe feems to be lefs 

His fcholar Arlftotle, as in many other parti- 
culars, folikewifeinthis, did juftlyoppofcThim, and 
"became one of the authors ; choofing a certain be- 
nefit, before the hazard that might accrue from 
the difrefpefts of ignorant pcrfons. Wilkins. 

4. In a commercial fenfe, to be produced, 
or arife ; as, profits. 

The yearly benefit that, out of thofe his works, 
accruetb to hermajefty, amounteth to one thoufand 
pounds. Carcw^s Surv. 

The great profits which have accrued to the duke 
of Florence from his free port, have fet feveral of 
the ftates of Italy on the fame fubjeft. 

Addifon on Italy. 

5. To follow, as lofs ; a vitious ufe. 

The benefit or lofs of fuch a trade accruing to 
the government, until it comes to take root in the 
nation. Temp/e's Mifc. 

Accuba'tion. n.f. [from «cfa*o, to lie 
down to, Lat.] The ancient pofture of 
leaning at meals. 

It will appear, that aecukati^n, or lying down at 
meals, was a gefture ufcd by very many nations. 
Brcion^s yul^ar Errotirs, 

T» Accu'.UD. 11. «. [<j«»«^o, Lat.] To 

A C C 

lie at the table, according to the ancient 
maimer. Di3. 

Accu'mbent. adj. \_accumbeni, Lat.] 

The Roman recumbent, or, more properly, ac- 
cumieni poftute in eating, was Introduced alter the 
fird Punic wjr. Arhutbnot on Cans. 

To ACCU'MULATE. f . a. [from accu- 
mule, LaM] I'o heap one thing upon an- 
other ; to pile up, to heap together. It 
is ufed either literally, as, to accumulate 
money ; or figuratively, as, to accumu- 
late merit or wickednefs. 

If thou doft (lander her, and torture me, 
Never pray more ; abandon all rcmorfc; 
On horrors head horrors accumulate ; 
For nothing canft thou to damnation add. 

Sbakejp. Otbttto. 
Crulht by imaginary treafons weight. 
Which too much merit did accumulate. 

• Sir yobn Denbam* 

Accumula'tion, tt.f. [from accumu- 

1 . The aft of accumulating. 

One of my place in Syria, his lieutenant. 
For quick accumulation of renown. 
Which he atchiev'd by th' minute, loft his favour. 
Sbakefpearis Antony and Cleopatra^ 

Some, perhaps, might othcrwife wonder at fuch 
an aciumulatiin of benefits, like a kind of embroi- 
dering, or lifting of one favour upon anotlier. 

2. The ftate of being accumulated. 

By the regular returns of it in fome people, and 
their freedom from it after the morbid matter it 
exhaufted, it looks as there were regular accu- 
mulations and gatherings of it, as of other hu- 
mours in the body. Arhutbnot on Diet, 
Accumula'tive. aJj. [from accumu- 

1. That which accumulates. 

2. That which is accumulated. 

If the injury meet not with meeknefs, it then 
acquires another accumulative guilt, and (Unds 
anfwcrable not only for its own pofitive ill, but 
for all tlie accidental, which it caufes in the fuf- 
fcrcr. Government of tbe Tongue* 

Accumula'tor. tt.f. [from accumulate.] 
He that accumulates ; a gatherer or 
heaper together. 

Injuries may fall upon the paflive man, yet, 
without revenge, there would be no broils and 
quarrels, the great accumulators and multipliers of 
injuries. Decay of Piety, 

A'ccuRACY. »./. [accuratio,'L2.t.] Ex- 
aftnefs, nicety. 

This perfcil artifice and accuracy might have 
been omitted, and yet they have made (hift to 
move. Mort, 

Quicknefs of imagination is feen in the inven- 
tion, fertility in the fancy, and tbe accuracy in 
the exprelfiun. Drydtx, 

The man who hath the ftupid ignorance, or 
hardened effrontery I to infult the revealed will of 
God ; or the petulant conceit to turn it into ridi- 
cule ; or the arrogance to make his own per- 
feiltions the mcalure of the Divinity ; or, at beft, 
that can collate a text, or quote an authority, 
with an infipid accuracy ; or demonftrate a plain 
ptopofition, in all formality; thefe now are the 
only men worth mentioning. Dclatrj, 

Wc confider the uniformity of the whole de- 
fign, accuracy of the calculations, and (kill in re- 
ftoring and comparing paO'ages of ancient au- 
thors. Arhutbnot on Coins^ 

A'CCURATE. adj, [accuratus. Lat.] 

1 . Exaft, as oppofcd to negligence or ig- 
norance, applied to pcrlbns. 

2. Exaft, without defeat or failure, ap- 
plied to things. 


A C C 

A C C 


No m«n living has made more aeewau tri- 
als than Reaumurc, that brighteft ornament of 


3. Detern^iate ; precifely fixed. 


Thole conceive the celef^ial bodies have more 
accurate influences upon thefe things below, than 
indeed they have but in grof.. Bacon, 

A'ccuRATELV. Wi'. \_{Tom accurate.'^ In 
an accurate manner ; exaifily, without 
errour, nicely. 

Tlie fine ot' incidence is either accurately, or 
very nearly, in a given ratio to the fine of refrac- 
tion. Ncwiii:. 

That all thefe didances, motions, and quan- 
tities of matter, ihould be fo accurately and 
harmonioufly adjufted in this great variety of cur 
fyllem, is above the fortuitous hitsof blind matrriul 
caufes, and mufl certainly flow from that eterna. 
fountain of wifdom. Bctttlry. 

A'ccuR ATENESS. 11./. [itOBX occuraie.] 
Exaftnefs, nicety. 

But I'cmetimc after, fufpefting that in making 
this obfervation 1 had nut determined the diame- 
ter of the fphtrc with fu£cient accurater^fs, I re- 
peated tiie experiment. N^nvton. 

To Accv'rse. 'V. a. [See Curse.] To 
doom to mifery ; to invoke mifery upon 
any one. 

As if it were an unlucky comet, or as if God 
had fa accurjtd it, that it ihould never ihine to 
give light in things concerning our duty any way 
towards him. Htj'.kcr. 

When Hildebrand accurfed and cart down from 
his throne Henry IV. there were none fo hardy as 
to defend their lord. Sir Walter Raliigh'i E£'ays. 

Accu'rsed. fart. adj. 

1, That which is curled or doomed to 

•Tis the moft certain fign the world's accurfi. 
That the bed things corrupted are and word. 


2. That which deferves the curfe ; ex- 
ecrable ; hateful ; detcKable ; and, by 
confequence, wicked ; malignant. 

A fwift blefling 
May foon rettirn to this our luffcring country, 
Under a hand accurt'd ! Sbakr'peare^t Machetb. 
The chief part of tiie mifc,-y of wicked men, 
and thofe accurfed fpiritn, the devi's, is this, that 
they are of a difpofition contrary to God. Titiotjvn. 
They, like the feed from which they (prung, 
Againll the g >ds immortal hated nurO. Dryrlrn. 
Accu'sABLE. adj. [fromtlie verb aecuji.] 
That which may be cenfured ; blame- 
able ; culpable. 

There would be a manifed defeat, and Nature's 
improvition were juftly accufai/e -, it animals, fo 
fubjc^ unto difeafes from bilious caales, ihould 
want a proper conveyance for chnler. 

Sroivii'i Vulgar Errourt. 

Accdsa'tiok. n./. [(rom accu/e.'] 

1. The aft of accufing. 

Ihus they in mutual accujatioti fpent 
The fruidefi hours, but neither felf- condemning. 
And of their vain contcft appear'd no end. M'lli'^n, 

2. The charge brought againft any one 
by the accufer. 

You read 
Thefe acrufaihns, and thefe grievous crimes 
Committul by your perfoo, and your followers. 

Ail accujatiiti, in the very nature of the thing, 
Aiil fuppofing, and being founded upon fome law : 
frr where there is no law, there can be no tinnf- 
greflion ; and where there can be no tranfgrefiijn, 
1 am furc there ought to be no accufatien. 


3. [Ill the fenfe of the courts.] A decla- 
jation of ibme crime preferred before a 

competent judge, in order to infli£l fome 
judgment on the guilty perfon. 

Ayliff'e^s Parergon. 
Accu'sATiVE. a<?Jr'. [accuj'atii'us, La.t.] A 
term of grammar, fignifying the rela- 
tion of the noun, on which the adlion 
implied in the verb terminates. 
Accu'sATORY. adj. [from accii/i.'\ That 
which produceth or containeth an accu- 

In a charge of adultery, the accufer ought to 
fet forth, in the accu/atory libel, fome certain and 
definite t'mc. Ayl'iffe. 

To ACCU'SE. -v. a. [accu/o, Lat] 

1. To charge with a crime. It requires 
the particle 0/ before the fubjedl of ac- 

He ftripp'd the bears-foot of its leafy growth j 
And, calling wcftcrn winds, accused the fpring of 
floth. Drydeni Virgil, 

The profcfibrs are accufcd cfM the ill prafljccs 
which may (zzai to be the ill confequenccs of their 
principles. Addijon. 

2. It fometimes admits the particle_/or. 

Never ftrnd up a k*g of a fowl at fupper, while 
there is a cat or dog in the houfe, that can be ac- 
cused f,.r run.iing away with it : But, if there 
happen to be neither, you mutt lay it upon the rats, 
or a llrange greyhound. Sviift, 

3. To blame or cenfure, in oppofition to 
applaufe or jullification. 

'I'heir CDnfcieiiCe bearing witnefs, anJ their 
thoughts the mean while accujing or elfe exculing 
one another. Rem. ii. i 5. 

Your valour would your floth too much accujc, 

And therefore, like the;jfelves, they princes choofe. 

VrydttCi Tyravrick Love. 

Accv'sER. n. /. [from accuji,'] He that 
brings a charge againft another. 

There are fome perfons forbidden to be accuftrs, 
on the fcore of their fex, as women ; others, of 
their age, as pupils and infants ; others, Ujmn the 
account of fome crimes committed by them ; and 
others, on the fcore of fome filthy lucre they pro- 
pofe to gain thereby j others, on the fcore of their 
conditions, 3i libertines againli their patrons ; and 
others, through a fufpicion of calumny, as having 
once already given falfe evidence ; and, lailly, 
others on account of their poverty, as not being 
worth more than fifty aurei, Ayliffci Parcrgon, 

—That good man, who dracic the pois'nous 
With mind ferene, and could not wifli to fee 
His vile accufer drank as deep as he. Drydcn. 

If the perfon accufed maketh his innocence 
plainly to appear upon his trial, the accufer is im- 
mediately put to an ignominious death J and, out 
of his goods and lands, the innocent perfon is 
quadruply recompenfed. Guirrvers Travels, 

To ACCU'STOM. t/. a. [acautumer, Fr.J 
To habituate, to enure, with the par- 
ticle to. It is ufed chiefly of perfons. 

How fhali we breathe in other air 
Lefs pure, accufiivt'd to immortal fruits ? Milton. 
It iias been fome advantage to accuflitn one's 
felf 10 books of the fame edition. 

fVatts's Itnfrmemnt of the Mind- 
To Acc'oSTOM. 11. /r. To be wont to do 
any thing. Obfolete. 

A boat over-freighted funk, and all drowned, 
fav'ng one woman, that in her firft pepping up 
again, which moft living things accuficjm, got holj 
of the boat. Corciv, 

Acco'sTOMAELE. adj. [from accujfom.l 
Of long cuftom or habit j habitual, 

Animjls even of the fame original, extraftion, 
and fpecies, may be divcrufied by accufiomabk re- 
Hdeiicc Ul one clitnacc, from what they are in ano- 
ther. Halt i Origin of Mankind. 

adv. According to 



Touching the king's fines accufiomahly paid for 
the purchafing of writs original, I find no certain 
beginning of them, and do therefore think that 
they grew up with the chancery. 

Bacon's Alienatien* 
Accu'sTOMANCE. tt.f. \accoutumance, Fr.J 
Cuftom, habit, ufe. 

Through accufiomance and negligence, and per- 
haps fome other caufes, we neither feel it in our 
own bodies, nor take notice of it in others. Boyle. 

Accu'sTOM ARiLY. Wi;. In a cuftomary 
manner ; according to common or cuf- 
tomary praftice. 

Go on, rhetorick, and expofe the peculiar emi- 
nency which you accufltmarily marflial before logic 
to public view. Clcaveland. 

Accu'sTOM AR Y. adj. [from accu/}om.'\ 
Ufual, praftifed ; according to cuftom. 

Accu'sTOMED. adj. [from accujiom.'\ Ac- 
cording to cuftom ; frequent ; ufual. 

Look how Jhe rubs her hands. — Ic is an ac~ 
cuflomed atflion with her, to feem thus wafhing her 
hands : 1 have known her continue in this a quar- 
ter of an hour. Sbakefj^earis Macbeth. 

AcE. n,/. [As not only fignified a piece 
of money, but any integer, from whence 
is derived the word ace, or unit. Thus 
Aj fignified the whole inheritance. Ar- 
huthnot on Coins, ] 

I. An unit; a fmgle point on cards or 

When lots are (huffled together in a lap, urn, ot 
pitcher; or if a man bit.ijfold carts a die, what 
reafon in the world can he have to prefume, that 
he rtiall draw a white ftone rather than a black, or 
throw an ace rather than a fife ? South. 

I. A fmall quantity; a particle; an atom. 
He will ni>t bate an ace of abfolute certainty; 
but however doubtful or improbable the thing is, 
coming from him it muft go for an indifputable 
truth. Government of the Tongue. 

I'll not wag an ace farther ; the whole world 
fiiall not bribe me to it. Dryden^s Spanijh Friar.. 

Ac e'p H A LOUS .rJ(^'. [axi^aX®-, Gr.jWith- 
out a head. Diff. 

Ace'rb. adj. [aceriiis, hat.'] Acid, with 
an addition of roughnefs, as moft fruits 
are before they are ripe. ^incy, 

Ace'rbity. n.f. [acerbitas, Lat.] 

1. A rough four tafte. 

2. Applied to men,^lharpncfs of temper j 

True it is, that the talents for criticifm, namely, 
fmartnefs, quick cenfure, vivacity of remark, in- 
deed all but acerbity, fccm rather the gifts of youth 
than of old a^ic. Pope. 

To ACE'RVATE. i-. a. [acervo, Lat.] 

To heap up. Dia. 

AtERVA'TI0^J. n.f. [from acer'vate.'\ The 

aft of heaping together. 
Ace'rvose. adj. Full of heaps. Diil. 
AcE'iCENT. adj. [ace/cetts, Lat.] That 

which has a tendency to fournefs or aci> 


The fame perfons, perhaps, had enjoyed their 
health as well with a mixture of animal dirt, qua- 
lified with a fufticicnt quantity of acefccnts^ as^ 
bread, vinegar, and fermented liquors. 

Arbutbnot on Aliments. 

AcETo'sE. ai^'. That which has in it any 
thing four. Di^. 

AcETo'siTY. n.f. [from acito/e,] The 
ftate of being acctoie, or of containing 
fournefs. Di^. 

Ace'tous. adj. [from actttim, vinegar, 


A C H 

Lat.] Having the quality of vinegar ; 

RiiuDS, which confid chiefly of the juice of 
gripet, infpinated in the ikies or hulka by the 
avoljcion of the fupeifluouimoiflure through their 
pores, being dillillol in a retort, did not affurd 
any vinous, but rather an acfteus fpirit. Boyte* 

Ache. n./. [ac*. Sax. ax®'» G""- "O*^ ge- 
nerally written ake, and in the plural 
akes, of one fy liable; the primitive man- 
ner being preferved chiefly in poetry, 
for the fake of the meafure.] A con- 
tinued pain. See Ake. 

I'll rack thee with oM cramps; 
Fill all thy bones with athes, make thee roar 
That beajts Oiall tremble at thy din. Shaiefpeare. 

A coming fliow'r your (hooting corns prelate, 
Old acbci will throb, your hollow tooth will ra^e. 


To Ache, i: n, [See Ache.] To be in 

Upon this account, our fcnfcs are dulled and 
fpert by any extraordinary intention, and our very 
eyes will actt, if long fixed upon any difficultly 
difcerned object. GlanviUc. 

To ACHI'EVE. f. a. [achever, Fr. to 

1. To perform, to finiQi a defign pro- 

Our toils, my friends, are crown'd with furc fuc- 
cefs I 
The greater parf perform'd, acb'uve the lefs. Dryd* 

2. To gain, to obtain. 

Experience is by induftry, fffi/fvV, 
And perfeflcd by the fwift coui fe of time. Shakeff. 

Tranio, 1 burn, I pine, 1 pcrilh, Tranio, 
If 1 atblevt not this young modcH gi:l. 


Thou haft achieved our liberty, conlin'd 
Witliin helUgates till now. Miltcit, 

Show all the fpoils by valiant kings achiev'J, 
And groaning nations by their arms rcliev'd. Prior, 

Achi'ever. »./. He that performs ; he 
that obtains what he endeavours after. 

A viftory is twice itfclf, when the achk-ver 
brings home full numbers. 

Sbaktfpeari: Much ado about Nctbing. 
Achi'evement. »./. [ackevement, Fr.^ 

1. The performance of an adion. 

From every coaft that heaven walks about. 
Have thither come the noble martial crc'-v, 
That/amous hard achievements dill purfuc. 

Fairy ij^tf/rcff. 

2. The efcutcheon, or enfigns armorial, 
granted to any man for the performance 
of great aflions. 

Then (hall the war, and ftern debate, and ftrife 
Immortal, be the bus'nefs of my life j 
And in thy fame, the dufJy fpoils among, 
High on the burniih'd roof, my banner (hall be 

Rank'd with my champion's bucklers, and below, 
With arms rcvers'd, th' atbicv^ments of the for. 

Achie-vemeiitj in the firft fenfe, is derived 
■ from achienje, as it figiiifies to perform ; 
in the fecond, from achieve, as it im- 
ports to gain. 
A'cHiNG. n.f. [(torn acbe.'\ Pain; un- 

When old age comes to wait upon a great and 
worlhipful fmncr, it comes atiended with many 
painful girdi and acbingt, called the gout. South. 

A'CHOR. n.f. \ach6r, Lat. ix^^j, Gx.fur- 
fur.^ \ fpccies of the herpes ; it appears 
with a crully fcab, which caufc'- an itch- 
ing on the furface of the head, occa- 
fioned by a fait Iharp ferum oozing 
through the fkin. ^lincy. 

A C K 

A'CID. at/J. [adJus, Lat. aciJt, Fr.] Sour, 

Wild trees laft longer than garden trees; and 
In the fame kind, thole whofe fruit Is acij, mote 
than thafe whofe fruit is fweet. 

Baton's Natural Uifi'.ry. 

jlcid, or four, prnceedj from a fait of the fame 
nature, without mixture of oil ; in aufterc taftes 
tl>e oily parts have not difentangled thenifclvcs 
from the falts and earthy puts ; luch i> the t.iftc 
of unripe fruits. Arhuthnot m Alimtrut. 

Liquors and fubflances are called acidt, which 
being compofed of pointed particles, aft'efl the 
tafte in a (harp and piercing manner. The com- 
mon way of trying, whether any particular liquor 
hath in it any particles of this kind, is by mix- 
ing it with fyrup of violets, when it will turn ot 
a led colour; but if it contains alkaline or lixivia! 
particles, it changes that fyrup green. Sluircy. 
Aci'dity. n.f. [fromaaV.] The quality 
of being acid ; an acid tafte ; iharpnefs ; 

Filhes, by the help of a dilTolvent liquor, cor- 
rode and reduce thei?~meat, (kin, bones, and all, 
into a chylus or cremor ; and yet this liquor ma- 
nifc'.s nothing of acidity to ihe tafte. R.y. 

When the tafte of tlie mouth is bitter, it is a 
fign of a redundance of a bilious alkali, and de- 
mands a quite dilTerent diet from the cafe of aci- 
dity or fournefs. Arhuthnii on Alimtr.n. 

A'ciDNEss. »./ [fromof/V.] Thequality 
of being acid; acidity. See Acid iry. 

ACFDVLjE. n.f. [that is, aqua acitiuU.'\ 
Medicinal fprings impregnated with 
ftiirp particles, as all the nitrous, chaly- 
beate, and alum fprings are. ^incy. 
The acidu/ar, or medical Iprings, emit a greater 
quantity of their minerals than ufual ; and even 
the ordinary fprings, which we-e before clear, 
frelh, and limpid, become thick and turbid, and 
are impregnated with fulphur and other mine- 
rals, as long as the earthquake lafts. 

fVcfodward^ s Natural H'jiory 

To Aci'dulate. n). a. [acidukr, Fr.] 
To impregnate or tinge with acids in a 
flight degree. 

A diet of frelh unfaltcd things, watery liquors 
ac'dulatidf farinaceous emollient fubftances, four 
milk, butter, and acid fruits. 

Arhuthnot on Aliments. 

To ACKNO'^VLEDGR. -v. a. [a word 
formed, .is it feems, between the Latin 
and Englifh, from cgnofco, and knoiti- 
ledge, which is deduced from the Saxon 
cnapan, to kno'w.'\ 

1. To own the knowledge of; to own any 
thing or perfon in a particular cha- 

My people do already known my miiid. 
And will acknowledge you and JilTica, 
In placcof lord Baffanioard niylelf. Sbaiijftare. 

None tliat ackno^ckdge God, or providence. 
Their fouls eternity did ever duubt. Davits. 

2. To confefs ; as, a fault. 

For I ackniKvltdgt my ttanfgreffions ; and my 
(in is ever before me. fjalm li. 3. 

3. To own ; as, a benefit ; fomctimes 
with the particle to before the perfon 
conferring the benefit. 

His fpirit 

Taught them; but they his gifts aeinowMg'd 

not. Mihm. 

In tbc'(irft place, therefore, I thankfully ac- 

inmvltdge to the Almighty power the he 

his given me in the beginning, and the profecu- 

tion of my prefent ftudies. Dryder. 

Ac KNo'wLE DOING, a.-lj. [from acknoiu. 

ledge.] Grateful ; ready to acknowledge 

benefits received. A Gallicifm, recon- 


A C O 

He has diewn his hero acimoviledging aod OR* 
grateful, campa(ri >nate and hard-hearCed ; but, at 
the bottom, fickle and fclf-intcrefted. 

Drydcn's Vtrgil. 
Ac K N o'wL E O c M E N T . n.f. [from acknoitt- 

1. Conccffion of any charafter in ano- 
ther ; as, exiftence, fuperiority. 

The due contemplation of the human nature 
doth, by a necelTary cortnexion and chain of 
caufcs, carry us up to the unavoidable ackn&w.. 
ledgmnt of the Doitj- ; becaufe it carries every 
thinking man to an original of every fucceffive in- 
dividual. Hall's Origin of Maniind, 

2. Conceflion of the truth of any pofl- 

Immediately upon the acknowledgment of the 
chriftian faith, the eunuch was baptized by Fhilip. 


3. Confeflion of a fault. 

4. Confeflion of a benefit received ; gra- 

5 . Aft of atteflation to any conceflion ; 
fuch as homage. 

■i'hcre be many wide countries in Ireland, in 
which the laws of England were never eftablilhed, 
nor any acknonvhdgment of fubjcdlion made. 

apenjcr's State ef Ireland, 

6. Something given or done in confeflion 
of a benefit received. 

The fecond is an aeknototedgtntnt to his ma- 
jefty for the leave of fi(hing upon his coafts ; and 
though this may not be grounded upon any treaty, 
yet, if it appear to be an ancient right on our fide, 
and cuftom on theirs, not determined or cx- 
tingui(hed by any treaty between us, it may with 
juftice be iniifted on. lemflt's Mij'ccilanics, ■ 

J'CME. n.f. [i.,,,.,.,GT.'\ The height of 
any thing ; more efpecially ufed to 
denote the height of a diftcmper, which 
is divided into four periods, i. The 
arche, the beginning or firft attack. 
2. Anahafis, the growth. 3. Acme, the 
height. And, 4. Paracme, which is the 
declenfion of the diftemper. i^iney. 

Aco'i.OTHisT. n.f [azo^^fSiw, Gr.] One 
of the lowelt order in the Romifti church, 
whofe office is to prepare the elements 
for the offices, to light the church, Wr. 

it is duty, according to the papal law, when 
the Vi(hop rii-igs mafs, to order all the inferior 
clergy to appear in their proper hab'.ts ; and to Lc 
that all the offices of the church he rightly per- 
formed J to ordain the atolothiji, to keep the facred 
velfels. Ayi.fe's Parirgon. 

A'coLYTE. n.f. The fame with AcoLO- 


A'coN'iTE. n.f. [aeonitutn, Lat.] Properly 
the herb wolfs-bane, but commonly ufed 
in poetical language for poifon in ge- 

Our land is from the rage of tygers freed. 
Nor nourilhcs the lion's angry feed ; 
Nor pois'nous aconite is here produc'd, 
Or grows unknown, or is, »hcn known, refus'd. 


Dcfpair, that aconite docs prove. 
And certain death to others' iovc. 
That poifon never yet withftood. 
Does nouri(h mine, and turns to blood. 


A'coRK. n, /. [jEcepn, Sax. from ac, an 
oak, and cojin, corn or grain ; that is, 
the grain or fruit of the oak.] The feed 
or fruit born by the oak. 

Errour:., fuch as are but acorns in our younger 

brows, grovi oaks in our older heads, and become 

indexible. Brtvi*. 

4 Content 


A C Q^ 

Content with food which nature freely bredi 
On wildings and on ftrawbcrries they fed ; 
Cornels and bi amble-berries gave the reft, 
And falling actiriu furnifli d out a feaft. 

Dryjen^s 0-vid, 

He that is nouriflied by the aeoms he picked up 
under an oak, or the apples he gathered from the 
trees in tiie wood, has ceruinly appropriated them 
to himfelf. Lotit. 

A'cORNED. adj .\Jrom acorn.'] Storedwith 

Like a full acorn d boar> Shahefp<rare. 

Aco'usTi CKS. ».yl [AxbiT<*,of iieaw, Gr. 

to hear.] 
r. The doftrine or theory of founds. 
2. Medicines to help the hearing, ^iney. 
To ACOyAl'NT. 1/. a. [accointer, Fr.] 

1. To make familiar with; applied either 
to perfons or things. It has luith before 
the objeft. 

We that acquaint ourfelves laith ev'ry zone, 

And pafs the cropicks, and behold each pole ; 
When we come home, arc to ourfelves unknown, 

And unacquainted ftill with our own foul. 


There •uiilh thee, new welcome faint. 
Like fortunes may her foul acouaint, Milton, 

Before a man can fpeak ■ n any fubjeft, it is 
neceflary to be acjuainitd viitb it. 

Locke on Education, 

jlcauaint yourfelves luitb things ancient and 
modern, natural, civil, and religious, domeftic and 
national ; things of your own and foreign countries ; 
and, above all, be well acfuainird viiih God and 
yourfelve»; learn animal nature, and the workings 
of your own fpirits. IVatti'i Lopck. 

2. To inform. With is more in ufe before 
the objeft than of. 

But for fome other reafonj, my grave Sir, 
Which is not fit you know, I not ac-jLaint 
My father c/this bufinefs. 

Sheiefpe!tre\ T-wtlJtb Night. 

A friend in the cotintry acquaints nic, that two 

or three men of the town are got among them, and 

have brought words and phralcs, which were never 

before in thofe parts. Tallir. 

Acqu a'intakce. n.f. [accoiittance, Fr.] 

1, The Bate of being acquainted with; 
familiarity, knowledge. It is applied 
as well to perfons as things, with the 
particle "witb. 

Nor was his arqaaintattce left w'ltb the famous 
eoetsof hit age, than ■with the noblemen and ladies. 


Our admiration of a famous man IclTens upon 
our nearer acquaintance tcitb him ; and we feldon. 
hear of a celebrated perfon, without a catalogue ol 
iome DOtorioui weaknelTei and infirmitie*. 


Would we be admitted into an acquaintance v^ith 
God, let ut ftudy to re.''emble him. We muft be 
partakers of a divine nature, in order to partake oi 
this high privilege ar-d alliance. jiitertury. 

2. Familiar knowledge, fimply without a 
prepofition. _ 

Brave foldicr, pardon me. 
That any accent breaking from mi^-tonguc. 
Should 'Icape the true acquaintance of mine ear. 

This keept the underftanding long in convrrle with 
ao objefl, and long converfe brings acquaintance. 

In what manner he lived with thofe who were 
of his neighbourhood and acquaintance^ how obli- 
ging his carriage wat to them, what kind offices he 
did, and was always ready to do them, 1 forbear 
particularly to fay. Atierbury. 

%. A flight or initial knowledge, fhort of 
friendfhip, as applied to perfons. 

I b'jpe 1 am pretty near feeing you, and there- 
fore I would cultivate an acquaintance i becanfe if 
you do oot know mc when we meet, yon need only 

keep one of my letters, and compare it with my 
face ; for my face and letters are counterparts of 
my heart. Sivift to Pcfe. 

A long noviciate of acquaintance ihould precede 
the vows of friendlhip. Bolinghroke. 

4. The perfon with whom we are ac- 
quainted ; him of whom we have fome 
knowledge, without the intimacy of 

In this fenfe, the plural is, in fome 
authors, acquaintance, in others acquain- 

But (lie, all vow'd unto the red-crofs knight, 
His wand'ring peril clofcly did lament, 

Ne in this new acquaintance could delight, 
But her dear heart with anguilh did torment. 

Fairy ^een. 

That young men travel under fome tutor, I 
allow well, fo that he be fuch a one that may be 
able to tell them what acquoinfancei they are to 
fcek, what exercifes ordifcipline the place yieldeth. 


This, my lord, has juftly acquired you as many 
friends, as tlicre are perfons who have the honour 
to be known to you ; mere acquaintance you have 
none, you have drawn them all into a nearer line j 
and they wiio have converfedwith you, are for ever 
after inviolably yours. Dryden. 

We fee he isadianied of his neareft acquaintances. 
* Bcylc againji B entity. 

Acoyji'iNTZD. ac/J. [from acquaint.] Fa- 
miliar, well known ; not new. 

Now call we our high court of parliament ; 
That war or peace, or both at once may be 
As tiungs acquainted and familiar to us. Shakeff. 
Acqjj e'st. n.J. [acquejl, Fr. irotaacquerir, 
written by fome acquift, with a view to 
the woid acquire, or acquijiia.] Attach- 
ment, acquifltion ; the thing gained. 
New acquifls are moreburdea than Itrcngth. 


Mud, repofed near the oRea of rivers, makes 

continual additions to the land, thereby excluding 

the fea, and preferving thefe (hells as trophies and 

figns of its new acquit and encroachments. 


To ACOyi'ESCE. t;. n. [acquie/cer, Fr. 

acqutejcere, Lat.] To reft in, or remain 

fatisiied with, without oppofition or dif- 

content. It has in before the objeft. 

Others will, upon account of the receivednefs 
of the propofed opinion, think it rather worthy to 
b^ examined than acquifjctd in. Boyle. 

Nc.thcr a bare approbation of, nor a mere wish- 
ing, nor una^ive complacency in j nor, laftly, a 
natural inclination to things virtuous and good, 
can pafs before God for a man's willing of f'ucii 
things i and, confcquently, if men, upon this ac- 
count, will needs take up and acquitfce in an airy 
ungrounded perfuafion, tiial they will thafe things 
which really they not will, tlicy fall thereby into a 
grofs and fatal delufion. South. 

He hath empl'yed his tranfcendentwifdom and 
power, that by thefe he might make way for his 
benignity, at the end wherein they ultimately ac- 
quiefce. Creiv. 

Accjuie'scence. n./. [from euqtii,/ce.] 

1. A filent appearance of content, dilUn- 
guilhedon one fide from avowed confent, 
on the other from oppofition. 

Neither from any of che nobility, nor of the 
clergy, who were thought moftaverfelrom it, tliere 
appeared any llgn of coutradiOion to that; but an 
entire acquiejcace in all the hiihops thought tit tn 
do. Clarendon. 

2. Satisfaftion, reft, content. 

Many indeed have ^ivcn over their purfuits after 
fame,either from di f ippointmcnt,or from experience 
of the little picalurc which attends it, or the better 
informations or natural c-^ldn-rfs of old age; but 
fi'Idom from a full fatisfadtioii and acquicjance in 
their prefent enjoymcntj of it. AdJifon, 

A C Q^ 

3. Submlffion, confidence. 

The grenteft part of the world take up their pcr- 
fuafions concerning good and evil, by an implicit 
faith, and a full acquiefcence in the word of tliofe, 
who (hall rcprcfent things to them under thefe cha- 
rafters. South. 

AcQjri'RABLE. adj. [from acquire.] That 
which may be acquired or obtained ; 

Thofe rational inlUnfls, the connate principles 
engraven in the human foul, though they are truths 
acquirable and deducible by rational confequence 
and argumentation, yet fcem to be infcribed in the 
very crafis and textuie of the foul, antecedent to 
any acquifition by induftry or the exercife of ths 
difcurfive faculty in man. 

HaWs Origin of Mankind. 

If the powers of cogitation and volition, and 
fenfation, are neither inherent in matter as fuch, 
nor acquirable to matter by any motion or modifi- 
cation of it ; It necellarily follows, that they pro- 
ceed from fome cogitative fubftance, fome incor- 
poreal inhabitant within us, which we call fpirit 
and fiul. Bcntley. 

To ACC^I'RE. v. a. [acqiierir, Fr. ac- 
quiro, Lat.] 

1 . To gain by one's own labour or power ; 
to obtain what is not received from na- 
ture, or tranfmitted by inheritance. 

Better to leave undone, than by our deed 
Acquire too high a fame, while he, we ferve, 'a 
away. Shakefp. Antony and Cleopatra, 

2. To come to ; to attain. 

Motion cannot be perceived without the percep- 
tion of its terms, viz. the parts of fpacc which it 
immediately left, and thofe which it next acquires. 
Glan-ville^s Scepjis, 
Acqv I'titD, farticip. adj. [irora acquire.] 
Gained by one's felf, in oppofition to 
thofe things which are beftowed by na- 

We are feldom at eafe, and free enough from " 
the f.)licitation of our natural or adopted defires ; 
but a conftant fuccclfion of uneafintlfcs, out of 
that ftock, which natural wants, or acquired habits, 
have heaped up, take the will in their tuins. 

Acc^ui'rer. n.f. [from acquire.] The 

perfon that acquires ; a gainer. 
AcQj;i'REMENr.ff./ [iioaxacqicire.] That 
which is acquired ; gain ; attainment. 
The word may be properly uled in op- 
pofition to the gifts of nature. 

Thele his acquirements, by induftry, were ex- 
ceedingly both enriched and enlarged by many 
excellent endowments of nature. 

H^tyivard on Edivard VI, 
By a content and acquiefcence in every fpeciea 
of truth, we embrace the fhadow theicof; or fo 
much as may palliate itsjuft and fubftantial <:e- 
quirements. Brcrwn^s Vulgar Errours, 

It is very difficult to lay down rules for the ac- 
quirement c.i a tafte. The faculty muft, in fome 
deg,ec, be born with us. Addifon. 

Acquisi'riON. n./, \_acquiJilio,'LsX,] 

1 . The aft of acquiring or gaining. 

Each man has but a limited right to the good 
things of the world ; and the natural allowed way, 
by "which he is to compafs the po/le(lion of tliefe 
things, is by his own induftrious acquifition of 
them. South. 

2, The thing gained ; acquirement. 

Great Sir, all acquifition 
Of glory as of empire, here I lay before 
Your royal feet. Denkani*s Sophy, 

A ftate can never arrive to its period in a more 
dcpl'irabic crifis, than when Ibme prince lies hover- 
ing like a vulture to difmember Its dying carcali: ;. 
by wliich means it becomes only an acquifition to 
fome mighty monarchy, without hopes of a rcfur- 

ireftioB. ^ S-wift^ 


A C Q^ 

Acqyi*«ITIVK. adj. [acqmjtlivtts, Lat.] 
That whidi is acquired or gained. 

He diej not in his aefuifitive buc in liis nativf 
foil ; nature hcrfelf, as it were, claiming a Ana) 
intercft in his btdy, when fortune had done with 
him. IVaton. 

Acqui'sT. n.f. [See AcquEST.] Ac- 
quirement ; attainment ; gain. Not in 

His fervant he with new acquiji 
Of true experience from this great cvrnf, 
With peace and confolation hath difmift. MUtor.. 

To ACQUIT, v. a. [acquitier, Fr. See 

I. Tofet free. 

Nc do 1 with (for wi/hing were but vain) 
To be acquit from my continual fmart ; 

But joy her thrall for ever to remain. 
And yield for pledge my poor captived heart. 


a. To clear from a charge of guilt ; to ab- 
folve ; oppofed to condemn, either fimply 
with an accufative ; as, the jury acquitted 
him, or with the particles from or of, 
which is more common, before the crime. 

If I fin, then thou markeft me, and thou wilt 
not acquit me from mine iniquity. ^oi, x. 14. 

By the fuDVage of the moft and beft he is already 
acquittedftai, by tbefencenceof fome, condemned. 


He that judges, without informing himfelf to 
the utmoft chat he is capable, cannot acquit iiim' 
felf ©/"judging amifs. Locke. 

Ncitlier do I refiedt upon the memory of his 
majefty, whom I entirely atpi/f of my Imputation. 


3. To clear from any obligation. 

Steady to my principles, and not difpirjted with 
my affliilions, I have, by the blefling of God on 
my endeavours, overcome all difficulties ; and, in 
fome mealurc, acquitted mrfclf of the debt which 
I owed the publick, when I undertook this work. 


4. In a /imilar fenfe, it is faid. The man 
hath acquitted him/elf luell i that is, he 
hath difcharged his duty. 

Acqjii'tment. n.f [from acquit.] The 
ftate of being acquitted ; or ad of ac- 

The word imports properly an acquittiunt or dif- 
tharge of a man upon fome precedent accufatlon, 
and a full trial and cognizance of hit caufe had 
thereupon. Souib, 

^cquj'ttal. «./. In law, is a deliver- 
ance and fetting free from the fufpicion 
or guiltinefs of an offence.' Ccnuel. 

The conllant defign of both thefe orators, was 
to drive fome one particular point, either the con- 
demnation or acquittal oi an accufed pcrfon. 

To Acqui'ttance. I/, a. To procure an 
acquittance ; to acquit j a word not in 
prefent ufe. 

But if black fcandal and fouI-facM reproach. 
Attend the fcquci of your impofition. 
Your mere enforcement (hall acquittance me 
From all the impure blots and flalns thereof 


Acqui'ttance. n.f. [from acquit.] 
I. tHc aft of difcharging from a debt. 

But foon fliall find 
Forbearance, no acquittance, ere day end 
Juftice fliall not return, as beauty, fcorn'd. 

1. A writing teftifying the receipt of a 

You can produce acquitlanca 
For fuch a fum, from fpecial officers 
Of Charles hit father. 

Siiaicffeare'i Lfot't Labmr Loji. 

A C R 

They quickly pay their debt, and then 
Take no acquittances, but pay again. Donne. 

The fame man bought and fold to himfelf, paid 
the money, and gave the acquittance, yirhuthnot. 
A'cRE. n.f. [JEcjM, Sax.] A quantity of 
land containing in length forty perches, 
and four in breadth, or four thoufand 
eight hundred and forty fquare yards. 


Search every acre in the high-grown field. 
And bring him to our eye. Sbakefp. Kin^ Lear. 
A'cRiD. adj. [acer, Lat.] Of a hot biting 
tafte ; bitter ; fo as to leave a painful 
heat upon the organs of tafte. 

Bitter and acrid dift'cr only by the (harp particles 
of the firft being involved in a greater quantity of 
oil than thofc of the laft. j^rbutbnot on Aliments. 

Acrimo'nious. adj. Abounding with 
acrimony ; fharp ; corrofive. 

If gall cannot be tendered acrimonious, and bitter 
of itfelf, then whatever acrimony or amaritude 
redounds in it, muH be from the admixtare oi 
melancholy. Harvey on Conjuntptiom. 

A'cRiMONY. n.f. [acrimenia, Lat.] 

1 . Sharpnefs, corrofivenefs. 

Thctu be plants that have a milk in them when 
they are cut; as, figs, old lettuce, fow-thiftles, 
fpurge. The caufe may be an inception of putre- 
faflion : for thnfe milks have all :inacrimony, though 
one Ihould think they Ihould be lenitive. 

Sacen's Natural Hifttry. 

ThechymilH define fait, from fome of its pro- 
perties, to be a body fufible in the fire, congealable 
again by cold into brittle glebes or crydaU, foluble 
in water, fo as to difappear, not malleable, and ha- 
ving fomcthing in it which affects the organs of 
tafte with a fenfation of acrimony or fliarpnefs. 


2. Sharpnefs of temper, feverity, bitter- 
nefs of thought or language. 

John the Baptift fet himfelf, with much acri- 
mony and indignation, to bafBe this fenfelefs arro- 
gant conceit of theirs, wliich made them huff at 
the doilrine of repentance, as a thing below them, 
and not at all belonging to them. St/utb. 

A'c R I T u D E . n. jf. [from acrid. ] An acrid 
tafte ; a biting heat on the palate. 

In green vitriol, with iti aftringent and fwectijh 
taftes, is joined foute acritudct 

Grcvj's Mujteum. 

Acroama'tical. fl;^'. [aKjoao^t, Gr. I 
hear.] Of or pertaining to deep learn- 
ing ; the oppoiite of exoterical. 

Acroa'ticks. n.f. [Axgoolixa, Gr.] Ari- 
ftotle's leftures on the more nice and 
principal parts of philofophy, to which 
none but friends and fcholars were ad- 
mitted by him. 

Acro'nycal. adj. [from uic^0-, Jiimmui, 
and >iy|, nox ; importing the beginning 
of night.] A term of aftronomy, applied 
to the ftars, of which the rifmg or fetting 
is called acronycal, when they either ap- 
pear above or fink below the horizon at 
the time of funfet. It is oppofed to 

Acro'nycally. ad<v. [from acronycal.] 
At the acronycal time. 

He is tempeltuous in the fummer, when he 
rlfes heliacally, and rainy in the winter, when he 
r\ie% acronycaily. Dryden, 

A'crospire. n.f. [fromax^®' ando-B-ir^a, 
Gr.] A fhoot or fprout from the end of 
feeds before they are put in the ground. 

Many corns will fmilt, or have their pulp turned 
into a fubftance like thick cream ; and will fcitd 
forth their fubftaucc in an acrojfirt^ Mortimer. 


A'cROspiRED./ar/. adj. Having fprouts, 
or having ftiot out. 

For want of turning, when the malt is fpread 
on the Hrior, it comes and fprouts at both ends, 
which is called acrofjiircd, and is fit only for fwine. 


AcRo'ss. adv. [from a for at, or the 
French a, as it is ufed in a traijers, and 
crofs.] Athwart, laid over fomethinj 
fo as to crofs it. 

The harp hath the concave not along the ftringS| 
but acrofs the ftrings ; and no harp hath the found 
fo melting and prolonged as the IriQi harp. 


This view'd, but hot enjoy' J, with arms acrofr 
He Hood, reflecting on his country's lofs. Dryden* 

There is a fet of urtizans, who, by the help of 
feveral poles, which they lay acoji each ochers 
Ihoulders, build thcmfelv.'-i up into a kind of pyra- 
mid j fo that you fee a pile of men in the air of four 
or five rows rifing one above another, Addifcn. 
AcRo'sTiCK. n.f [from ixf®- and rt%®'» 
Gr.] A poem in which the firft letter 
of every line being taken, makes up 
the name of the perfon or thing on 
which the poem is made. 


I. That which relates to an acroftick. 
z. That which contains acrofticks. 

Leave writing plays, and chnofe for thy command 
Some peaceful province in acnjlick land : 
There thou may'ft wings difplay, and altars raife. 
And torture onepoor'word ten thoufand ways. 


[from ait^ot, Gr. the extremity of any 
body.] Little pcdeftais without bafes, 
placed at the middle and the two ex- 
tremes of pediments, fometimes fervihg 
to fupport rtat.ues. 
To ACT. T. n. [ago, aQum, Lat.] 
I. To be in action, not to reft. ' 

He hangs between in duubt t> aH or re/l. Ftpe, 

z. To perform the proper funftions. 

Albe't the will is not callable \}t beifvg compelled 
to any of its actings, yet it is cipable of beii^ 
made to a^ with more or lefs d)6iculiy, according 
to the different impreiUons it rcceiy^s from motives 
or objeils. South, 

3. To pradllfe arts or duties ; to condud 
one's felf. 

"I'is plain that (he, wljo for a kingdom now* 
Would facrifice her love, and break her vovii. 
Not out of love, but intereft, acts alanc. 
And would, ev'n in my arms, lie thinking o( a 
throne. Dryden i Cvnquejl of Granada. 

The defirc of happinefs, and the conftrainc it 
ptits upon us to afl for it, no body accounts an 
abridgment of liberty. Locke. 

The fplendor of his office, is the token of that 
facred character which he inwardly bears : and 
one of thefe ought conlbntly to put him in mind 
of the other, and excite him to afl up to it, through 
the whole courfe of his adminiftration. 

Atterhury'"! Sermons, 

It is our part and duty to co-operate with this 

grace, vigoroufly to exert thofe poweis, and a^ up 

to thofe advantages to whi^h it rciiaies us. He 

has given eyes to the blind, and feet to the lame. 

Rt'^crs's Sermcns. 

4. To produce efFefts in fome pafli ve fubjedl. 

Hence 'tis we wait the wond'rous caufe to find 
How body a^s upon impalTive mind. 

Garth^s Difpenfary. 

The ftomach, the intcftines, the muftles of, the 

lower belly, all ad upon the aliment; befides, the 

chyle is not fucked, but fqueezed into the mouths 

of the la£teals, by the action of the fibres of the 

■ guts. Ariulhnot en Aliments, 

Tc Act. -v, t,. 

I. To 


t. To bear a borrowed charsifter; m, a 


Honour and fliamc from no condition rife ; 
j^a well your part, there all the honour lies. Pete. 

t. To counterfeit ; to feign by aaion. ' ' 

His forrner trembling once again renew'd, 


VVi^th aff^ fear the villain thus purfuM. D.yrler 

|. To aduate ; to put in motion ; to re- 
gulate the movemeats. 

Moft people in the world are affej by levity and 
humour, i>y ftrange and irrational changes. South. 

I they are as proud as Lucifer, as cove- 
tous as Demas, as falfe as Judas, and, in th- 
whole courfe of their converfation, aiJ, and a,e 
*ctcd, not by devotion, but defign. South 

We fuppofc two diftina, incommunicable con- 
fcoufneires^ffi^; the fame body, the one ccn- 
ftantly by day. the other by night ; and, on the 
other fide, the lame confcioufcefi aaing by inter- 
vals two diftinfl bodies. '' ' ^^^^^ 

Act. n./. [aSum, Lat.] 
I. Something done ; a deed ; an exploit, 
whether good or ill. 

A lower place, not well. 
May make too great an aa : 
Better to leave undone than by our deed 
Acquire too high a fame. 

-. r ■ Stahfp. Ant. and Cltopatra. 

Ike confcious wretch mud all hisaS. reveal ■ 
toth to confefs, unable to conceal ; 
From the firft moment of his vital breath,' 
To his lift hour of unrepenting death. Drfdcn. 

Z. Agency ; the power of producing an 
effecl. " 

I will try the forces 
Of thcfe thy compounds on fuch creatures at 
We count not worth the hanging ; but none human : 
1 o try the vigour of them, and apply 
Allayments to their aa ; and by them gather 
T heir feveral virtues and efteas. 
. « cv- , , Staktfffare': Cjmlelm. 

3. ALtion ; the performance of exploits ; 
produiSion of effefta. 

'Tis fo much in your nature to do good, that 
your lilc IS cut one continued a^ of placing benefits 
on many, as the fun i. always carrying his light to 
fome part or other of the world. DryJ„', FabU,. 

Wh:,forth from nothingcall'd thit comely frame. 
His will and aa, his word and work the fame. 

4. The doing of fome particular tiling Ta 
llep taken ; a purpofe executed. 

Ihiia.'? perfuadesme, 
I hat thi« remotion of the duke and her 
Is praaicc only. Stak.jfur,-, Kl„g Lt^r. 

5. A (late of reality ; effeft. 

_ The feeds of herb- and plants at the firft jre not 
in ^a, but in poffibility, that which they after- 
wards grow to be. 'o. , 
_ Cod alone excepted, who aSually and everlaft- 
irgly I, wha:foever he may be, and which cannot 
hereafter be that which now he is not: all other 
things befides are Ibmewhatin Foflibllitv, which as 
yet they are not in «c>. ' y/^^^,,.. 

Sure they're confcious 
Of fome intended mifchief, and are fled 
To put It into «a. D,nh^m\ Sophy. 

b. Incipient agency; tendency to an effort 

Her legs were bulkin'd, and the left before. 
In aa to ihoct ; a filver bow Ihc bore. DryJcr. 

7. A part of a play, during which the ac- 
tion proceeds without interruption. 

Many never doubt but the whole condition re- 
quired by Chrift, the repentance he came to preach, 
will, m that lad fcene of their laft aa, imme- 
dutely before the exit, be as opportunely and ac- 
ceptably performed, at at any other point of their 

V^ .a • » ,. "'■'^"""l'' Fu„damntali. 
•■iveaffsarejuft the mealure of a play. 

8. A decree of a court of joAice, iTedirt 
of a legiflature. 

Vol. I. 

i They make ediftr for uftrv to fuppsrt ofurers, 

repeal daily any wiiolcfome a'a eftablifti-J againit 
, the nch, and provide more piercing flatutcs daiK 
to chain up aid refliaia the pcor. 

Shakrfitare's Corial.iru!. 
You that are k,ng, though he do«-car the crown, 
Have caus'd hi.-n, by new aa of parliament, 
1 biot out me. Shak.-rper.r,'! Ihrry VI. 

9. Record of judicial proceedings. 

_ Judiciul aas are all thole matters wliith relate to 
judicial proceedings ; and being reduced into wi- 
ting by a public notary, are recorded L-y the autho- 
rity of the judge. ^y;j^_ 
A CTioN. ;,./. [aawn, Fr. aalo, Lat.] 

1. The quality or ilate of aaing, oppoiite 
to rcjl. . o rr 

O nolle Englifli ! that could entertain 
With half their forces the full power of France • 
And let another half (land laoahing bv, ' 

All out of work, and cold for aaLn. ' 

SbaUfpsare'i Henry V. 

2. An aft or thing done ; a deed. 

This aaion, I now go on, 
Is for my better grace. Shak-fpem'i fTmter! Ta/e. 
God never accepts a good inclination inrtead ot 
a good oaicn, where that aahn may be doi'e • nay 
fo much the contrary, that, if a good inclination 
be not feconded by a good affion, the want of that 
aascn IS made fo much the more criminal and in- 
excufable. t , 

A . iiutb. 

3. Agency, operation. 

It i» better, therefore, that the earth fliouJd 
move about its own center, and make thofc ufeful 
vic.ffitudes of night and day, than expofe always 
the fame fide to the aahn of the fun. BcntUy 

He has fettied laws, and laid down rules, con- 
formable to which natural bodies are governed in 
their upon one another. Cbeyne. 

+. The feries of events reprefented in a 

This aaion fhould have three qualifications. 
*irft, it Liould be but one aah„; fccondly, it 
fliould be an entire aaion; and, thirdly, it ihould 
be a great a<f?wii. /iti-r 

V Oelficulation ; the accordance of the 
motions of the body with the words 
fpoken; a part of oratory. 

™~"f '''?' ^P"''^ <■'"'' 8''P<= 'he hearer's wrift, 
While he t.iat hears makes fearful aaioH 
With wrinkled brows. Slai^fp. Khr Jch„. 

_Our orators are obf.-rved to make ufc of Icfs 
gefture or aaioa than thofe of other countries. 

&. [In law.] It is ufed with the prepifi- 
tion againfl before tlie perfon, and/»r 
before the thing. 

Aakns are pcrfonal, real, and mixt ; aakn per- 
fonal belongs to a man againji another, by reafon 
of any eontrjft, offence, or caufe, of like force 
with a contraa or oftcnce made or done by him or 
fome other, for whofe faft he is to anfwcr. Anion 
rral IS given to any man agairji another, that pof- 
lefTcs the thing required or fued for in his own 
name, and no other man's. Aakn mixt, is that 
which hes as well againfi or for the thing which wc 
feek, as agawjl the perfon that hath it ; called 
m,xi, bccaufc it hath a mixt refpcft both to the 
tiling and to the pcrfjn. 

Aakn Is divided into civil, penal, and mixt. 
Aa,on civil It that which tends onlv to the reco 
very of that which is due to us ; as a fum of mo- 
ney formerly lent. Aaion penal is that which 
aims at fome penalty cr puniihment in the party 
fucd, be it corporal or pecuniary: as, in comra.n 
li*,', '"'=,""'' '"''"''' °f » man felonioufly flain 
fiiall purfuc the law agahjl the murderer. Aahn 
mixt IS that vthich fceks both the thing whereof 
wc are deprived, and a penalty alfo for the uriuft 
dctJiningof the fame. 

Aahn upon the cafe, it an aahn given for redrcfs 

of wrongs done without force again/} my man, bv 

law not fpecially provided for. ' 

Aahn vp^n the flaiute, is aa aahn brought 

oZ^mfi a man iipon breach of a ftatute. Crwcll. 


Th;.-e was never mm could have a jailer aahn 
mamfi fii:hy tjnunc than 1, fmce, jll other thiojit 
being granted mc, her blindnefs is the only lett. 

For our reward then, 
Fir/1,.311 our debts arc paid ; dangers of law, 
Aa:onz, decrees, jujgraentj, againfi us quitteJ. 

7. In the plural, in France, the fame as 

flocks in England. 
A'cTiOKABLE. a^^ [^vom. c.3ion.] -That 
wnich admits aa aftion in law to be 
brought againft it ; punidiable. 

His procels was formed ; whereby he was found 
guilty ot nought ehc, that I could learn, which 
was aa-tovMe, but of ambition. 

-, , . Homel's Vccal Forcff. 

No man 3 face is aaionabJe : thefe finguUrities 

jire interpretablelVom more innoccntcaufes. CoHier, 

AcTioNARy,orA'cTiONisT.».y: [froin 

aaio„.] One that lias a fhare in e,aio,„ 

or flocks. 

A'cTioN-TAKiNC. a,fj . Accuftomed to 

refent by means of law ; litigious. 

A knave, a rafcal, a filthy worfted-ftockin? 

Knave ; a lily-liver'd aSkn-t^king knave. Shakefp. 
Actita'tion. „./ [from a^ita, Lai.] 

Aftion quick and frequent. Dia. 

To A'cT.iwATE.'u.a. [i'lom aai-ve.] To 

make adlive. This word is perhaps 

ufed only by the author alleged. 

As fnowand ice, eCpecially being hojpen, and 
theircold aa:i,ai.-d by nitre or fait, will turn water 
into ice, and that in a few hour.; fo it may be. 

tinTe '"™ *"'"' °' "'^"''''y '""" '*='"=> '" 'oVr 
- ^ ' Bacon. 

Active, ac^j. [aai-vus. Lit.] 
I. That which has the power or quality of 
afting. ' 

Thele particles have not only a vis ineriiar, ac. 
compamed with fuch pafiive laws of motion, at 
naturally refult from that force, but alfo they are 
moved by certain aaim principles, fuch as is that 
of gravity, and that which caufes fermentation, 
and the cohrlion cf bodies. AWi/te', Opticks. 

2. Ihat which afts, oppofed to pafTtve, or 
that which fufFers. ^ ■" 

—When an even flame two hearts did touch, 
Mis omce was indulgently tn (it 
Aaivti to palTives, corrcfpondencr 
Only his fubjedl was. ' r>„. 

It you think that, by multiplying the adUita- 
ments in the fame proportion that jou multiply the 
ore, the woik will follow, you may be deceived; 
for quantity in the paflive will add more rdilUnce 
than thequantity in the affiw will add force. Bacn. 

3. ^ufy, engaged in aflion ; oppofed to 
idle or fedentciry, or any ftate of which 
the duties are performed only by the 
mental powers. 

'Tis vii tuous aaion that muft pralfe bring forth. 
Without which, flow advice is little worth j 
,pf jn=y wlio «ive good counfel, praife defervr, 
Iho intheaaw part they cannot fcrve. Denham. 

4. rraftical ; not merely theoretical. 

_ The world hath had in thefe men fiefli expe- 
rience,howdangcrousfuchaW-:.,errorsare. i/«,ir^ 

5. Nimble; agile; quick. 
Some bend the ftubborn bow for Tiflory • 

And fome with darts tbcirafl«,r finews try. ir, dni 
o. In grammar. ^ 

A verb aaive it that which fignifies aftion, as 
^ '""''• Cl'rke-, Latin Grammar. 


AcTivELT. ad-v. [from aaive.] In an 
aftive manner ; bufily ; nimbly. In an 
aaive fignification j as, tbe ivcrJ is u/td 

A'cTivENEss. n.f. [fromfl<?;W.] The 

quality of being aftivc ; (^uicknefs ; 

^ nunbjenefs. 


A C U 


nimbUnefs. This is a word more rarely 
ufed than aSi-vity. 

Whit (Irange agility and efUvenifi do our com- 
mon tumblers and dancen on the rap: attain to, by 
continual nercifc ! Hnikini'i Math. Mogick. 

AcTi'viTY. n.f. [from aSi've,'] The qua- 
lity' of being aftive, applied either to 
things or perfons. 

Salt put to ice, as in the producing of the artifi- 
cial ice, increafeth the aB'rviiy of cold. Bacon, 

Our adverfary will not be idle, though we are ; 

he watches every turn of our foul, and incident of 

our life ; and, if we remit our alirvity, will take 

advantage of our indolence* Rogers, 

A'cTOR. n.f. [a£lor, Lat.] 

1 . He that afls, or performs any thing. 

The virtues of either age may correft the de- 
fers of both : and good for fuccelTion, that young 
meo may be learners, while men in age are aSon, 


He who writes an Eneomium Nentih, if he docs 
It heartily, is himielf but a tranfcript of Nero in 
his mind, and would gladly enough fee fuch pranks, 
as he was famous for, a^ed again, though he dares 
n jt be the aHor of them himfelf. South. 

2. He that peribnates a charafler ; a ftage- 

Would you have 
Such an Herculean after in the fcene. 
And not tliis hydra ? They mud fweat no lefs 
To fit their properties, than t' exprcfs their parts. 

Ben Jonjon, 
When a good aEior doth his part prefent, 
In every adl he our attention draws, 
That at the lall he may find juH applaufe. Dtnbam. 
Thefe falfe beauties of the ftage arc no more lad- 
ing than a rainbow ; when the aClor ceafes to (bine 
upon them, they vanilh in a twinkling. 

Drydtri'i Spamjh Friar. 
A'cTRESS. n.f. [a3rice,¥r.'] 

1. She that performs any thing. 

Virgil has, indeed, admitted Fame as an aflreji 
in the jSnciJ ; but the part flic ails is very fljort, 
aiid none of the mod admired circumdances of 
that divine work. Addijrji, 

We fprights have juft fuch natures 
We had, for all the world, when human creatures ; 
And therefore I that was an alireft here. 
Play all my tricks in hell, a goblin there. Drjden. 

2. A woman that plays on the ftage. 
A'cTUAL. adj. [aiiuel, Fr.] 

I. That which comprifes aAion. 

in this Aumbry agitation, befides her walking 
and dther aliual performances, what, at any time, 
have you heard her fay ? Shakeffeare'i Macbeth. 

X. Really in aft ; not merely potential. 

Sin, there in pow> before 
Once afhial; now in body, and to dwell 
Habitual habitant. Milton. 

J. In aft ; not purely in fpeculation. 

For he that but conceives a crime in thought, 
Contrafts the danger of an aSual fault : 
Then what mud he expe3, that dill proceeds 
To finifli fin, and work up thoughts to deeds } 


Actua'lity. n./. [from a^aW.] The 
ftate of being adual. 

The a&ualiiy of thefe fpiritual qualities is thus 
. impiifoned, though their potentiality be not quite 
defttoyed j and thus a crafs, extended, impenetra- 
ble, psffive, divifible, unintelligent fubdance is 
gener.ited, which we call matter. Cheyne. 

A'ctually. aJv. [froma^W.] In afl; 
in elfeft ; really. 

All mankind acknowledge themfclvcs able and 
fufficient to do many things, which aHaally they 
never do. Scuth. 

Read one of the Chronicles, and you will think 
j-ou were reading a hidory of the kings of Ifrael or 
Judah, where the hiftorians were aflnj//)) infpired, 
and where, by a particular fchcme of providence, 
lilt lunga were diOinguiflted by judgmeats or blef- 

fings, according as they promoted idolatry. Or the 
worlhip of the true Cod. jiddifon. 

Though our temporal profpeSs fliould be full of 
danger, or though the days of forrow fhould aSual/y 
overtake us, yec ftill we mud repofe ourfelves on 
God. Rogers. 

A'ctualness. »./ [from a^ual.] The 
quality of being aftual. 

A'ctuarv. «./. [a{luarius, Lat.] The 
regifter who compiles the minutes of the 
proceedings of a court ; a term of the 
civil law. 

Suppofe the judge fliould fay, that he would 
have the keeping of the afls of court remain with 
him, and the notary will have the cudody of them 
with himfelf : certainly, in this cafe, the aBuary 
or writer of them ought to be preferred. Aylife. 

A'cTUATE.a*^'. [from the verb Toa£iuaie.'\ 
Put into action ; animated ; brought 
into efFeft. 

The ailive informations of the intelled, filling 
the padivc reception of the will, like form clofing 
with matter, grew aSiuate into a third and didind 
perfeftion of practice. South. 

To A'CTUATE. "w. a. [from ago, aHum, 
Lat.] To put into aflion ; to invigo- 
rate or increafe the powers of motion. 

The tight made by this animal depends upon a 
living fpirit, and feems, by fome vitaJ irradiation, 
to be actuated into this ludre. 

Brnvns Vulgar Errours. 

Such is every man, who has not actuated the 
grace given him, to tlie fubduing of every reigning 
fin. Decay of Piety. 

Men of the greated abilities are mod fiied with 
ambition j and, on the contrary, mean and nar- 
row minds are the lead actuated by it. jlddifin. 

Our padions are the fprings which actuate the 
powers of our nature. Rogers. 

AcTuo'sE. adj. [from fliS.] That which 

hath ftrong powers of adion : a word 

little ufed. 
To A'cu ATE. I), a. [acuo, Lat.] To Ihar- 

pen, to invigorate with any powers of 


Immoderate feeding upon powdered beef, pic- 
kled meats, and debauching with drong wines, do 
inflame and acuate the blood, whereby it is capaci- 
tated to corrode the lungs. Harvey in Ccnfumfiions. 
Acu'leate. ai(/. [acu/eatus, Lat.] That 
which has a point or fting ; prickly ; 
that which terminates in a ffiarp point. 
JCU'MEN. n.f. [Lat.] A (harp point ; 
figuratively, quicknefs of intellefts. 

The word was much affefted by the learned 
Aridarchus in common convcrfation, to fignify 
genius or natural acumen. ' Pope. 

Ac u'm I n at e d. particip. adj. Edding in 
a point ; fharp-pointed. 

This is not acuminated and pointed, as in the 
red, but feemeth, as it were, cut ofl^. 

Ero^vns Vulgar Errours. 

I appropriate this word. Noli me langere, to a 
fmall round acuminated tubercle, which hath not 
much pain, unlefs touched or rubbed, or cxafpe- 
rated l)y topicks. IViJeman. 

ACU'TE. adj. [acutus, Lat.] 

1 . Sharp, ending in a point ; oppofed to 
obtu/e or blunt. 

Having the ideas of an obtufe and an acute an- 
gled triangle, both drawn from equal bafes and be- 
tween par.illels, I can, by intuitive knowledge, 
perceive the one n.)t to be the other, but cannot 
that way know whether they be equal. Locke. 

2. In a figurative fenfe applied to men ; 
ingenious ; penetrating ; oppofed to 
dull OTjiupid. 

The acute and ingenious author, among many 
vef^ fine thoughts, and uncommon fefle^ions, has 
liartcd the notion of feeing all things inCod. Lxke. 

3 . Spoken of the fenfes, vigorous ; power, 
ful in operation. 

Were our leufes altered, and madehiuch quicker 
and acuier, the appearance and outward fchcme of 
things would hjve quite another face to us. Locke. 

4. Acute difeafc. Any difeafe, which is 
attended with an increafed velocity of 
blood, and terminates in a few days ; 
oppofed to chronical. ^incy. 

5. Jlcute accent ; that which railes or 
fliarpens the voice. 

kcv'-rzLY. ad'v. [from af»/*.] After an 
acute manner ; fliarply : it is ufed as 
well in the figurative as primitive fenfe. 

He that will look into many parts of Afia and 

America, will find men reafun there, perhaps, at 

acutely as himfcif, who yet never heard of a fyl- 

logifra. Locke. 

Acu'teness. n.f. [from acute, which fee.] 

1. Sharpnefs. 

2. Force of intelledls. 

They would not be fo apt to think, that there 
cou'd be nothing added to the acutenefs and pene- 
trat on of their underdandings. Locke. 

3. Quicknefs and vigour of fenfes. 

It eyes fo fiamed could not view at once the 
hand and the hour-plate, their owner could not 
be benefited by that a.utenefs; which, whild it 
difcovered the fecret contrivance of the machine, 
made him lofe its ufe. Locke. 

4. Violence and fpeedy crifis of a malady. 

We apply prefent remedies according to indi« 
cations, refpefling rather the acutenrfs of the dif- 
eafc, and precipitancy of the occafion, than the 
rifing and letting of dars. Brown, 

5. Sharpnefs of found. 

1 his acutsnefs of found will fliew, that whild, 
to the eye, the bell feems to be at red, yet the 
minute parts of it continue in a very briflc motion, 
without which they could not drike the air. Boyle. 
Adkct to. participial adj. [adaiSus, Lat.] 
Driven by force ; a word little ufed. 
The verb adai3 is not ufed. Dia. 

A'dage. ».y. [adagium, hit,'] A maxim 
handed down from antiquity ; a proverb. 

Shallow unimproved inctUe£is, are confident 
pretenders to certainty; as if, contrary to the 
adage, fcience had no friend but ignorance. 

Glamille's Scepjis Scienti/ica» 

Fine fruits of learning ! old ambitious fool, 
Dar'd thou apply that adage of the fchool. 
As if 'tis nothing worth that lies conceal'd, 
And fcience is not fcience till reveaPd ? Dryden. 

JDjTGIO. n.f. [Italian, at leifure.] A 
term ufed by muficians, to mark a flow 

A'DAMANT. n.f. [adamas, Lat. from » 
and ixfitu, Gr. that is inj'uperable, in- 

1 . A ftone, imagined by writers, of im- 
penetrable hardnefs. 

So great a fear my name amongd thrm fpread. 
That they fuppos'd I could rend bars of dcel. 
And fpurn in pieces podsof <:</iin<»i/. Shaiefpcare, 

Satan, witli vad and haughty drides aJvanc'd, 
Came tow'ring, arm'd in adamant and gold. 

Eternal Deities, 
Who rule the world with abfolute decrees. 
And write whatever time fliall bring to pafs. 
With pens of adamant, on plates of brafs. Dryitn» 

2. The diamond. 

Hardnefs, wherein fome doncs exceed all other 
bodies, and among them the adamant all other 
doncs, being exalted to that degree thereof, that 
art in vain endeavours to counterfeit it, the fac- 
titious doncs of chymids, in imitation, being, 
eafily detefled by an ordinary lapiJid. 

Ray on the Creation,- 

3 . Adamant is taken for the loadilpne. 





Yoa draw me, you hard-hearted ajamant ! 
But yet you draw not iron j for my heart 
is true as fteel. Shahfptare. 

Let him change his lodging from one part if 

the town to another, which is a great adamant of 

acquaintance. Saccn. 

Adamante'an. adj. [from adamant. '\ 

Hard as adamant. 

He weapor.lefs himfelf, 
. Made arms ridiculous, ufelefs the forgery 
Of brazen ihleld and fpear, the hammered cuirafs, 
Chalybean temperM ftcci, and irock of mail 
Adair-antcan proof- M.Ucn. 

This word occurs, perhaps, only in 
this paffage. 
Adama'ktine. adj. \adamantinut, Lat.] 

1. Made of adamant. 

Wide is the fronting gate, and raisM on high 
With adamatil'uu columns, threats the (ky. 


2. Having the qualities of adamant; as, 
hardneis, indifrolubility. 

Could Eve's weak liand, extended to the tree, 
\a (Under rend that adamanune chain, 

Whofe golden links, eftcfts and caufes be. 
And which to Cod'i own chair doth fix'd remain ? 


An eternal flerility mud have poflefled the 
world, where all things had been fixed and faft- 
ened everlaftingly with the adamantine chains of 
fpeciiic gravity ; if the Almighty had not fpoken 
and faid, Let the earth bring forth grafs, the herb 
\ieldlng feed, and the fruit-tree yielding fruit after 
Its kind ; and it was fo. Bentlry, 

In adamantine chain? ihall death be bound. 
And hell's grim tyrant feel th' eternal wound. 


Tho' adamantine bonds the chief redraln, 
The dire rettraint his wlfdom will defeat. 
And fjon reftore him to his regal f;at. Pcpe. 

A'dam's-apple. a./ [in anatomy.] A 

prominent part of the throat. 
To ADA'PT. -v. a. [adapto, Lat.] To fit 

one thing to another ; to fuit ; to. pro- 
'Tis true, but let it not be known, 

My eyes are fomewhat dimmilh grown ; 

For nature, always in the right, 

To your decays adafts my fight. Svoift. 

It is not enough that nothing offends the ear, 

tut a good poet will adaft the very founds, as well 

as words, to the things he treats of. 

Pope^t Letters. 
Adapta'tiok. 71./. [from adaft.'\ The 

aft of fitting one thing to another ; the 

Atnefs of one thing to another. 

Some fpecies there be of middle natures, that 
is, of bird" and beaft, as batts ; yet are their parts 
fo fet together, that we cjnnot define the begin- 
ningor end of cither, tliere being a commixtion of 
both, rather than adaftaikn or cement of the one 
unto the other. Bn-wn't fulgar Errcun. 

Adhefinn may be in part afcribed, either to 
fome elartxji motion in the prelTed glafs, or to 
the exquifite /u/afiation of the almoft numberlcfs, 
though vrry fmall, afpcrities of the one, and the 
numerous little cavil es of the other; whereby the 
furfjccs do :ock in with one another, or are, as it 
were, clafped t geiher. £tn/e. 

Aoa'ption. It./, [from adaft.] The aft 
of fitting. 

It were aLne a fufficVnt work to (hew all the 
necfflii es, the wife contrivances, and prudent 
edafti'.m, of thefe admirable machines, for the 
benefit of the whole. Cbcynt, 

Ada'ptness. n.f. {(OT adaptedne/sfitom 

.SoiT.e notes are to difplay the ajaptnefi of the' ' 
found to the fenfe. ' Dr.' Ntiuun. 

This wor4 I have found no where 

To Adco'rporate. -v. a. [from ad and 
corpus.] To unite one body with an- 
other ; more ufually wrote accorporate ; 
which fee. 

To ADD. ni. a. [addo, Lat.] 

1. To join fomething to that which was 

Mark if his birth makes any d'fference, 
If to his words it adds one grain of fenfe. Dryden. 

They, whofe mufes have the higheft flown. 
Add not to his immortal memory, 
But do an adt of friendrtiip to their own. Hoyden. 

2. To perform the mental operation of 
adding one number or conception to 
another. To add to is proper, but to 
add together feems a folecifm. 

Whatloever pcfitive ideas a man has in his mind, 
of any quantity, he can repeat it, and add it to the 
former, as eafily as he can add together the ideas ot 
two days, or two years. Locke. 

A'ddable. adj. [from add.] That to 
which fomething may be added. AS- 
dible is more proper. It fignifies more 
properly that which may be added. 

The firll number in e^ery addition is called the 
addable number, the other, the number or num- 
bers added, and the number invented by the addi- 
tion, the aggregate or fum. Cocker. 
To Adde'cimate. -v. a. [addecimo, Lat.] 
To take or afoertain tithes. Dii3. 
To Adde'em. 1/. a. [from deem.] To 
efleem ; to account. This word is now 
out of nfe. 

She fcorns to be addtem'd fo wortblefs-bafe, 
As to be mov'd to fuch an infamy. 

Banters Civil Wars. 

A'dder. tt.f. [iErcep, JErzoy^, Nabbjie, 
as it feems from eirtep. Sax. poifon.] 
A ferpent, a viper, a poifonous reptile ; 
perhaps of any fpecies. In common 
language, adders zxsd./nakes are not the 

Or is the adder better than the eel, 
Becaufe his painted Ikin contents the eye ? 

An adder did it ; for, with doubler tongue 
Than thine, thou ferpent, never adder tlung. 


The adder teaches us where to ftrike, by her 

curious and fearful defending of her head. Taylor. 

A'dder's-crass. n.f. The name of a 
plant, imagined by Skinner to be fo 
named, becaufe ferpents lurk about it. 

A'dder's-tokgue. n. f. \ophiogloffum, 
Lat.] The name of an herb. 

It hath no vifible flower ; but the feeds are 
produced on a fpike, which refembles a ferpcnt's 
tongue ; which feed is contained in many longi- 
tudmal cells. Miller, 

The moft common fimples are comfrey, bugle, 
agrimony, fanicle, paul's-betony, fiuellin, peri- 
winkle, adder" s-tongue. ffijiman's Surgery. 

A'dder's-wort. a./. An herb fo named, 
on account of its virtue, real or fup- 
pofed, of curing the bite of ferpents. 

A'ddible. adj. [from add.] PoiTible to 
be added, SeeAuDABLE. 

The cleared idea it can get of infinity, Is the 
confufed, incomprehenfible remainder of cndlefs, 
addible numbers, which affords no profpedt of 
ftop, or boundary. Locke. 

Addibi'lity. »./. [from addiik.] The 
poffibility of being added. 

This endlcfs addition, or addibiliiy (if any one 
like the word better) of numbers, \o apparent to 
the mind, is that which gives us tlic clearell and 
mofl didin^ idea of-infinity. Locke. 

A'oDiCE. a,/, [for which we corruptly 

fpeak and write adz, from abej"e. Sax. 
an axe.] 

The addice hath its blade made thin and iomiim 
what arching. As the axe hath its edge parallel 
to its handle, fo the addice hath its edge athwart 
the handle, and is ground to a bafil on its infide to 
its outer edge. Moxcn's Meihaiiical Exercifes. 

To ADDI'CT. -v. a. [addico. Lat.] 

1. To devote, to dedicate, in a good 
fenfe ; which is rarely ufed. 

Ye knew the houfe of Stephanus, that they 
have addicted themfelves to the miniftry of the 
faints. I Cor. xvi. 1 5. 

2. It is commonly taken in a bad fenfe ; 

as , he addidcd himfelf to ■■vice. 

3. To devote one's felf to any perfon, 
party, or perfuafion. A Latinifm. 

I am neither author or fautor of any fe£t '. I 
will have no man addiEl himfelf to me ; but if I 
have any thing right, defend it as truth's. 

Ben Jonfon, 

Addi'ctedness. n. f. [from addiiled.] 
The quality or ftate of being addifted. 

Thole know how little I have remitted of my 
former addiHednefs to makechymical experiments. 

Addi'ction. n.f. [addiaio, Lat.] 

1. The aft of devoting, or giving up. 

2. The ftate of being devoted. 

It is a wonder how his grace Ihould glean it. 
Since his addition was to courfcs vain j 
His companies unletter'd, rude, and Ihallow; 
His hours fiU'd up with riots, banquets, fports. 

A'dditament.»./ [additamentum, Lat.] 
The addition, or thing added. 

Iron will not incorporate with brafs, nor other 
metals, of itfelf, by fimple fire : fo as the enquiry 
muft be upon the calcination, and the additamentj 
and the charge of them. Ba^cn. 

In a palace there is firft the cafe or fabiick, 
or moies of the ftrufture itfelf; and, befides that, 
there are certain additamcnts that contribute to its 
ornament and ufe ; as, various furniture, rare 
fountains 9nd aquedudis, divers things appendi- 
cated to it. Hale's Origin of Mankind. 

Addi'tion. 11./. [from add.] 

1. The aft of adding one thing to another; 
oppofed to diminution. ' 

The infinite diftance between the Creator and 
the nobieft of all creatures, can never be meafured, 
nor exhauftcd byendlefs addition of finite degrees. 

Bentky . 

2. Additament, or the thing added. 

It will not be modeftly done, if any of our 
own wifdom intrude or interpofe, or be willing to 
make additions to what Chrift and his apoftlet 
have defigned. Hammond. 

Some fuch refcmblances, methinks, I find 
Of our lad evening's talk, in this thy dream. 
But with addition ftrange ! Mi/ten. 

The abolifhing of villanagc, together with the 
cuftom permitted among the nobles, of felling 
their lands, was a mighty addition to the power. of 
the commons. ^ Swi/i. 

3. In arithmetick. 

Addition is the reduflion of two or more num- 
bers of like kind together into one fum or total. 

Cocker's Arithmetick. 

4. In law, A title given to a man over 
and above his chrillian name and fur- 
name, fhewing his ellate, degree, oc- 
cupation, trade, age, place of dwelling. 

Only retain 
The name, and all th' addition to a king ; 
The fway, revenue, execution, 
Beloved fons, be yours ; which to confirm, 
Thii coronet part bctweeo you. ■ 

Siakefp, King Lear, 
£ z Frow 


From this time, 
For wh»t he did before Corioli, call him, 
With all th' applaufe and clamnurof the hoft, 
Caius Marcius Coriolanus. Bear th' aJdii'aa no- 
bly ever. Shaktfpteris Ccrielanus. 
There arofe new difputes upon the perfons 
named by the king, or rather againft the aJJilm.s 
and appellations of title, which were made to their 
names. Clarendon. 

ADDi'xiONAL.fl/^'. {(lom aJditioB.'] That 
- which is added. 

Our kalendar being once reformed and fct 
right, it may be kept fo, without any confider- 
able variation, for many ages, by omitting one 
leap-year; i. e. the addiiioiial day, at the end of 
every 1 34 years. thlder en Tune. 

The greateft wits, that ever were produced in 
one age, lived together in fo good an undetftand- 
ing, and celebrated one another with fo much ge- 
neroCty, that each of them receives an addiiknal 
luftre from his «otemporaries. , Add'ifcn. 

Thty include in them that very kind of evi. 
dence, which is fuppofcd to be powerful : and do, 
withal, afford us fevcral other addiiknal proofs, of 
great force and clearnefs. Ailertury. 

Addi'tional. n.f. Additament ; fome- 
thing added. Not in ufe. 

May be fome little, may further the 

incorporation. Bacon. 

A'dditory. adj. [from arid.'] That 

which has the power or quality of add- 

The ajdilory fi^ion gives to a great man a 
larger (hare of reputation than belongs to him, to 
enable him to fcrve fome good end or purpr.fe, 


A'DDLE. adj. [from abel, a difeafe. Sax. 
according to Skinner and Junius ; per- 
haps from ybel, idle, barren, unfruit- 
ful.] Originally applied to eggs, and 
fignifying fuch as produce nothing, but 
grow rotten under the hen ; thence 
transferred to brains that produce no- 

There's one with truncheon, like a ladle, 
That carries eggs too frefli or addle ; 
And fiill at random, as he goes. 
Among the rabble rout beftows. HuJiirat. 

After much folitarinefs, fading, or long fick- 
jiefs, their brains were addle, and their bellies as 
empty of meat at their heads of wit. 

Burton on Melancholy. 

Thus far the poet ; but his brains grow addle: 
And all the reft is purely from this noddle. 


7'e A'ddle. V, a. [from addle, adj.] To 
make addle ; to corrupt ; to make bar- 

This is alfo evidenced in eggs, whereof the 
found ones fink, and fuch as are addled fwim; as 
do alfo tbofe that are termed byfanewitc, or wind, 
eggs. Brm>n''s Vulgar Errours. 

T<> A'ddle. v. n. To grow ; to increafe. 

Where ivy embraceth the tree very fore. 
Kill ivy, elfc tree will addle no more. 

7uJ}ir^i Hujhardry. 

A'ddle - PATED. adj. Having addled 
brains. See Addle. 

F'oor Daves in metre, dull and addle-fated. 
Who rhyme below even David's pfalms traiiflatcd. 


To ADDRE'SS. v. a. [addreffer, Fr. from 
derefar. Spaa, from dirigo, direSum, 

1 . To prepare one's felf to enter upon'any 
a£lion ; as, he addrejfed bimfelf to the 
•viiork. It has to before the thing. 

With him the Palmer eke, in habit fad, 
)ciiai%M addreft It that advCDCure hard. 

fmrjf S^et 


It lifted up its head, and did adirefi 
Itfetfrc motion, like at it would fpcak. 

Siakeff. Hamlet. 

Then Turrut, from his chariot leaping light, 
jiddrefi'd bimfelf on foot Co fingle fight. Drydrn. 

2. To get ready ; to put in a ftate for 
immediate ufe. 

They fell direillyon the Englifli battle ; where- 
upon the earl of Warwick addrejfed his men to 
take the flank. Hay-ward. 

Duke Frederick hearing, how that every day 
Men of great worth reforted to this foreft, 
Addreji'd a mighty power, which were on foot. 
In his c.wn condudt purpofcly to take 
His brother here. Shakrffeare'i Atyou like it. 

To-night in flarflcur we will be your gueft. 
To-morrow for the march we are addrifl. 


3. To apply to another by words, with 
v.irious forms of conftruftion. 

4. Sometimes without a prcpofition. 

To fuch I would addrtfi with this moft affec- 
tionate petition. Decay of Piety. 

Among the crowd, but far above the reft. 
Young Tu^nus to the beauteous maid addrtjl. 

Are nat your orders to addrcji the fenate .' 


5. Sometimes with to, 

ylddriJJ'.ng to I'ollio, his great patron, and him- 
fclf no vu'gur poet, he began to affert his native 
character, which is fublimity. Dryden. 

6. Sometimes with the reciprocal pro- 
noun ; as, he addrejfed him/elf to the ge- 

7. Sometimes with the accufative of the 
matter of the addrefs, which may be 
the nominative to the paffive. 

The young hero had addrejjcd his ^ray^rs to 
him for his afljftance. Dryden. 

The prince himfelf, with awful dread pofiefs'd. 
His vo-ius to great Apollo thus addrejl. Dryden. 

His fuitwjs common ; but, above the reft. 
To both the brother-princes thus addrtjl. Dryden. 

8. To addrefs [in law] is to apply to the 
king in form. 

'1 he rcprefentatives of the nation in parlia- 
ment, and tiie privy-council, addrtfs^d the U.\n^ to 
have it recalled. S'U'ift, 

Addre'ss. n./. \addreffe, Fr.] 

1. Verbal application to any one, by way 
of perfuafion ; petition. 

Henry, in knots involving Emma's name. 
Had halfconfefs'd and half conceal'd his flame 
Upon this tree ; and as the tender mark 
Grew with the year, and widen'd with the bark, 
Venus had heard the virgin's foft addrefs. 
That, as the wound, the paflion might increafe. 


Moft of the perfons, to whom thefe addnjjci 
are made, are not wife and ficilful judges, but are 
influenced by their own finful appetites and paf- 
Jions. fVatts^s Improvement of the Mind. 

2, Courtfliip. 

They often have reveal'd their paffion to me : 
But, tell mc, whofe addrefs thou favcur'ft moft 3 
I long to know, and yet 1 dread to hear it. 

A gentleman, whom, I am furc, you yourfelf 
would have approved, made his addrej/es to me. 


3; Manner of addrefling another; as, we 
fay, a man of an happy or a pleafing ad- 
drefs ; a man of an aiuktuard addrefs. 

4. Skill, dexterity. 

I could produce innumerable inftances from my 
own obfervation, of events imputed to the pro- 
found Ikill and addrefs of a miniftcr, which, in 
reality, were either mere effefls of negligence, 
wcaknefs, humour, paflion, or pride, or at beft 
but the natural coiufe of tbines left to Uiemfelves. 


A D E 

5. Manner of direfting a letter; afcnfe 
chiefly mercantile. 

Addre ssER. »./. [horn addrefs.] The 
perfon that addrcfl'es or petitions. 

A D d u't E N T . adj. [adducens, Lat.] A word 
applied to thofe mufcles that bring for- 
ward, clofe, or draw together the pans 
of the body to which they are annexed. 


To AoDu'LCE.-f. a. [addoucir, Fr. dukis, 
Lat.] Tofweeten : a word not now in ufe. 

Thus did the French cmbafladors, with great 
fliew of their king's affeftion, and many fugared 
words, feek to addulec all matters between the two 
kings. Bacon s Henry y II. 

A' n.f. [from asbel. Sax. ill uf. 
trious.] A word of honour among the 
Angles, properly appertaining to the 
king's children : king Edward the Con- 
felTor, being without iflue, and intend- 
ing to make Edgar his heir, called him 
adeling. Cttivdl. 

Adeno'craphy. n.f. [from aor.rc and 
yra.^iD, Gr.] A treatife of the glands. 

A D e'm p T 1 o N . n.f. \adimo, ademptum, Lat.] 
I'aking away ; privation. DiS. 

Ade'pt. n. f. [from adeptus, Lat. that is, 
adeptus artem.] He that is completely 
/killed in all the fecrets of his art. It 
is, in its original fignification, appro- 
priated to the chymiils, but is now ex- 
tended to other artills. 

The prefervation of chaftity is eafy to true 
adepts. Pope* 

Ade'pt. adj. Skilful; throughly verfed. 

If there be really fuch adept philolophers as we 
are told of, I am apt to chink, that, among their 
arcana, they are maders of extremely potent mcn- 
ftruums. Beyle. 

A'dequate. <z(^'. \_adeqi!atus,'L2iX.] Equal 
to ; proportionate ; correfpondent to, fo 
as to bear an exadl refemblance or pro- 
portion. It is ufed generally in a figu- 
rative fenfe, and often with the particl» 

Contingent death feems to be the whole ade- 
quate objcti of popular courage ; but a neceflary 
and unavoidable coflSn ftrikes palenefs into the 
ftouteft heart. Harvey on Conjumptienf. 

The arguments were proper, adequate, and fuf- 
ficienc to compafs their refpeflive ends. South* 
All our fimple ideas arc adequate ; becaufe^ 
being nothing but the effcdts of certain powers in 
things, fitted and ordained by God to produce 
fuch fenfations in us, they cannot but be corref- 
pondent and adequate to thofe powers. Locke, 
Thofe are adequate ideas, which perfeflly repre- 
fent their archetypes or objefis. Inadeijiiate are 
but a partial, or incomplete, reprefcntation of 
thofe archetypes to which they arc referred, 

ffatts's L'pck. 
A'DEqvATthY. ad'v. [from adejuate.] 

1. In an adequate manner; with juilnefs 
of reprefcntation ; with exaftncfs of pro- 

Gratitude confifts adequately in thefe two things > 
firft, that it is a debt; anJ, fecondly, that it it 
fuch a debt as is left to every man's ingenuity, 
whether he will pay or no. South, 

2. h is ufed with the particle to. 

Piety is the necelTary Chrifiian virtue, propor. 
tioned adequately to the omnifcicnce and fpicitu- 
ality of that infinite Deity. 

Hammcntts Fundamentals, 

A'dequateness. n.f. [from adequate."^ 

The llate of being adequate ; juftncfs of 

reprefentation ; exaftnefs of proportion. 



r» ADHE'RE. -v 
1. To ftick to : 

A D H 

adj. Not abfokte 

with to before the thing. 

; not 
n, \adhttreo, Lat.] 
as, wax to the finger; 

to be 

3. To ftick, in a figurative fenfe ; 
confiftent ; to hold together. 

Why every thing adhirci together, that no dram 
of a fcrup'.e, no'fcrjple of a fcniple, no incredu- 
lous or unfarc citcumftancc— 

btiikeffeare'i T-.velfib Niglt. 

3. To remain firmly fixed 10 a party, per- 
fon, or opinion. 

Good gentkmcn, hehzthmuch talk'd of you ; 
And fur; I am, two men there are not living. 
To whom he more adheres, Sbaiefp, Ham/et, 

Every man of lenfe will agree with me, that 
Angularity is laudible, when, in contradiftion t > 
a multitude, it adbtres to the dictates of con- 
fclence, morality, and honour. Boyle, 

Adhe'rence. n, f. \ivova. adhere .'\ See 

1. The quality of adhering, or (licking; 

2. In a figurative fenfe, fixednefs of mind ; 
fteadinefs ; fidelity. 

The tirm adherence of the Jews to their religion 
IB no Icfs temarlcabie than their dilperiian ; conii- 
dering it as pcrfccuted or contemned o\cr the 
whole earth. Add'iJQn. 

A conftant adherence to one fort of diet may 
have bad cC'cdls on any conflitution. 

jlrbulbr.'jt on j^/imerts. 

Plain good fenfe, and a Arm adbtrtnee to (he 
point, have proved m'Te effectual than tliole arts, 
which are contemptuoufly called the fpirit ot re- 
gociating. Sviif:. 

Adhe'rency. n.f. [The fame with W- 

1. Steady attachment. 

2. That which adheres. 

Vices have a adbertncy of vexation. 

Decay tf Piety. 

Adhe'rcnt. adj. [bom adhert,'\ 

1. Sticking to. 

Clofe to the cliff with both his hands he clung. 
And ftuck adheyertt, and fufpended hung. Pife. 

2. United with. 

Modes are f:iid to be inherent or adherent, that 
is, proper or improper. Adhereitt or improper 
modes arifc from the joining of fome accidcntil 
fubftdncc to the chief fubjecl, which yet may be 
feparated from it; fo when a bowl is wet, or a 
boy is clothed, thefe are aJhereni modes; for the 
water and the clctbes are difllndl t'ubllances which 
adhere to the bowl, or to tA : boy. /frt/.'j'j Logick. 
Adhe'rent. n.f. [hovn adhere.'] 

1 . The perfon that adheres ; one that fup- 
ports the caufe, or follows the forluue 
of another ; a follower, a partifan. 

Princis muft give proteftion to their fubjefls 
and aHiereaii, vihca worthy occalion /hall re<juire 
it. Rate'i^h. 

A new war mull be undertakcji upon the advice 
of thofe, wh", with their partifans and adf erertif 
wer« to be the fole gainers by it. iiivift. 

2. Any thing outwardly belonging to a 

When they cannot fliake the main fort, they 
mull try if they can pnffefs thcmfelves of the 
outworks, raife fome prejudice againll his difcie- 
tion, his humour, his ca riage, and his cttniific 
etdhtrerti. Government cf the Tongue. 

Adhe'rer. a./, [from adhere.] He that 

He on lit to be indulgent to tender confcicncfsi 

bur, at 'he fiinc timr, a firm adherer to the efta- 

blirt.'d cliurch. Sivifi. 

Ad he's ION. n./. [adhef/io, Lat.] 

1. The aft or ftatc of flicking to fome- 


A D J 

thing. Adhefion is generally ufed in the 
natural, and adherence in the metapho- 
rical fenfe : as, the adhejton of iron to the 
magnet ; and adherence of a client to his 

Why therefore may not the minute parts of 
other bodies, it they be conveniently shaped icx 
adbeji'tny ftick. to one another, as well as ftick to 
this ipiric ? Boyk, 

The reft corfifting wholly in the fenfible con- 
firmation, as fmooth and rough 5 or elfe more, 
or lefs, firm adhcjion cf the parts, as hard and 
fofc, tough and brittle, are obvious. Locke. 

■ — Prove that all things, on occafionj 
Love union, and defire adbcfion* Prior, 

2. It is fometimes taken, like adherence, 
figuratively, for firmnefs ia an opinion, 
or Ileadinefs in a practice. 

The fame want of Iincerity, the firae adbeficn 
to vice, and averfion from goodnefs, wilt be 
equally a reafon for their reje^ing any proof 
whatfoevcr. yitterbury, 

Adhe'sive. adj. [from adhefion,'] Stick- 
ing ; tenacious. 

It" flow, yet fure, adbeji've to the tra£V, 
Hot-fteaining «p, Thomfon* 

To ADHl'BIT. o/. a. {adhibeo. Lat.] To 
apply ; to make ufe of. 

bait, a neccfiary ingredient in all facriiices, was 
adhibited and required in this view only as an em- 
blem of purification. 

Prefdint Forbei'i Letter to a Bijhal>. 
Adhibi'tion. n.f. [hoxnadhibit.] Ap- 
plication ; ufe. Z);V?. 
Adja'cency. n.f. [from adjaceo, Lat.] 

1. The ftate of lying clofe to another thing. 

2, That which is adjacent. See Adja- 

Becaufe the Cape hath fea on both fides near 
it, and other lands, remote as it were, equi- 
dillant from it ; tliercforc, at that point, the 
needle is nut diltiatled by the vicinity of adja- 
eenciet, Bro^vn^s yulgjr Erroun. 

Adja'cikt. adj. [adjaceits, Lat.] Lying 
near or clofe ; bordering upon fomc- 

It may corrupt within Itfelf, although no part of 
it iffue into the b dy adjacent. Bacin. 

Uniform pellucid mediums, fuch as water, have 
no fenfible refle^i.n but in their external fuper- 
ficies, where thzy are adjacent to other mediums 
of a different dcolity. Netuton, 

Adja'ce^it. tt.f. That which lies next 

The fcBfe of the author goes vilibly in its own 
train, and the words receiving a determined fenfe 
from their companions and adjacenti, will not 
confcnt to give countenance and colour to what 
muft be fupported at any rate. Locke. 

Adiaphorous, adj. [aJiaSoiJi©-, Gr.] 
Neutrnl ; particularly ufed of fomefpirits 
and falts, wldch are neither of an acid 
or alkaline nature. ^incy. 

Oui- adiaphoroiit fpirit may be obtained, l^y dif- 
tilling the liquor that is afforded by woods and 
divers other bodies. Beyle. 

AotA'tHORY. n.f. [aJia^ojia, Gr.] Neu- 
trality ; indifference. 

To ADJE'CT. 1/. a. [adjicio, adjeHum, 
Lat.] To add to ; to put to another 

Adje'ction. n.f. [adjeOio, Lat.] 

1. 'I'he aft of adjefting, or adiling. 

2. The thing adjefted, or added. 

That unto every poufd of fulphur, an adjeSlion 
of jne ounce of qaickfiiVfr j or unto every pound 
of pctre, one ounce of lal-amm' niac, will much 
int-nd the force, and confequently the rrport, J 
fijid no verily. Bnwn'i f^ulgar £rreuri. 

A D J 

Adjecti'tious. ac^. [from ad/e<3ioH.'] 
Added ; thrown in upon the reft. 

A'djective. n.f. [adjeBi'vutn, Lat.] A 
word added to a noun, to fignify the ad- 
dition or feparation of fome quality, 
circuraftance, or manner of being ; as, 
good, bad, are adjeBi'vei, becaufe, in 
fpeech, they are applied to nouns, to 
modify their fignification, or intimate 
the manner of exiftence in the things 
flgnified thereby. Clarke's Latin Gram, 
Ail the verf:iica*ion of Claudian is included 
within the compafs of four or five lines ; perpetu- 
ally clofing his lenfe at the end of a vcrfe, and that 
vcrf; commonly which they call golden, or two 
fubltantivcs and two adjtclirjes, with a verb betwixt 
them, to keep the peace. Dryden, 

A'djectively. ad'v, [from adjeili've.] 
After the manner of an adjeftive ; a 
term of grammar. 

Adieu', adv. [from a Bieu, ufed ellipti- 
cally for a Dieu je "vous commende, ufed 
at the departure of friends.] The form 
of parting, originally importing a com- 
mendation to the Divine care, but nonf 
ufed, in a popular fenfe, foipetimes to 
things inanimate ; farewell. 

Ne gave him leave to bid that aged fire 
Adieu, but nimbly ran her wonted courfc. 

Tairy Slucen, 
Ufe a mor^ fpacious ceremony to the noble 
lords; you reflrained yourlelf within the lift of 
too cold an ; he more expreffive to them. 

Shake' fenre's W//"i •zueli ibat ends welf. 
While now 1 take my laft adieu. 
Heave thou no figli, nor ihed a tear ; 

Left yet my half-clos'd eye may view 
On earth an objedt worth its care. Priori 

To Adjo'in. i». a. \_adjoindre, Fr. ad- 
>afo, Lat.] 

1. To join to ; to unite to ; to put to. 

As one who long in populous city p.'nt 
Forth ifiuing on a fummcr's morn to breathe 
Among the pleafant villages and farms 
Adjoind, from each tliiag met conceives delight. 


Correftions or Improvements fliould be as re- 
marks adjoin/d, by way of note or commentary, 
in their proper places, and fupcradded to a regular 
trcatife. IVjus. 

2. To fatten by a joint or junfture." 

As a malfy wheel 
Fixt on the fummit of the higheft mount. 
To whofe huge fpoke ten thoufand leffer things 
Are mortis'd and adjoined, Shakej'feare, 

To Adjo'in. v, n. To be contiguous to ; 
to lie next, fo as to have nothing be- 
Th' adjoining fane, th' affembled Creeks ex- 
And hunting of the Caledonian heart. Dryden, 
In learning any thing, as little fliould be pro- 
pofed to the mind at once, as is poflible; and, 
that being underftood and fully maftered, proceed 
to the next adjoining, yet unknown, funpic, un- 
perplexcd propofition, belonging n the ma ter ia 
hand, and tending to the clearing what is princi-- 
pa'ly defigneil. Locke, 

To ADJO'URN. 'v.a, [adjourner, Fr.] 
I. To put otf to another day, naming the 
time ; a term ufed in juridical pro- 
ceedings ; as, of parliaments, or courts 
of juftice. 

1 he queen being abfent, 'tis a needful fitnelsi 
That we adjourn this court to further day= 


By the king's authority alone, and by 'lis writs, 

they ari affembled, and by him alone are they 

prorogued and dilluived } but each lioufe may ad., 

journ itUif. Bacon, 

z. To 

A D J 

a. To put ofF; to defer ; to let flay to a 
future time. 

Then, Jupiter, thou king of gods, 
Why hail thou thus adjourned 

The graces for his merits due, 
Being all to dolours turn'd. Shairff, Cymh. 

Crown high the goblets with ■ chearful draught: 
Enjoy the ptcfcnt hour, adjcurm the ftiture thought. 

Dry den. 

The formation of animals being foreign to my 

purpofe, 1 Ihall adjourn the confidcrari'^n of it t ) 

another occafion. H^oodxoard's t/atural H'ljlory. 

Adjo'urnment.w./ [adjournement, Fr. ] 

I. An aflignment of a day, or a putting 

off till another day. 

Mjiurnmtnt in tyre, an appointment of a day, 
when the jultices in eyre mean to fit again. 


3. Delay ; procrafUnation ; difmilTion to 
. a future time. 

We will and we will not, and then we will not 
again, and we will. Ac this rate wc run our lives 
out in adjournments from time to time, out of a 
fantaftical levity that holds us off and on, betwixt 
hawk and buzsard. L^BJlrange. 

A'oiTQVs.adj. \_aJipofus,'LaX.'\ Fat. Di3. 
A'dit. rt.f. [adirui, Lat.] A paffage for 
the conveyance of water under ground ; 
a palTage under ground in general ; a 
term among the minemen. 

For conveying away the water, they ftand in aid 

of fundry devices j as, ad'tis, pumps, and wheels, 

^ driven by a llrtram, and interchangeably tilling and 

emptying two buckets. Careiv> 

The delfs would be fo flown with waters (it be- 
ing imj^olTible to make any adits or fouglis to drain 
them) that no gins or machines could fulHce to lay 
and keep them dry. ^ay, 

Adi'tion. n.f. [from adeo, aJiium, Lat.] 

The aft of going to another. DJ3. 

7*0 Adju'dge. "v. a, [adjudico, Lat.] 

I . To give the thing controverted to one 

of the parties by a judicial fentence ; 

with the particle to before the perfon. 

The way of difputing in the fchools is by in- 
iifting on one topical argument j by the fuccefs 
of which, victory is adjudged to the opponent, 
or defendant. Locke* 

The great competitors for Rome, 
Cxfar and Pompey, on Pharfalian plains. 
Where ftern Bellona, with one final flroke, 
jtdjudg'd the empire of this globe to one. Ptillips. 

z. To ientence, or condemn to a punifh- 
ment ; with to before the thing. 

But though thou art adjudged to the death ; 
Yet I will favour thee in what I can. Shakeff. 

3. Simply, to judge ; to decree ; to de- 

He adjudged him unworthy of his friendfliip, 
purpofing Hiarply to re\'enge the wrong he had rc- 
ceivfd. Kncllcs. 

rsADJU'DICATE. -v. a. [adjudico, Lat.] 
To adjudge ; to give fomething contro- 
verted to one of the litigants, by a fen- 
tence or decifion. 

A D J u D I c a't I o n . h. / [adjudicatio, Lat. ] 
The aft of j lodging, or of granting 
fomething to a litigai^t, by a judicial 

To A'djuoate. 'V. a. [adjugo, Lat.] To 
yoke to ; to join to another by a yoke. 

A'djument. ». /. \_adjumentum, Lat.] 
Help ; fupport. DiS. 

A'DJUNCT. n.f. [adju>i3um, Lit.] 
I. Something adherent or urtited to an- 
otixer, though not e^entially part of it. 

A D J 

Leirn'mg is but tt\ adjunff to ourfelf. 
And where wc arc, our learning likewife is* Shak. 

But 1 make hafte to connder you as ab(lra£)ed 
from a court, which (if you will give me leave to 
ufe a term of logick) is only an adjunSi) not a 
propriety, of happincfs. Dryden, 

The talent of difcretion, in its feveral adjunHs 
and circumftances, is no where fo ferviccable as to 
the clergy. Snvift. 

2. A perfon joined to another. This fenfe 
rarely occurs. 

He made him the aObciate of his heir-apparent, 
together with the lord Cottington (as an adjurd 
of fingular experience and truft) in foreign travels, 
and in a bufinefs of love. fVofton. 

A'djunct. adj. United with; imme- 
diately confequent. 

So well, that what you bid me undertake. 
Though that my death were adjunli to my afl, 
I'd do "t. Sbakefp. King John, 

Adju'nction. n.f. \adjun3io, Lat.] 

\ . The aft of adjoining, or coupling to- 

2. The thing joined. 

Adju'nctive. n./. [adjunSi'vut, Lat.] 

r. He that joins. 

2. That which is joined. 

Adjura'tion. n.f. [ae/juratio, hat.] 

1 . The aft of adjuring, or propofing an 
oath to another, 

2. The form of oath propofed to another. 

When thefe learned men faw ficknefs and frenzy 
cured, the dead raifed, the oracles put to filence, 
the dxmons and evil fpirits forced to confefs tfiem- 
felvcs no gods, by perfons, who only made ufe of 
prayer and adjurations in the name of their cruci- 
fied Saviour ; how could they doubt of their Sa- 
viour's power on the like occafions ? 

Mdifm on the Cbrifiian Religion. 
To ADJU'RE. -v. a. [adjuro, Lat.] To 
impole an oath upon another, prefcrib- 
ing the form in which he (hall fwear. 

Thou know'ft, the magiftrates 
And princes of my country came in perfon. 
Solicited, commanded, threaten'd, urg'd, 
jidjur'd by all the bonds of civil duty. 
And of religion, prcfs'd how juft it was, 
How honourable. MiJton. 

■ 'Ve lamps of heaven ! he faid, and lifted high 
His hands now free, thou venerable Iky ! 
Ye facred altars ! from whofe flames 1 fled. 
Be all of vou adjured. Dryden. 

To ADJU'ST. 'V. a. \adj after, Fr.] 

1. To regulate ; to put in order ; to fettle 
in the right form. 

Your Lordlhip removes all cur difliculties, and 
fupplies all our wants, fafter than the mod vi- 
fionary projector can adjujl his fchemes. Siuift. 

2. To reduce to the true ftate or Itandard ; 
to make accurate. 

The name's of mixed modes, for the moft part, 
want llaniiards in nature, whereby men may re^ify 
and adjufi their fignification \ therefore they an- 
very various and doubrfu'. Locke. 

3. To make conformable. It requires the 
particle to before the thing to wliich the 
conformity is made. 

As to the accomplilhment of this remarkable 
prophecy, whoever reads the account given by Jo- 
iephus, without knowing his charadte., and com- 
pares it with what our Saviour foretold, would 
think the hiftorian had been aChrlft'an, and that 
he had nothing elfe in view, but to adjufi the event 
to the prediAion. jiddif n. 

Adju'stment. n.f. [adjiiftement, Fr.] 
I. Regulation; the aft of putting in me- 
thod ; fcttlement. 

The farther and clearer adjufiment of this affair, 
I am conftraincd to adjourn to the larger treatife. 




2. The ftate of being put In method, or 

It is a vulgar idea we have of a watch or cloclc, 
when we conceive of it as an inftrument made to 
Ihew the hour : but it is a learned idea which the 
watch-maker has of it, who knows all the feveral 
parts of it, together with the various connexions 
and adjufimentt of each part. ff^aiti't Logiik, 

A'djutant. n. /. A petty officer, whofe 
duty is to ainit the major, by diftribut- 
ing the pay, and overfeeing the punilh- 
ment, of the common men. 
To ADJU'TE. 1*. a. [adju-vo, adjufum, 
Lat.] To help ; to concur : a word not 
now in ufe. 

For there be 
Six bachelors as bold as he, 
j^juting to his company ; 
And each one hath his livery. 

BenJonftM't Undervioods, 

Adju'tor. »./ [aJJutor, Lit.] A helper. 


Adju'tory. ad;, [ad/uteriiu. Lit.] That 

which helps. Di^. 

Adju'trix. »./ [Lat.] She who helps. 

A'djuvant. adj. [adjwvant. Lit.] Help, 
ful ; ufeful. Dia. 

To A'djuvate. o;. a. [adjwvo, Lat.] To 
help; to further; to put forward. 


Admb'asuremEnt. n. /. [See Mea- 
sure.] The adjuftment of proportions ; 
the aft or praftice of meafuring accord- 
ing to rule. 

Admeajurement is a writ, which lieth for the 
bringing of thofe to a mediocrity, that afutp more 
thai! their part. It lieth in two cafes : one is 
termed admeajurement of dower, where the widow 
of the deceafed holdethfrom the heir, or his guar- 
dian, more in the name of her dower, than bc- 
longeth to her. The other is admeujurement of 
pafture, which lieth between thofe that have com- 
mon of paliure appendant to their freehold, or 
common by vicinage, in cafe any one of them, or 
more, do furcharge the common with more cattle 
than they ought. Ccwd/m 

In fome counties they are not ipuch acquainted 
\fhh admeafuremnl by acre; and thereby the writs 
contain twice or thrice fo many acres mure than 
the land hath. Bacon* 

Admensu R a'tion. n.f. [ad ind menfura, 
Lat.] The aft, or praftice, of meafuring 
out to each his part. 
Admi'nicle. n.f. [adminicuhm, Lat.] 
Help ; fupport ; furtherance. DiS. 

Admi Ni'cuLAR. adj. [from adminicu- 
lum,h<iX.] That which gives help. Diff. 
To ADMl'NISTER. -v. a. [adminifro, 

1. To give ; to afford ; to fupply. 

I.ct zephyrs bland 
Adminifler y ■ tepid genial airs ; 
Naught fear i.c from the welt, whofe gentle 

Difdofes well the earth's all-tceming womb. 


2. To aft as the minifter or agent in an^r 
employment or office ; generally, but 
not always, with fome hint of fubordi- 
nation : as, to adminifter the govern- 

For forms of government let fools contefl, 
Whate'er is beft adninifler'd, is bell-. Pofe, 

3. To adminiller juflicej to diflribute 

4. To 


4. To admlnifter the facraments, to dlf- 
penfe them. 

Have not they the old popifh cuftom of adtrini- 
Jl'ring the bleiTcd facrament of the holy eucharift 
with wafer-cakes ? Hosier. 

5. To adminifter an oath ; to propofe or 
require an oath authoritatively ; to ten- 
der an oath. 

Swear by the duty that you owe to heav'n. 
To keep the oath that wc adminifter, Shakefpeare. 

6. To adminifler phyfic j to give pnyfic 
as it is wanted. 

1 was carried on men's ihoulders, adminijlering 
phylick and phlebotomy. Wafcri Voyage. 

7. To adminifter to ; to contribute ; to 
bring fupplies. 

I rouft not omit, that there is a fountain rifing 
in the upper part of my garden, which forms a 
little wandering rill, and adminiflirs to the pleafure, 
as well as the plenty, of the place. SpeSItitor. 

8. To perform the office of an adrainiftra- 
tor« in law. See Aoministrator. 

Neal's order was never performed, becaufe the 
executors durft not adminijler. 

•Arbuthnot and Pope, 

To Admi'nistrate. 1/. «. \adminiftro, 
Lat.] To exhibit ; to give as phyfick. 
Not in ufe. 

They have the fame effefts in medicine, when 
inwardly admtmjirated to animal bodier. 


Administra'tion. n.f. [aJminiftratio, 


1. The aft of adminiflering or condufting 
any employment ; as, the condufting 

. the public affairs ; difpenling the laws. 

I then did ufe the perfon of your fjther ; 
The image of his power lay then in me : 
And in th' admtn'ijl ration oi \\\i law, 
While I was bufy for the commonwealth. 
Your highnefs pleafcd to forget my place. 


In the rtiort time of hii adminjftratiottt he ihone 
fo powe- fully upon me, chat, like the heat of a 
RuQian fummer, he ripened the fruits of poetry in 
a cold clima'c. Dry'dtti, 

2. The aftive or executive part of govern- 

It may pafi for a maxim in ftate, that the ad- 
miniftrai'um cannot be placed in too few hands, nor 
the legiflature in too many. Stvift, 

3. Colleftively, thofe to whom the care 
of public affairs is committed ; as, the 
adminiftration has been oppofed in par- 

4. Dillribution ; exhibition ; difpenfation. 

There is, in facraments, to be obferved their 
force, and their form of adminifiratioH, Hocker, 
By the univerfal admini/lrathn of grace, begun 
by our blelTed Siviour, enlarged by his apoftles, 
carried on by their iromediaic fuccefTors, and to 
be completed by the reft to the wo-ld's end j all 
types that darkened this faith are enlig'itcned. 

•Sprat's St-rm'jnt, 

Administrative. aJj. [from admini- 

ftraie.'\ That which adminillers; that 

by which any one adminillers. 

Aduinistra'tor. n.f, \adminiflrator , 

1. Is properly uken for him that has the 
goods of a man dying inteftate com- 
mitted to his charge by the ordinary, 
and is accountable for the fame, when- 
ever it fhail pleafe the ordinary to call 
upon him thereiinto. Conuell. 

He was wonderfully diligent to enquire and ob- 
ferve what became of the king of Arragon, in 
hoUijig Che kingdom of Caftille, and whether he 


did hold It in his own right, or as admmfirator to 
his daughter. Bacon's Henry VH. 

2. He that officiates in divine rites. 

I feel my confclence bound to remember the 
tleath of Chrift, with fome fociety of Chriftians or 
other, Cnce it is a moft plain command j whether 
the perfon, who diftributes thcfe elements, be 
only an occafional or a fettled adminijfrator. 


3. He that condufts the government. 

The rcfidence of the prince, or chhf adttiim^ra- 
ror of the civil power. Sioift, 

Admi'nistr ATRix. ti, /. [Lat.] She 
who adminillers in confequence of a 
Administra'torship. n.f. [from «^- 
miniftrator,'\ The office of adminiHra- 
Admirabi'lity. n,f. \admirabilis, Lat. ] 
The quality or ftate of being admira- 
ble. Dia, 
A'dmirable. adj. [admirabilis, Lat.] 
To be admired ;, worthy of admiration ; 
of power to excite wonder : always ta- 
ken in a good fenfe, and applied either 
to perfons or things. 

The more power he hath to hurt, the more ad- 
m'lrakle is his praife, that he will not hurt. 

God was with them in all their adiiitions, and, 
at length, by working their admirable deliverance, 
did teftify that they ferved him not in vain. 


What admiraili things occur in the remains of 

feveral other phllofophers ! Short, I conftfs, of 

the rules of chriftianity, but generally above the 

lives of chriftians. Soutb'i Sermotii. 

You can at moft 
To an indiff rent lover's praife pretend : 
But you would fpoil an admirible friend. Drydin. 
A'dmirableness. n,/. [from admirable.'] 
The quality of being admirable ; the 
power of raifing wonder. 
A'dmirablv. adni, [from admirable.] 
So as to raife wonder ; in an admirable 

The theatre is the moft fpacious of any I ever 
faw, and fo admirably well contrived, that, from 
the very depth of the ftage, the loweft found may 
be heard diftin£tly to the fart he ft part of the au- 
dience, as in a whifpering place j and yet, raife 
your voice as high as you pleafe, there is nothing 
like an echo to caufe the leaft crmfufion. Mdifcr.. 

A'DMIRAL. ». y: [amiral, Fr, of un. 
certain etymology.] 

1. An officer or magiftrate that has the 
government of the king's navy, and the 
hearing and determining all caufes, as 
well civil as criminal, belonging to the 
fea. Coxuell. 

2. The chief commander of a fleet. 

He alfo, in battle at fea, overthrew Rcdericuj 
Rotundus, admiral of Spain, in which fight the 
admiral, with his fon, were both flain, and feven 
of his gallies taken. Knolles. 

Make the fea (nine with gallantry, and all 
The Englilh youth (lock to tUc'n admiral. fVaikr. 

3. The fhip which carries the admiral or 
commander of the fleet. 

The admiral galley, wherein the emperor him- 
fclf Wis, by great mifchance, ftruck upon a fand. 


A'dmiralship. ». / [from admiral.] 
The office or power of an admiral. 

A'dmi RALTY. 11./. [amiraulle, Fr.] The 
power, or officers, appointed for the ad- 
miniftration of naval affairs. 

Aumira'tion, a./, [admiralio, Lat.] 


1. Wonder; the aifl of admiring or won- 

Indu'd with human voice, and human fenfe, 
Reafonjng to admiration. Milton* 

The paftions always move, and therefore, con- 
fequently, pleafe ; for, without motion, there can 
be no delight : which cannot be confidercd but as 
an aftive palfion. When we view tho^ elevated 
ideas of nature, the refult of that view M admira~ 
tioit, which is always the caufe of pleafure. 


There is a pleafure in admiration, and this is 
that which properly caufeth admiration, when we 
difcover a great deal in an objedl which we un- 
derftand to be excellent} and yet we fee, we know 
nn how much more beyond that, which our un- 
derftandings cannot fully reach and comprehend. 


2. It is taken fometimes in a bad fenfe, 
though generally in a good. 

Your boldnefs I with admiration fee ; 
What hope had you to gain a queen like me? 
Becaufe a hero forc'd me once away. 
Am I thought lit to be a fecond prey ? Dryden, 
To ADMI'RE. v. a. [admiro, Lat. ad- 
mirer, Fr.] 

1 . To regard with wonder : generally in 
a good fenfe. 

'Tis here that knowledge wonders, and there is 
an admiration that is not the daughter of igno- 
rance. This indeed ftupidly gazeth at the un- 
wonted effe& i but the philofophic paftion truly 
admires and adores the fup.cme efficient. 


2. It is fometimes ufed, in more familiar 
fpeech, for to regard 'vtith lo've. 

3. It is ufed, but rarely, in an ill fenfe. 

You have difplac'd the mirth, broke the good 
With moft admir'd iiCorder. Shakefp. Macbeth. 

To Admi're. 'v.n. To wonder J fome- 
times with the particle at. 

The eye is already fo perfect, that I believe the 
reafon of a man would eafily have refted here, and. 
admird at his own contrivance. Ray on the Creation. 
Admi'rer. 71,/, [from admire.] 

1. The perfon that wonders, or regard* 
with admiration. 

Neither Virgil nor Horace would have gained 
fo great reputation, had they not been the friends 
and admirers of each other. Addijoti. 

Who moft to (hun or hate mankind pretend. 
Seek an admirer, or would lix a friend. Pope. 

2, In common fpeech, a lover. 
AoMi' [from admire,] With 

admiration ; in the manner of an ad- 

The king very lately fpoke of him admiringly 
and mournfully. Sbakrfp. All's ivelltbatendsivill. 

We may yet further admiringly obfervc, that men 

ufually give frcelieft where they have not given 

before. Boyle* 

Admi'ssible. adj. [admitio, admijfum,. 

Lat.] That which may be admitted. 

Suppofe that this fuppofition were admijfible, yet 
this would not any way be inconliftent with the 
eternity of the divine nature and e(rence. 

Hale's Origin of Mankind^ 
Admt'ssion. n.f, [admi^o, L3.t.] 

1 . The aft or praftice of admitting. 

There was alfo enacted that ciiaritable law, for 
the admi£ion of poor fuitors without fee ; whereby 
poor men became rather able to vex, than unable 
to fue. Bacon's Henry VII* 

By means of our folitary (ituation, and our rare 
admf£ion of ftrangers, wc know molt part of the 
habrtable world, and arc ourfclves unknown. 

Bacon's Ne^u Atalantii . 

2. The ftate of being admitted. 

My father faw you ill deligns purfue ; 
A«d jny admillm fljow'd his feat of you. Dryden. 




Cri «iid tlwn tjcrcife man's hopts with the ex- 
pcfijiions of a btttcr paruJifi', or i more intimitr 
^dmij/icK to himfelf. Staib't Strmeni. 

Our kin; defcendi from Jove i 
Aod hither are we come by bis command, 
To crave iutwtjjittt in your happy land. Dryden, 

3. Admittance ; the power of entering, or 
being admitted. 

All finings have fome degt« of heat, none ever 
freezing, no not in the longeft and fevereft frofts ; 
efpeclally thofe, where there is fuch a fite and dif- 
pofition of the ftrata as gives free and cafy ad- 
mffan to this heat. WixdiUard'% Natural IliJIoiy. 

4. {In the ecclefiaftical law.] It is, when 
the patron prefents a cierk to a church 
that is vacant, and the bi(hop, upon 
examination, admits and allows of fuch 
clerk to be fitly qualified, by faying, 
AJmitto ie habilem. Ayliffe' s Parergon. 

5. The allowance of an argument ; the 
grant of a pofition not fully proved. 

To ADMI'T. 1'. a. [aJmitto, Lat.] 

1. To fuifer to enter ; to grant entrance. 

Mirth, admit me of thy crew. Milton. 

Does not one table Bavius ftill cdmit T Pipe. 

9. To fufFer to enter upon an office ; in 
which fenfe the phrafe of admijpon into a 
eollege. Sec. is ufed. 

The trcafurcr found it no hard matter fo far to 
terrify hiiri, that, for the king's fervice, as was 
pretended, he admitted, for a fix-clerk, a pcrfcn 
recommended by him. C/arindm. 

3. To allow an argument or pofition. 

Suppofe no weapon can thy valour's pride 
Subdue, that by no force thou may'ft be won, 
jUmt no ftcel can hurt or wound thy fide, 
And be it hcav'n bath thee fuch favour done. 

This argument is like to have the lefs effcit on 
tne, feeing I cannot eafily admit the inJcrence. 


4. To allow, or grant in general j fome- 
times with the particle of. 

If you once admit if a latitude, that thoughts 
may be exalted, and images raifed above the life, 
that leads you infenfibly from your own principles 
to mine. Drydtn. 

Admi'ttable. adj. \ixom admit. "] The 
perfon or thing which may be admitted. 
Btciufe they have not a bladder like thofe wc 
cfcf::rvein others, they have no gall at all, is a pa- 
rilogifm not admiitabli, a fallacy that nceis not 
the fun to fcatter it. Bmvn. 

The clerk, who is prcfcnted, ought to prove to 
the bllhop, that he is a deacon, and that he has 
orders j otherwife, the bifliop is not bound to ad- 
mit him ; for, a> the law then ftood, a deacon was 
4idmittatle. yiynfe's Parergon. 

Admi'ttance. n.f. [(rom admit .'] 
1. The aft of admitting ; allowance or 
permilTion to enter. 

It cannot enter any man's conceit to think it 
lawful, that every man which Uilcth .'hould take 
upon him charge in the church; and th-refbrc a 
folemn admittance is of fuch neceflity, that, without 
it, there can be no church-polity. Hooter. 

A» to the admittance of the weighty elaftic parts 
ef the air into the blood, through the coats of 
the veffels,*! feems contrary to experiments upon 
deaJ bodies. jlrtuthnct on Alimentu 

i. The power or right of entering. 

■ If I do line one of their hands .' — 'tis gold 

Which buys admittarce. Staieffeare'i CymMint. 
Surely a daily expectation at ihc £jtc, is the 
readied way to gain admittance into the houfc. 
_, Souths Sermons. 

There's news from Bertran ; he dcfircs 
Admittance to the king, and criti aloud, 
TJ»s day liaU end our fears. Dryden. 

There are fome ideas which hitt adp:!tt:!net on^y 
through one fenfe, which is peculiarly adapted to 
receive them. Loeie. 

J. Cuftom, or prerogative, of being ad- 
mitted to great perfons : a fenfe now 
out of ufe. 

Sir John, you are a gentleman of excellent 
breeding, of great admiilanci, authentick in your 
place and perfon, generally allowed for your many 
warlike, couttllke, and learned preparations. 


4. Conceflion of a pofition. 

Nor could the Pythagorean give eafy admittance 
thereto j for, holding that fcparate fouls fuccef- 
fivcly fupplied other bodies, they could hardly al- 
low the raifiog of fouls from other worlds. 

Btztvn's Vulgar Errours. 
To Adui'x. ni, a. [adnti/ceo, Lat.] To 

mingle with fometbing elfe. 
Admi'xtion. n.f. [from ezdtnix.] The 
union of one body with another, by 
mingling them. 

All metals may be calcined by ftrong waters, 
or by admixtion of fait, fulphur, and mercury. 


The elements at« no where pure in thcfe lower 
regions ; and if there is any free from the admix- 
tion of another, fure it is above the concave of the 
moon. Glanville. 

There is no way to make a ftrong and vigorous 
powder oi faltpetre, without the admixtion of ful- 
phur. Bmvns Vulgar Errct/n. 

Admi'xtore. »./. [from admix.] The 
body mingled with another ; perhaps 
fometimes the aft of mingling. 

Whatever acrimony, or amaritudr, at any time 
redounds in it, niuft be derived from the admixture 
of another Iharp bitter fubftance. 

Harijey en Confumptions. 
A mafs which to the eye appears to be nothing 
but mere finople earth, Ihall, to the fmell or taftc, 
difcover a plentiful a(/mixr«r? of fulphur, alum, or 
fome other mineral. fVoodward's Natural Hijl-^ry. 
To ADMO'NISH. -v. a. {admoneo, Lat.] 
To warn of a fault ; to reprove gen- 
tly ; to counfel againft wrong prac- 
tices ; to put in mind of a fault or a 
duty ; with the particle of, or againjl, 
which is more rare ; or the infinitive 
mood of a verb. 

One of his cardinals, who better knew the in- 
trigues of aft'airs, adm:n\Jixd him againji that un- 
ikilful piece of ingenuity. Decay of Piety. 

He e/* their wicked ways 
Shall them admonip, and before them fet 
The paths of righteoufnefs. Milton. 

But when he was admowjhcd by his fubjeCl to 
defcerdf he came down, gently cirdiiig in the air, 
and finglng, to the ground. Drydcii. 

Admo'nisher. h. /. [from admonijh.'] 
The perfon that admoniflies, or puts 
another in mind of his faults or duty. 

Horace was a mild admonijher ; a court-fatirifl 
fit for the gentle times of Augudus. Dryden. 

Admo'nishmsnt. tt. f. \from admoniff}.'] 
Admonition ; the notice by which one 
is put in mind of faults or duties : a 
word not often ufed. 

But yet be wary in the ftudious care.— 
—Thy grave admonijhments prevail with me. 

Siakfpeare's HetryV. p, i. 
To th' infinitely Good wc owe 
Immortal thanks, and his admonijhment 
Receive, with folemn purpofe to obfcrvc 
Immutably his fuv«rcign will, the eud 
Of what we are. Milicn, 

Admoni'tion. ». f. [aJmon'tio, Lat.] 
The hint of a fault or duty ; counfel ; 
gentle reproof. 
They muft give our teachers leave, for the laving 

ef fouls, to intermingle fometimes with othee 
more neccfiary thingr, aJa-nition concerning thcfe 
not unncccifaiy. Ilcoitr. 

From this admonition they took only occafion to 
redouble their fault, and to ll':cp again ; fo that, 
upon a fccond and third admomticr, they had no- 
thing to plead for their unfcalbnabl; drowfinel";. 

Sc!irb*s Sermons, 
Admoki'tioner. n.f. [from adntenition.'] 
A liberal difpenfer of admonition ; a 
general advifer. A ludicrous term. 

Albeit the admtniticners did fcem at firft to lik* 
no prcfciipt form of prayer .it all, but thought it 
the bed that their minifter Jhould always be left at 
liberty "to pray, as his own difcrction did fcr\c, 
their defender, and his all'ociatcs, have fithence 
piopofcd to the world a form as themfclves did 
like. Hooker, 

A D M o' N I T o R Y . adj. [admotittoriuj, Lat . ] 
That which admonifhes. 

The fcntence of reafun is either mandatory, 
ihewing what muft be done ; or elfe permillive, 
declaring only what may be done j or, thirdly, ad' 
monitory, opening what is the moll convenient for 
us to do. Hookir. 

Admurmur a'tion. ft./, [admurmtiro, 
Lat.] The aft of murmuring, or whif- 
pering to another. Z)/.-7. 

To Admo've. v. a. \_admovco, Lat.] To 
bring one thing to another. A word 
not in ufe. 

if, unto the powder of loadftone or iron, wc oif- 
m'-vc the north-pole of the loadllooe, the powders, 
cr fmall divifions, will ercdt and conform them- 
felves thereto. Brown's Vulgar Errcurs. 

Ado', n.f. [from the verb to do, with a 
before it, as the French affaire, from i. 
I. Trouble, difficulty. 

He took Clitophoii prifoner, whom, with mucK 
ado, he keepeth alive; the Helots being viKain- 
oufly cruel. Sidney, 

They moved, and in the end pcrfuaded, with 
much ado, the people to bind themfelves by folemn 
oath. Hooker, 

He kept the borders and marches of the pale 
with much adoj he held many parliaments, wherein 
fundry laws were made. Sir fohn Davics, 

With much ado, he partly kept awake ; 
Not fufTring all his eyes repofe to take. ' Dryden, 

z. Euftle ; tumult ; bufinefs ; fometimes 
with the particle about. 

Let's follow, to fi.e the end of this ado, Sbaiefp, 

All this ado about Adam's fatherhood, and the 

greatnefs of its power, helps nothing to cttablifh 

the power of thofe that govern. Locke, 

3. It has a light and ludicrous fenfe, im- 
plying more tumult and (how of bufinefs, 
than the affair is worth : in this fenfe it 
is of Lite generally ufed. 

I made no more ado, but to:ik all their feven 
points in my taigct, thus. S'.^ak./p. Henry IV. 

We'll keep no great ado^^^a friend or two- 
It m.iy be thought wc held him ca:elcfsly, 
Being our kinfman, if wc revel much. Sbatefp, 

Come, fays Pufs, without any more ado, 'tis 
time to go to breakfafi ; cats don't live upon dia- 
logues. L'EJtrange, 

Adolk'scence. \n.f. \adolefceiitia, Lat.] 
Adole'scency. i The age fucceeding 
childhood, and fucceeded by puberty ; 
more largely, that part of life in wKich 
the body has not yet reached its full per- 

He was fo far from a boy, that he was a man 
born, and at his full ftaturc, if we believe Jofe, 
phus, who places him in the \i!i adoUfuncy, and 
makes him twenty-five years old. Brown^ 

, The fons muft have a tedious time of childhood 
and aiolefccncc, before they can either tiismftlves 



sflift their parents, or encourage them with new 
hows of poflerity. Beniley. 

To ADCyPT. %: a. {adopto, Lat.] 

1, To take a fonby choice ; to make him 
a fon, who was not fo by bixth. 

Were none of all my f» ler's fiftera left; 
Navi were I of my mother's Icin bereft; 
None by an uncle's or a grandame*s Hcie, 
Yet I could fome adopted heir provide. Drydcn. 

2. To place any perfon or thing in a nearer 
relation, than tbey have by nature, to 
foraething elfe. 

Whether, ad<ff>ud to fomc neighboring ftar. 
Thou roirft above us in thy wand'ring race. 

Or, in proceflion fix'd and regular, 
Mov'd with the hcav'ns majellic pace; 
Or cdird to more celeilial blifs, 
Thou trcad'ft, with leraphims, the vaft abyfs. 


We are feldom at eafc from the foUcitacion of 
our natural or adopted delires ; but a conrtant fuc- 
ccfiinn of uneafinclTes, out of that (lock, which 
natural wants, or acquired habits, have heaped up, 
take the will in their turns. L^cle. 

Ado'ptedlv. a</i;. [{rom aJof ted.'] Af- 
ter the manner of fomething adopted. 

Ad'.ptfdly^ as fchool-maids change their names, 
By vain, though apt, aftcdion. Sb^, 

Ado'pter. 71./. [from adopt.] He that 
gives fome one by choice the rights of a 

Ado'ption". )i./. [adoptio, Lat.] 

1. The aft of adopting, or taking to one's 
felf what is not native. 

2. The ftate of being adopted. 

My bed (hall be abufed, my reputation gnawn 
at ; and I fliall not only receive this villainous 
wrong, but ftand under the adoption of abominable 
terms, anS by him that does me the wrong. 

She purpos'd, 
When (he had fitted you with her craft, to work 
Her fon into th'ijrf»/)/»)iof the crown. SbaieJ'paire. 
In every att of our Chriftian worihip, we are 
taught to call upon him under the endearing cha- 
rafler of our Father, to remind us of our adoption, 
that we are made heirs of God, and joint heirs of 
Chriil. J?9jfm'j Set^ons. 

Ado'ptive. adj. [adoplivtts, Lat.] 

1. He that is adopted by another, and 
made his fon. 

It is impnflible an cleftlvc monarch fhould be fo 
free and abfoiute as an hereditary ; no more than 
it is poflible for a father to have fo full power and 
in;ereft in an adopii-vt fon, as in a natural. Bac.n. 

2. He that adopts another, and makes him 
his fon. 

An adopted fon cannot cite bis adoptive father 

into court, without his leave. Ayhffe's Parcrgon. 

Ado'rable. adj. [adorable, Fr.] That 

which ought to be adored ; that which 

IS worthy of divine honours. 

On thefc two, the love of God, and our neigh- 
bour, hang both the law and the prophets, fays 
the adorable Author of Chriftianity ; and the 
Apoftle fajs, the end of the law is charity. Cheyne. 
Ado'r ABLENESS. n. f. [from odoraLle.] 
The quality of being adorable ; wor- 
thinefs of divine honours. 
Aoo'rably. adii. [from adoraiie.] In a 

manner worthy of adoration. 
AdOra'tion. n./. [adoratio, Lit.] 
i. The external homage paid to the Divi- 
nity, diftinft from mental reverence. 

S>lemn aad ferviceable worfhip we name, for 

d.ftindion /ake, whatfoever bclongeth to the! 

church, or publick focicty, of Cod, by way ot 

external adoration. Hooker.. 

It is poffible to fuppofe, that thofe who believe 

VO L. I. 


a fupreme excdlent Being, may yet ^ive him no 

i«t6rnal adoration at all. StillingJI.e'. 

2. Homage paid- to perfons in kigh place 
or efteem. 
O ceremony, fltew me but thy worth : 

What is thy tolli O ar/nriirij/;/ 
Art thou nought elfe but place, degree, and form, 
Creating awe and' fear in other men ? 
Wherein thou art lefs happy, being, fear'd,: 
Than they in fearing. 

What drink'ft thou oft, inftcad of homage fweet, 
But poifin'd flattery ? .; S kakefpeare't- Henry V. 
To ADO'RE. -J. a. [adoro, Lat.] 

1 . To worfhip with external homage ; to 
pay divine honours.- 

The mountain nymphs and Themis they adore, 
And from her oracles relief implore. Dryden- 

2. It is ufed, popularly, tO' denote a high 
degree of reverence or regard ; to reve- 
rence ; to honour ; to love. 

The people appear adorirtg their prince,' and their 
prince oi/ariBj God. T<r//fr, N" 57. 

Make future times thy equal aft adore. 
And be what brave Orcflss was before. 

Pcpe^t Odyffey. 
Ado'rement. n.J". [h&m adore.l Ado- 
ration ; worfhip : a word fcarcely ufed. 

The priefts of elder times deluded their apprc- 
henCons with fouth-faying, and fuch oblique ido- 
latries, and won their credulities to the literal and 
downright edorement of cats, lizards, and beetles. 
Brti'tunt Vulgar Errours. 
Ado'rer. »./ [from adore.] 

1 . He that adores ; a worfhippcr ; a term 
generally ufed in a low fenfe ; as, by 
lovers, or admirers. 

Being fo far provoked as I was in France, I 
would abate her nothing ; though I profcfs myfelf 
her adorer, not her friend. Skahfpeare^t Cymbdine. 

Whilft as th' approaching pageant does appear, 
And echoing crowds fpeak mighty Venus near ; 
I, her adorer, too devoutly fland 
Fail on the utmoft margin of the land. Prior. 

2. A worfhipper ; in a ferious fenfe. 

He was fo levere an adorer of truth, as not to 
dilfemble ; or to fufrer any man to think that he 
would do any thing, which he refolved not to do. 


To ADO'RN. 1/. a. [adorno, Latin.] 

1 . To drefs ; to deck the perfon with or- 

He hath clothed me with the garments of falva- 
tion, he hath covered me with the robcof rjghteouf- 
nefs, as a bridegroom dcckcth hiinfelf with orna- 
ments, and as a bride adornctb hcrfelf with her 
jewels. ljeiah,\x\. 10. 

Vet 'tis not to adprn and gild each part, 
That Ihcws more coft than art ; 
Jewels at nofc and lips, but ill appear. Cvzvfey. 

2. To fet out any place or thing with de- 

A gallery adorned with the piftures or ftatues ot 
the invention of things ufeful to human life. Citvley, 

3. To embellifh with oratory or elegance 
of language. 

I'liis will fupply men's tongues with many new 
things, to be named, adorned, ind dcfcribcd, in 
their difcourfc. Sprat. 

Thoufands there arc in darker fame that dwell, 
Whofe names fome nobler poem (hall adorn j 
For, tho' unknown to me, tlicy fure fought well. 


Ado'rn. adj. [from the verb.] Adorned; 
decorated : a word peculiar to Milton. ' 

She'll to realities yield all her (hows, 

Made fo adorn for thy delight the more. Milton. 

Ado'rkmHnt. n./. [from adorn.] Orna-| 

nient ; embelliihment ; elegance : not 

now in ufe. 

This attribute waj not givjn to tJie earth, while 

A D V 

!t was confufed ; nor to the heavens, before they 
had motion and ador/jment. 

Raleigh's Hi/lory of the IVorld. 
She held the very garment of Hofthumus in moi-e 
refpeft than my nobb and natural perfon, together 
with the adornment of my qualities. 

Skakejpeare's Cymbeline. 
Ado'wn. ad'v. [from a and donx/n.] Down ;. 
on the ground. 

Thrice did (he fink hdoivn in deadly found. 
And thrice he her rcviv'd with bufy pain. 

Fitiry ^een, 
Ado'wn. prep. Down; towards the 
ground j from a higher fituation to* 
wards a lower. 

In this remembrance Emily ere day 
Arofe, and drefs'd herfelf in rich array; 
Fre(H as the month, and as the morning fair, 
Adotvn her fhouldcrs fell her lengthof hair, Drydeiti. 
Adre'ad. adii. [from a and dread -y as, 
ajide, athirji, ajleep.] In a ftate of fear ; 
frighted ; terrified : now obfolete. 

And thinking to make all men adreadto fuch* 
one an enemy., who would not fparc, nor fear to 
kill (b great a prince. Sidney, 

Adri'ft. adhi. [from a and drift, from 
drive.] Floating at random i. as any 
impulfe may drive 

Then, (hall this m«unt 
Of paradife, by might of wares, be mov'd 
Out of his place, puih'd by the horned Hood; 
With all his verdure fpoii'd, and trees adrift 
Down the great river, to tlie opening gulf, 
And there take root. Mi!t9n% 

It feem'd a corps adrift to didant fight ; 
But at a diftance who could judge aright .' Dryden, 

The cuftom of frequent refleftion will keep 
their minds from running adrift, and call their 
thoughts home from ufelcfs unattentive roving. 

Loche on Educatioftf 

JDRO'ir. adj. [French.] Dextrous j 
aftive ; fkilful. 

An adroit ftout fellow would fometimes deftroy 
a whole family, with juftice apparently againft 
him the whole time. Jervat'i Don ^itixote. 

Adroi'tness. ».y; [from adroit.] Dex- 
terity } readinefs ; aftivity. Neither 
this word, nor adroit, feem yet com- 
pletely naturalized. 

Adry'. adii. [from a andi dry .] Athirft; 
tbirfty ; in want of drink. 

He never told any of them, tlial he was hia 
humble fcrvant, but his well-wi(hcr ; and would 
rather be thought a malecontcnr, than drink the 
king's health when he was not adry. SpeElator. 

Adsciti'tious. adj. [adj'citittus, Lat.] 
That which is taken in to complete 
fomething elfe, though originally ex- 
trinfick ; fupplemental ; additional. 

Adstri'ction. n. f. [adJiriSio, Lat. J 
The aft of binding together ; and ap- 
plied, generally, to medicaments and 
applications, which have the power of 
making the part contraft. 

To ADVA'NCE. rv. a. [avancer, Fr.] 

1. To bring forward, in the local fenfe. 

Now morn, her rofy fteps in th' cadern clime 
Advancing, fow'd the earth with orient pearl. 


2. To raife to preferment ; to aggrandize. 

He hath been ever conftant in his courfe of ad., 
vancing me ; from a private gentlewoman he 
made me a marchionefs, and from a marchlonefs a 
queen ; and now he intends to crown my innocency 
with the glory of martyrdom. Bacon. 

The declaration of the greatnefs of Mordecai, 
whercunto the king advanced him. EJihir, x. c, 

3. To improve 

What lawi caa be advifed o»we proper and ef. 
f ftftual 

A. D V 

fcdual to«/v«m tJM nature of nan to ittliighen' 
pcrfc£lion, than thcfc f reccpts of Chriftianicy f 


4. To heighten ; to grace ; to give luftrc to. 

As the calling dignifies the man^ io the man 
much more advancei his calling* As a gar- 
ment, chough it warms the body, has a return 
' with an advantage, being mu(b more warmed by 
It. South' i StrmQniM 

5. 'Xo forward ; to accelerate. 

Thefc three laft were flower than the ordinary 
Indian wheat of itfelf; and ihis culture did rather 
retard titan tdiMiict, Bacep. 

15. To propofe ; to offer to the pi^blick ; to 
■bring to view or notice. 

'PhL-don 1 hight, quoth hi:, an4 do adwinet 
My ancefby from famous Coradin. Fairy Sjitn. 
\ dare not advanu my opinion ag.-^inll the judg- 
ment of fo great an author ; but 1 tlilnk it fair to 
(cave the decifion to the publick. Drydrn. 

Some ne^er advame a judgment of their own. 
But catch the fp eading notion of the town. Ppfe. 
To Adva'wce. 1;. n. 
1. To come forward. 

At this the youth, whofe vent'rous foul 
No fears of maglcic art controul, 

Ath-anc*d in open fight. Fane}. 

%. To make improvemen't. 

They who would advance in knowledge, and 
not deceive and fwcll thcmfelves with a little arti- 
culated air, ihould not take words for real entities 
in nature, till they can frame clear and diliin£l 
ideas of tbofe entities. Locke. 

Adva'»ce. »./ [from To advance.] 
I. The aft of coming forward. 

All the foot were put into Abington, with a re- 
folution to quit, or defend, the town, according 
to the manner of the enemy's advance towards it. 


So, like the fua*s advance j your titles fhow ; 
Which, as he rifcs, does the warmer grow. IValler. 

a. A tendency to come forward to meet a 
lover ; an aft oi invitation. 

In vain are all the pradis'd wiles. 
In vain thofe eyes would love impart; 

Not all th' advances, aU the fmiles. 
Can move one unrelenting heart. 'ffa!Jh, 

His genius was below 
The &ill of cv'ry common beau ; 
Who, though he cannot ff^H, is wife 
i£nough to read a lady*s eyes j 
>nd will each accidental glance 
Jaterpret for a kind advance. S-zvift 

He has defcribed the unworthy paRion of the 
.goddefs Calypfo, and the indecent advances (ne 
made to detain him from his own country. Po/-e. 

That prince applied h.mfell ftrft to the Church 
•f England, and upon their let'ufal to fail in with 
his meafures, made the like advanus to the Dif- 
fenters. Hwift. 

3. Gradual progreflion ; rife from one 
point to another. 

Our Saviour railed the ruler's daughter, the wi- 
dow's fpn, and Laiarus) the firil of thefe, when <hc 
l^d juil>) j the fccond, as he was carriea V) 
■tl)c grave an his bier; and lie third, after lie 
■Veen fome time buried. And having, by thefe 
.gradual advances, m;in:fefted h.s divine pov,er, lu' 
at lallexe :ed the hi^h.ll and molt gbriuus degree 
of it; and laifcd hnnfeifalfo by bis own all-quick-' 
.cning viitue, and accord'.jjg tj his own exprefs 1 re- .Auerhnry. 

M49 of Ihidy and thought, that reafnn ri^hr, 
and arelovers of truth, doniake n9 great <:</ir<in,rs 
in tlipir d.fcoveries of it. Locke. 

.4. Improvement ; progrefc towards per ; 

The principle and oi>je£l of the greared impor- 
tance in the world 10 the good of mankind, and. for 
tne adv.inif and pcrfi£ling of human nature. Ha!e. 
..Al>.YA'ii,CElvtE:NT. n.f. [a-vancemmt , Ft.] 
J. The aft of coming forward. 

"Xikit lefiocinFnt luiti'-cs diuljf advaBtmunis, 

A D V 

and, 1 hope, In time, will raife sur language to 
the utmoft perfc^ion. Stvifr. 

2. Theilateofbeingadvanced; preferment. 

The Percles of the North 
Finding his ufurpation moil unjuil, 
Endeavour'd my advaxcemtnt to the throne. 


3. The aft of advancing another. 

In bis own grace he doth exalt himlelf 
More than in your advancemcnf. 

Sbokcjpeare'i King Lear, 

4. Improvement ; promotion to a higher 
ftate of excellence. 

Nor can wc conceive it unwelcome unto thofe 
worthies, who endeavour the advancement of learn- 
ing. Brctun i Vulgar Erroun. 

5. Settlement on a wife. This fenfe is 
now difufed. 

The jointure or advancement of the lady, was the 

third part of the principality oi Wales, Bacon. 

Adva'ncer. ft./, [from advance.] He 

that advances any thing ; a promoter ; 


Soon after the death of a great officer, who was 
judged no advancer of the king's matters, the king 
faid to his folicitor, Tell me truly, what fay you 
of your coufin that is gone ? Bacon. 

'The reporters arc greater advancers of defama- 
tory deligns, than the very firft contrivers. 

Government of the Tongue. 

ADVA'NTAGE, «./ [advantage, Fr.] 

1. Superiority ; often with of or over be- 
fore a perfon. 

In the pra^ical prudence of managing fiich gifts, 
the laity may have fome ad'vantage over the clei^y j 
whofe experience is, and ought to be, lefs of this 
world than the other. Sprat, 

All other forts and fefls of men would evidently 
have ths ad-vantage of us, and a much furer title 
to happinefs than we. Atterbury* 

2. Superiority gained by ilratagcra, or 
unlawful means. 

"The common law hath left them this benefit, 
whereof they make advantaget and wrert it to 
their bad purpofcs. Sftnjer^i State bfjrtland. 

But fpecialiy he took advantage of the night for 
fuch pr!vy att-mpts, infomuch that the bruit of 
hismanlinefs was fpread everywhere. 2 Af^atv. viii.7. 

Great malice, backed with a great intercfl j 

yet can h.jve no ada<antage oi a man, but from his 

own cjtpcdlations of-fomething that rs without him, 

Sautb^i Sermnni, 

As foon as he was got to 'Sicily, they fent for 
him back j dcfigning to take advantage, and pro- 
f.'cute him in the abfcnce of his friends. Swift, 

3. Opportunity; convenience. 

Give me adi.\.>2tage of fome brief difcourfe 
With Defdfmona alone. Sbakefpeare, 

4. Favourable circumftances. 

Like jewels to ad-vantage fet, 
Her beauty by the ihadc does get. fVulUr, 

A f.;cc, which is ovcr-fluihed, appears to ad- 
vantage in the dcepefl fcarlet ; and the datkefl 
complexion is not a little alleviated by a black 
hood. Addtjon, 

True wit is nature to ad-uantage drcfs*d, 
Wh.1t oft was thought, but he'er fo well exprefs'd. 

5. Superior excellence. 

A man born with fuch advantage of conf^itu- 
tion, that it adulterates not the images of h'snalnd. 


.6. Gain ; profit. 

Sot tnuu i^M\, what advantage will it be unto 

thee, and whatifrofit ih^ll I hayc, ifl be cicanfcd 

.from my fin ? ^ci. 

•Ceriain it is, that advantage now fits in the 

room oi conicience, end (leers all. 

South's Strmom^ 

7, Overplas ; fomething more than the 
mere lawful gain. 
Wo owe thee much } within this waU of fleib 

A D V 

There is a foul counti thee her creditor, 
Aui with advantage means to pay thy love. 

Yo« fa!d, you neither lend nor borrow 
Upon advantage. Shakeff. Merchant of Venice. 

8. Preporideration on one fide of the com- 

Much more (hould the confideration of this 

fiattern arm us with patience againft ordinary ca- 
amities ; efpecially if we confider his example 
with this advantage, that though his fufterings 
were wholly undefervcd, and not for himfcif but 
for us, yet he bore them patiently. Tillotjon. 

To Adva'nt ACE. f. «j. [from the noun.] 

1. To benefit. 

Convey what I fet down to my lady : it fhall 
advantage rtsore than ever the bearing of letter 
did. Hhakefpeare* 

The trial hath endamag'd thee no way. 
Rather more honour left, and more cfteem ; 
Me nought advantag'd, miffing what I aim*d. 


The great bulincfs of the fenfes being to make 
us take notice of what hurts or advantages the 
body, it is wifely ordered by nature, that pain 
Ihould accompany the reception of feveral ideas. 


Wc Ihould have purfued fome other way, more 
effectual, for dlltreffing the common enemy, and 
advantaging ourfelves. Swift. 

2. To promote ; to bring forward ; ta 
gain ground to. 

The lloics that opinioned the fouls of wife men 
dwelt about the mocn, and thofe of fools wander- 
ed about the earth, advantaged the concert of this 
effe^. Broivns Vulgar Errjurs. 

To ennoble it with the fpirit that infpires the 
Royal Society, were to advantage it in one of the 
beft capacities in which it is improveablc. 

Clanville''s Scepjii Scientifca. 

Adva'ntageable. adj. [from advan- 
tage.] Piofitable ; convenient ; gainfuL 

As It is advantageahle to a phyfician to be call- 
ed to the cure of declining difeafe, fo it is for a 
commander to fupprefs a fedition which has pair- 
ed the height. Sir y. Hayiiard, 
Adva'ntaced. adj. [from To advan- 
tage.] Poflefled of advantages ; com- 
modioufly fituated or difpofed. 

In the muft advantaged tempers, this difpofition 
is but comparative ; whereas the moil of men la- 
bour under difadvantagcs, which nothing can rid 
them of. Glanville. 

Adva'ntage-sround. n.f. Ground 
that gives fuperiority, and opportuni- 
ties of ^Innoyance or refillance. 

This excellent man, who ftood i)ot upon the 
adv.^niage-ground before, from the time of his 
promotion to the archbifhoprick, provoked or un- 
derwent the envy, and reproach, and malice, of 
men of all qualities and conditions^ who agreed 
in nothing eifc. Clarendon. 

ADVANTA''cEOUS.aii)'. [ezvoHtageux, Fr.] 

1. Of advantage; profitable; ul'eful; op- 
portune ; convenient. 

The time of Ccknefi, or afHiiflion, is, like the 
co:j1 of the day to Adam, a feafon of peculiar pro- 
priety for the voice of God to be he rd ; and may 
be impr.ived into a very advantageous opportunity 
of begetting or increafing fpiritual Mfe. Hamnattdt 

. Here perhaps 
Some advantageous ai5l msy be achicvM 
By fuddcn onlet, ciiKe,- with hell-tire 
To wafte his wh^'le creation; or polTefs 
All as our own. Milton. 

2. It is uied with relation to perfons, and 
followed by to. 

Since every painter paints himfeirin his own 

works, His advantageous to him to know himfelf, 

to the end that he may cultivate thofe talents 

which make his genius. Dryden* 

AoVAMTA'ciOUSLlf. <J</i/. ^from ad-van- 

I tageoiis.\ 

A D V 

tagtcus.] Coftveniently ; opportunely ; 

it was ad-vaxtagnufiy fituMeJ, th«ie boirtg an 
faly pifiage from it to India, by ll-a. Arhutbnil. 
Advanta'ceousn'ess. n. /. [from ad- 
-vantageous.] Quality of being advan- 
tageous ; profirable^efs ; ufefulnefs ; 

The laft property, which qualifies Cod for the 
fitteft objeft of our love, is the jd'VanuzMufnrf, 
of hM to us, both in th. prefent and the future 
»• AV,rr-.»r^ B'yl''' Seraphic Lo-vc. 

To ADVE'NE. -v. «. [ad-^emc. Lat.] To 
accede to fortefhing ; to become part 
cffomethingeUe, without being effen- 
tial ; to be fuperadded. 

A caofe confiaercd in judicatnre, is ftilcd an 
accident.) caufe ; and the accidental o( any aO, 
i» faid to be whatever ailvtms to the aa itfelf al- 
ready lubUantiatad. . ^yliff,-! P^rtrg^. 
Adve KiENT. (uij. [ad-ueniens, Lat.] Ad- 
vening; coming from outward caufes ; 

Being thus divided from truth in ttemCelves, 
they are yet farther removed by d-vmni decep- 
tion ; for they are dally mocked Into errour by 
fubt,er dcvifers. Brnun', Vulgar Errourl. 

If to fuppofe tlie foul a diftinft fubft.mce from 
the body, and extrlnHcally ad-vcnUni, be a gren 
error m philofuphj, almoft all the w.irlj ha'h 
been midakea. GU„^UU, Vamiy of D^gmaiifm. 
Advent, n. /. [from adventuj ; that is, 
adv€«ius Rfdrmprorh.] The name of one 
of the holy feafons, fignifying the com- 
tngi that is, the coming of our Saviour ; 
which is made the fubjeft of our devo- 
tion during the four weeks before Chrift- 
. ""^V Common Prayer. 

Adventine. adj. [from aducnio. ad- 
•ventum.] Adventitious ; that which is 
extnnfically added ; that which comes 
from outward caufes j a word fcarcely 
in ufe. ' 

A^ V 

A D V 

As tor the peregrine heat, it is thus far true, 
that, ,f the proportion of the aj^venrine heat be 
greatly predominant to the natural heat and fpirits 
Of the body. It tendcth to diffolution or notable al- 
teration, „ 

A r JjiSCCK. 

^?'''"J!""'- "''J- {'"^■^""ii'"'. Lat.] 
i hat which advenes ; accidental ; fu- 
pervenient; cxtrip/ically added, not 
euentially inherent. 

Difcafes of continuant get .in ad-vt^whu, 
ftreng.h from cuftom, bef.dej their material caufe 
irom thf humours. d 

Though we may call the obvious coloursTa"-* 
tural, and the others attvtmitim, ; yet fucli 
changes of colours, from whatfoevep caufe thev 
proceed, may be properly taken in. Bovli 

li his blood boil, and th' aA-umkkus fire 
*ais d by high meats, and higher win*», require 
10 temper and ailay the burning heat ; 
Waters are brought, which by dccoaion get 
Newcoolncft. Drd 

M up by lapidaries, th.-re are not above three or 

lTLc\ "' °?r',' :»«•',■'-"*•«», as Z 
fcre^; a'^'' '"'' ^'/'^J*' "»«''« from the dlf- 
fcrem admixture of other *fo«,/i,;», mineral 

Adve ;,./ [ftomad-venio. Latin.] 
The thing or perfon that comes from 
without : a word not now in ufe 

malt'.'lt ""i'"' *" "■" '■'' '"^"y' ''•"'thrt there 
may be elb.«-toom wough for them, and for the 
mavtntnra aifo, „ 

Adve'ntual. ajj. [from ad-vtr^.] Re 
fating to the feafon of advent 
i do atfo daily «ft o« other collc« j ar, n^e 

ly, the coljefts ad-ventnal, quadra?e(imal, pafchal. 
or ptntecofta!, for their proper fe.ifonr. 

ADVE'NTURE. „./ [Prench^^'"'"'""-^"'" 
I . An accident ; a chance ; a hazard • 
an event of which we have no direc- 

The general fummoned three cables ; one def- 
perate of fuc«ar, and not Jefirous to difputc the 
defence, prefentiy yielded ; but two ftood upon 
tJieir ad'Vevtarc. Hciiu - ^ 

2. In this fenfe is ufcd the phrafe, a/^// 
ad-ventures; [a I' adventure, Fr.] By 
chance ; without any rntiocal fcheme. 

_ Blows flew at all adventurci, v.-ounds and deaths 
g^ven and taken unexpcaed; many fcarce know- 
ing their enemies from their friends. Hay-ward. 
Where the mind does not perceive pmbable 
conneilion, there men's opinions are the ctfefts 
of chance and hazard, of a mind floating at all 
td-Lc«iura, without choice and without direaion. 

1. Th« occafjon of cafual events ; an en- 
terpnfe in which fomething muft be left 
to hazard. 

For I moa love, and am refolv'd to try 
My fate, or, failing in th' advexiure, die. 
rpi. . , DrydiK. 

4- I his noun, with all its derivatives, is 
frequently written without «a'j as, -ven- 
ture, -venturous. 

To Adve'nture. -v. n. [ad-venturer. Fr.] 

1. To try the chance; to dare. 

Be not angry, 
Moft mighty princefs, that I have ad-vntur'd 
To try your taki ng ftf a falfe report. Sbak,fp,ari. ' 
ilK tender and delicate woman amorg you,' 
which would not advtr^iure to ftt the fole of her 
foot upon the ground, for delicatenefs and tender- 
cr K ' Ucutir. xiviii. i6. 

Tff Adventure, -v. a. To put into the 
power of chance. 

For my father fought for you, and advtr.turj 
his life for, and delivered you out of the hand of 
Mldian. ^ , 

it is otten nfed with the reciprocal 
pronoun ; as, he ad-ventured him/elf. 
Adventurer. „. / [ad-.entur,er, Yr.^ 
tic that feeks occafions of hazard ; he 
that puts himfelf in the hands of chance. 

He IS a great advctiiurtr, faid he. 
That hath bis fword through hard alTay foregone. 

The king! of England did not make thfc™. 
queft of Ireland ; it was begun by particular ad- 
■v<ntur,ri, and other voWntanes, who came to feck 
their fortunes, S-rJ.Da-vU,. 

He intended to ha«,d his own aSion, that fo 

wl"?r J H ".''K*-' «i" 'd^tmurers, who elfe 

were like to be Icf. forward. RaUM-. 

Had It not been ft>r the Bfiti/h, which the ittc 

war. drew over, and udn^,„,ur.r, or loldiers feated 

been left delhtutc. \ ^", * 

0»r merchant, ihall ng more ad-ve»t'rcr, be. 

Adventuresome, adj. [from adien- 
t'lre.] I he fame with ad-venturous: a 
low word, fcarcely ufed in writing. 

Adve nturesomeness. n.f. [from ad- 
-venture/ome.] The quality of being ad- 
vcnturefome. j)-^ 

Advzstvuovs. adj. [nd-ventureux, Fr. ] 

I. He that IS inclined to adventures ; and, 
confequently, bold, daring, courageous. 

At land »nd fca, in many a doubtful fight. 
Was never known a mo,,: ad-vint' rou, knight : 
Who oftner drew hi, fw«d, and always for ths 

2. Applted to things, that which is full 
of hazard; which requires courage; 

But I've already troubled you too long. 
Nor dare attempt a more advent'rms fong. 
My humble veife demands a fofter theme j 
A pamtcd meadow, or a purling ftream. Jddifo,,. 
Adventurously, adv. [from adven- 
turous.] After an adventurous man- 
ner; boldly; daringly. 

They are both hanged; and fo would this be, 
if he durft fteal any thing adwviuro;iJty. 

A'pVERB. n.f. [adverbium, Lat.] A word 
joined to a verb or adjeftive, and folely 
applied to the ufe-of qualifying and re- 
ftraining the latitude of their fignifica- 
tion, by the intimation of fome circui^i- 
ftance thereof; as, of quality, manner, 
degree. Clarke's Latin Grammar. 

Thus we fay, he runs/wi/ily ; the bird 
flies aJo/t ; he lives -virtuoujly. 
Adve'rbial. adj. [ad-verbialis, Lat.] 
That which has the quality or ftrufture 
of an adverb. 

Adve'rbially. adv. [adverhialiter, Lat.] 
Like an adverb ; in the miitner of an 

I fliould think alta was joined advtrhially with 
trcmu, did Virgil make ufe of fo equivocal « 
'^l'"^^'^- Jddlfon. 

Adve'rsable. a<^'. [from ad-ver/e.] Con- 
trary to ; oppofite to. Dia. 

ADVERSARIA. „./. [Lat. A book, as 
It fliould feem, in which Debtor and 
Creditor were fet in oppofition.] A 
common-place ; a book to note in. ' 

Thefe parchments are fuppofed to have been St. 
VM\%ad-,,,rf,rh. Buir, Sertfons. 

Adversary. »./ [ad-ver/ai re, Fr. ad- 
'ver/arius, Lat.] An opponent ; an- 
tagonift ; enemy : generally applied to 
thofe that have verbal or judicial quar- 
rels ; ^ as, controvertifts or litigants : 
fometimes to an opponent in fmgle com- 
bat. It may fometimes imply an open 
profeffion of enmity ; as we fay, a fecret 
enemy is worfe than an open ad-vtr/ary. 

Yet am I noble, as the ad-verfaj 
I come to cope. Shakcjf care's Kwg Lear. 

ihole rites and ceinnonies of the church, 
therefore, which were the felf-fame now thit ther 
were when holy and virtuous men maintained 
them agajnft profnne and deriding adterfarUs, her 
own children have in dcrifion. H^j,^^ 

Mean while th' ad-tjerfary of God and man, 
Satan, with thoughts inflam'd, of highcft defign. 

An ad'jcrfary malfes a ftnfler fcarch into us. 
and d.fcnvers every flaw and imperfedtion. in out 
tempers. A friend exaggerates a man's virtues ; 
an enemy inflames his crimes. Add\fon. 

A D V e'r s A t I v E . adj. [adver/ati-vus, Lat.l 
A tem of grammar, applied to a word 
whic^i makes fome oppofition or variety • 
as, m this fcntencc; This diamond i, 
or.ent, but it is rough. But is an adver. 
Jaiive conjunction. 

A'd V E R s E . adj. [ ad-verfus, Lat. ] 

^..^^Pa"*^.," ^^^ ""'^ '*»« accent on 
the firft fyllable; in verfe it is ac- 
cented on tlie firll by Shake/peare ; on 
either, indifTerently, by M,7/.„ ; on .the 
lait, by DrjJen ; on the firft, by Rof. 
P 2 

!• A£iiag 

A D V 

1. AfUng with contrary direftions ; as, 
two bodies in colliflon. 

Wu I for this nigh wreckt upon the fea. 
And twice, by adtttrft winds, from England's bank 
Drove back again unto my native dime } Sbaktfp. 

As when two polar winds, blowing advrrfcy 
Upon the Cronian fea together drive 
Mountains of ice. Afilttn. 

With cjvirje blaft upturns them from the fouth, 
Notus and Afer. Milton. 

A cloud of fmoke envelopes either hoft, 
And all at once the combatants are loll ; 
Darkling they join <irfi;«r/c, and Ihock unfcen ; 
Xlourfers with couriers julUing, men with men. 


Z. Figuratively, contrary to the wi(h or 
defxre ; thence, calamitous ; affliflive ; 
pernicious. It is oppofed to pro/feroui. 

What if he hath decreed, that I ihall iirll 
Be try'd in humble ftate, and things adnierfr ; 
By tribulations, injuries, infults, 
Contempts, and fcorns, and fnares, and violence. 

Some the prevailing malice of the great, 
Unhappy a>en, or adverfe fate, 
Sunk deep into the gulfs of an afflided ftate. 


5. Perfonally opponent ; the perfon that 
countera^ls another, or contefts any 

Well Ihe faw her father was grown her adverfe 
yarty ; and yet her fortune fucb, as flie muft fa- ^ 
vour her rivals. Sidmy, : 

'A'dversely. atl-v, [from ad'verfe7\ In' 

an adverfe manner ; oppofitely ; unfor- 

tonately. ' 

Whit I thirfk, 1 utter, and fpcnd my malice in 

my breath. Jf the drink you give me touch my 

jaUtte ad-uerfeiy, I make a crooked face at it. 


Adve'rsity. n./. \_ad'vtrfiti , Fr.] M- , 
fliftion ; calamity ; that is, oppofition 
«o our wifhes. 

a. The caufe of our forrow ; affllflron ; 
' misfortune. In this fenfe it may have 
a plural. 

Let me embrace thefe foMradverJrties, 
for wife men fay, it is the wifefl courfe. 

Sbakefpeare^ s Hertry VI. 

3. The ftate «fur^ap{)inefs ; mifery. 

Concerning deliverdnce itfclf fioiR all advcrfiryy 
we ufe not to fay men are in ad-verjit^y v.'henf*iever 
.they feel any fmall hindcrance of their welfare in; 
this world, but when fome notable alfliiSion cr 
-crofs, fame great calamity or trouble, befalletit 
them. Htukin, 

Sweet are the ufes of adverfiiy^ 
Which, like the tosd, ugly and venomous, 
'Wears yet a pxf cious jewel in his head. 


A remembrance of the good ufe he had made 
©f profpcrity, contributed to fupport his mind ur,-' 
der the heavy weight oi Adverjity, which then lay 
upon him. Attt.rhury, 

Vo ADVE'RT. -v. n. [aJ-verto, Lat.] To 
attend to ; to regard ; to obfcrve ; with 
the particle ie before the objedt of re- 

The mind of man ijeing not capable at once 
to advert to more than one thing, a particular view 
and examination of ftich an innumerable number 
K)f vail bodice, will alTord matter of admiration. 
Ray en the Creation, 
Now 'to the univerfal whole advert ; 
The earth regard as of that whole a part ; 
In which wide frame more noble worlds abound ; 
Wicnefa, ye glorious orbs, which hang around. 


We fomctimes fay,' Ta advert ihi mind 
to an -^jeS. 

A f)V 

Adve'rtbnce. »./. [from <ufc«-/.] At- 
tention><o ; regard to ; confideration. 
ChriRianity may make Archimedes his chai- 
- lenge ; give it but where it may fet its foot-; 
allow but a fober advertence to its propofals, and it 
will move the whole world. Decay ofPieiy. 

Adve'rtency. w./. ['vert.'l The 
fame with advertence. Attention ; re- 
gard ; heedfulnels. 

Too much advertency is not your talent ; or 
clfe you had Hed irom that text, as from a rock. 

Adve'rt£NT. adj. [from ad-vert.'] At- 
tentive ; vigilant ; heedful. 

This requires choice parts, great attention of 
mind, fcqueftration from the importunity of fecu- 
lar employments, and a long advertent and deli- 
berate connexing of confequents. 

■Hale^s Origin of Mankind. 

To ADVERTrSE. v. a. [ad-vertir. Fr. 
It is now fpoken with the accent upon 
the laft fyllable ; but appears to have 
been anciently accented on -the fe- 

1. To inform another; to give intelli- 
gence ; witli an accufative of the per- 
fon informed. 

The bifliop did require a rcfpite. 
Wherein he might the king Ills lord adveriije. 
Whether our daughter were legitimate. 


As I by iriends am well flJvertj/ii/, 
Sir Edmund Courtney, and the haughty prelate, 
With many more confederates, are in arms. Sbak. 

The king was not fo fliallow, nor fo ill advcr- 
tifed, as not to perceive the intention of the French 
king. Bacon. 

I hope ye will advertife me fairly of what they 
diflikf. J^igh- 

2. To inform ; to give notice ; with q/" 
before the fubjeft of information. 

Ferhatcs, underftanding that Solyman expefled 
more aflurcJ advertifement, onti> the other BafTas 
declared the death of the emperor; o/" which they 
/i</ai<Tri/i</ Solyman, filming thofe Jetters with all 
their hands and feals. 

Knol/ei's Hi/iory of tie Turk!. 

They were to advertife the chief hero of the 
difti-efTes of his fubjedls, occafioned by his ab- 
fence. Drydcn. 

3. To give notice of any thing, by means 
of an ttdwertifement in the public prints ; 
as. He advertifed bis loft. 

Adverti'sement, or Adve'rtise- 
MENT. n.f. [adverliffement, Fr.] 

1. Inftruftion ; admonition. 

— 'Tis all men's office to fpeak pati.nce 
To thofc, that wring under the load of forrow; 
But no man's virtue nor fufficiency. 
To be fo moral, when he fhall endure 
The like himfcif : therefore give me no counfel ; 
My grie'fs are louder than advertifemcnt. 

St/ikcfprare^s Much ado about Nothirg. 

Cyras was once minded to have put Crcefus to 
death ; but hearing him report the adveitifeinent 
of Solon, he fparcd his liCe. 

Aiiit'i 'Dcfcripticn ef tbe IVerld. 

2. Intelligence ; information. 

Then, as a cunning prince that ufeth fpics, 
If they return no news, doth nothing know ; 

But if they make advertifemer.t of lies, 
The prince's counfel all awry do go. 

Sir y-ybn Daviei. 

He had received advertifttnent, that the party, 
which was fent for his relief, had received fome 
bru)h, which would much retard their march. 

■ ' '^ ■ V'arendan.' 

The drum and trumpet, by their feveral founds,' 
fcrve for many kinds ot advertifements, in military 
affairs! the bells ferve to proclaim afcarc-flre; andj 
IB iume places, water-bteacheS} the <itpartuie of 

A D V 

a min, woman, ot child ; time of divine fervic*; 
the hour of the day; day of the month. Holder, 

3. Notice of any thing publilhed in a pa- 
per of intelligence. 
Adverti'ser. n./. [czdverli/eur, Fr.] 

1 . He that gives intelligence or information. 

2. The paper in which advertifements arc 

Adve'rtisinc, or Ad vert I's inc. /ar/. 
adj. [from ad-verti/e."] Aftive in giving 
intelligence ; monitory : a word not 
now in ufe. 

As I was then 
Mvertifing, and holy to your bufinefs. 
Not changing heart with habit, 1 am lliU 
Attornied at your fcrvice. Sbakefp. Meaf.for Meaf. 

To Adve'sperate. 'v.n. [^ad-ve/pero, Lat.] 
To draw towards evening. Di3. 

Advi'ce. n. /. [avis, ad-vis, Fr. from ad- 
"vifo, low Lat.] 

1. Counfel; inlirnftion : except that in- 
ftrudion implies fuperiority, and adt>ice 
may be given by equals or inferiors. 

Break we our Watch up, and, by my advice^ 
Let us impart what we liavc fcen to-night 
Unto young Hamlet. Sbaktfp. Hamlet, 

troubled, weak, and coward, as thou art! 
Without thy poor advice, the lab'ring heart 

To worfe extremes with fwifter fteps would run ; 
Not fav'd by virtue, yet by vice undone. Prior, 

2. Refleftion i prudent confideration : as, 
he always afts with good adi'ice. 

What he hath won, that he hath fortified : 
So hot a fpeed, with fuch advice difpos'd. 
Such temperate order, in fo fierce a courfe. 
Doth want example. Sbakefp. Kiirg yattt. 

3. Confultation ; deliberation : with the 
particle •wili. 

Great princes, takii;g -advice tvitb workmen, 
with no Icfs cofl, fet their things together. 

Baccn*s FJ/iiyr. 

4. Intelligence: as, the merchants received 
ad-vice of their lofs. This fenfe is ibme- 
what low, and chiefly commercial. 

Advi'ce-boat. n.f. A veflel employed 

to bring intelligence. 
Advi'sable. adj. [from ad-vife. ] Prudent ; 

fit to be advifed. • ' 

Some judge it advifahle for a man to account 
with his heart every day ; and this, no doubt, is 
the bed and lurcft courfe; for ftill ihe oftner, the 
better. . Soutb^i Sermonu 

It is not advifahle to reward, whe.c men have 
the tendcmefs not to punifh. L'EJirange's Fablet, 

Anvi'sABLENEss. »./. [^ttom advi/able.l 
The quality of being advifable, or lit ; 
fitnefs ; propriety. 
To ADVrSE. -v. a. [aJ-vl/er, Fr.] 
I.. To counfel : with the particle to before 
the tiling advifed. 
If you do ftir abroad, go-Brm'd. 

Arm'd, brother! 

Brother, 1 advife you to the bed. 

Sbakefp. f^ing Lear, 

1 would advife all gentlemen to learn merchants 
account!, and not to think it a fkill that belongs not 
to them. Locke, 

When I confider the fcruplcs and cautions I here 
lay in your way, methinks it looks as if 1 advifed 
you to fomcthing which I would have oilered at, 
but in effefl nut done. Locke. 

2. To give information 4 to inform ; to 
make acquainted with an^y thing : often 
with the particle o/'before the thing told. 

'i'^ou were advis'd, his flelh was capable 
Of wiunds and fcirs ; and that his forward fpirit 
Would liftjiim, whccemoft trade of danger rang'd. 


A D V 

A D U 

A D U 

Such difcourfe bring on« 
As may advife him o/"his happy (lace; 
Happinefs in his pow'r, left free to will. 

ParaJi/e Loft. 
A pofting mcflenger difpatch'd from hence, 
0/"this fair troop advit'd their aged prince. 

Dryden^s ^ne'id. 
To Advi'se. v. n. 

1 . To confult : with the particle luith be- 
fore the perfon coaiulted ; as, be adiiijed 
txjhh his companions. 

2. To confider 4 to deliberate. 

Advife if this be worth 
Attempting, or to fit in darknefs here, 
Hatching vain empires. 

Miltni's Parad'ife Ltfi, b. ii. 
Av>vist.T>. participial adj. [from ad'vift.'\ 

1 . A Aing with deliberation and defign ; 
prudent ; wife. 

Let his travel appearrather in bis difcourfe, than 
in his apparel or gefture ; and, -in his difcourfe, 
let him be rather adnjijed in his anfwers, than for- 
-ward to tell ftories. Bacon t Efjays. 

Th* Almighty Father, where he fits 
Shrin'd in his fanftuary of heav'n fecure, 
Confulting on the fum of things forefeen. 
This tumult, and permitted a>l, ad-vh^d, 

Faradijl LoJI, b. vi. 

2. Performed with deliberation J done on 
purpole ; adled with defign. 

By that which we work naturally, as, when we 
breathe, fleep, and move, we fet forth the glory 
of God, as natural agents do ; albeit we have no 
-cxprefs purpofe to make that our end, nor any ad- 
vijid determinatioa therein to follow a law. 

Hunker, b. i. p. 49. 
In my fchool-days, when I had loft one Ihaft, 
1 (hot his fellow of the felf-fame flight. 
The felf-fame way, with more advijtd watch. 
To find the other forth ; by vent'ring both, 
I oft found both. Stakiff. Mtrcbant of Venice. 
Advi'sedly. ad'v. \^ioai adv[fed.'\ So- 
berly ; heedfully ; deliberately ; pur- 
pofely ; by defign ; prudently. 

'J'his h(Xi\c,tidvifcdly read and diligently followed 
-but one year at home, would do more good than 
three years travel abroad. Ajcham. 

Surprife may be made by moving things, when 
the pirty is in hade, and cannot ftay to confii*;r 
edvijedlj of that which is moved. 

Bacortf EJfay xxiii. 
Thou (iileft fecond thoughts (by all allowed the 
bcl^) a relapfe, and accufett conflancy of mifchief 
in what is natural, and adnjijedly undertalcen. 

^';V Jnbn SuckTirg. 

Advi'sedness. n./. [from ad'vi/ed.] De- 
liberation ; cool and prudent procedure. 

While things are in agitation, private men may 
modeftly tender their thoughts to the confideration 
of thofe that are in authority; to whofe care it 
belnngeth, in prefcribing concerning indilf^rent 
things, to proceed witli all juft advijedncji and mo- 
deration. Sauttderjon^i 'Judgment in one t^inv. 

Advi'sement. n./. [ad-v i/eme«e, Fr.] 
I. Counfel ; information. 

Mote I wote, 
What ftrange adventure do ye now purfue ? 
Perhaps my fuccour, or advijement meet, 
Mote {lead you much. Fairj Siueen. 

I will, according to your ad'vljtment, declare the 
«Til5, which fcem mod hurtful. 

Sffnfer't Stall of Ireland. 

a. It is taken likewife, in old writers, for 
prudence and circumfpedlioa. It is now, 
in both fenfes, antiquated. 

Advi'ser. n.y". [(roai ad'vi/e,'] The per- 
fon that advifes, or gives counfel j a 

Mac, free from court-compli»nc«, he walks, 
Aad with hUniclf, his beft advifer, ttlki. 


They never fail of their moll artful and indefa- 
tigable addrefs, to filence the impertinent advifer, 
whofe feverity awes their exceffes. 

Rijgers^s Sermons. 
AduLa'tiON. n./. [adulation, Fr. adula- 
tio, Lat.] FLittery ; high co.aipliment. 

O be ficic, great Greatnefs I 
And by thy ceremony give thee cure. 
Think'il thou the fiery fever will go out 
With titles blown from adulation ? 

Staic^earc's Henry V. 
They who flattered him moft before, men'ioned 
him now with the greateft bitternefs, without im- 
pudng the leaft crime to him, committed fmce the 
time of that exalted adulation, or that was not ihen 
as much knowa to them, as it could be now. 


Adula'tor. ?;./ [adulator, Lat.] A flat- 
terer. Dm. 

A'dulatory. adj. [adulatorius, Lat.] 
Flattering; full of compliments. 

ADU'LT. adj. [adu/tus, Lat.] Grown up; 
paft the age of infancy and weaknefs. 
They would appear Icfs able to approve themfelvcs, 
not only to the confeflbr, brjt even to the catechill, 
in their adult age, than they were in their minority ; 
as having fcarce ever thought of the principles of 
their religion, fmce they conned them to avoid 
correction. De^ay of Piety. 

The earth, by thefe applauded fchools, 'tis faiJ, 
This fingle crop of men and women bred ; 
Who g own adult, fo chance, it feems, enjoin'd. 
Did, male and female, propagate their kind. 


Adu'lt. n.f. A perfon above the age of 
infancy, or grown to fome degree of^ 
ftrength ; fometimes full grown: a word 
ufed chiefly by medicinal writers. 

The deprefiion of the cranium, without a frac- 
ture, can but feldom occur ; and then it happens 
to children, whofe bones are more pliable and foft 
than thofe of adults, Sharp's Surgery. 

.■^Dtj'LTNESS. n.f. [from adult.'\ The 
ftate of being adult. See Adoles- 
cence. Dm. 

To Adu'lt ER. v. a. [adulterer, Fr.adul- 
tero, Lat.] To commit adultery with 
another : a word not claffical. 

His challewife 
He iiifa/rff-i ftill : his thoughts lie with. a whorr. 

Ben yonjon. 

Adu'lter ANT. ». y; [adulteraiii, Lat.] 
The perfon or thing which adulterates. 

7» Adu'lterate. 'V. a. [adulterer, Fr. 
adultero, Lat.] 

1. To commit adultery. 

But fortimc, ohi 
yidullcralet hourly with thine uncle John. 


2. To corrupt by fome foreign admixture; 
to contaminate. 

Common pot-alhcs, bought of them tiiat fell it 
in Ihops, who arc not f.> foolifhly kiiavilh as to 
adulterate them with (alt-petrc, which is much 
dearer thaii p<-.t-alhei. Boyle. 

Cuulil a man be compofcd to fuch an advantage 
of conilitutii'H, that it Ihould not at all adulterate 
the images of his mind ; yet this fecond nature 
would altcrthe crafis of liis undeiftinding. 

■ Glanville's Scepjh Scienrifi.a, c» xvi. 

The prefent war has fo adulterated our tongue 

with llrangc words, that it would be impoflible for 

one of our great-grandfathers to know what his 

pofterity have been doing. . Spcilaior. 

Adu'lter ate. adj. [from To adulterat^e.'] 

I. Tainted with the guilt of adultery. 

I. am pofTcls'd with an adulterate h\ot\ 
My blood is mingled with the grime of luft; 
Being ftruropetcd by thy contagion. 

Sbakcjpcartt Cmedy ofEp-ori, 

—That inceftuous, that adulterate beaft. 

I. Corrupted with fome foreign mixture. 

It does indeed differ no more, than the makef 

of adulterate wares does from the vender of them. 

Govirnment of the Tmgue. 

They will have all their gold and filver, and 

may keep their adulterate copper at home. 

Swift's Mifcellan'iet. 

Adu'lter ate NEss.n./[fromWa//^rart.] 

The quality or ftate of being adulterate, 

or counterfeit. 

Adulter a't ion. n.f. [from adulterate. ] 

1. The ait of adulterating or corrupting 
by foreign mixture ; contamination. 

To make the compound pals for the rich metal 
fimple, is an adulteration, or counterfeiting : but 
if it be done avowedly, and without dif^ju-fing, it 
may be a great faviiig of the richer metal. 

Bacon's Natural Hifory, No 798. 

2. TJie ftate of being adulterated, or con- 

Such tranflations are like the adulteration of the 

nbbleft wines, where fomething of the colour, fpirit, 

and flavour, will remain. Feltcn on the Clajpcs. 

Adu'lTerer. n.f. [adulter, Lat.] The 

perfon guilty of adultery. 

With what impatience mult the mufe behold 
The wife by her procuring hulband fold ; 
For tho' the law makes null th' adulterer's deed 
Of lands to her, the cuckold may fucceed. 

Drydcn's Juvenal. 

Adu'lteress. n.f. [from adulterer.^ A 
woman that commits adultery. 

The Spartan lady replied, when (he was artced. 
What was the punifljment for adulterrjps f There 
are no fuch things here. 

Government of the Tongue, § 3. 
Helen's rich attite, 
From Argos by the fam'd aduli'refs brought. 
With golden flow'rs and winding foliage wrought. 
Dryden's Virgil, 

A D u'l T E R I N E . tt.f. [adulterine, Fr. adul- 
terinits, Lat.] A child born of an adul- 
terefs : a term of canon law. 
Adu'lterous.«^'. [adulter, La.t.'\ Guilty 
of adultery. 

Th' adulterous Antony, moft large 
In his abominations, turns you off, 
And gives his potent regiment to i trull. 
That nofes it agaitill us. 

Shakcjpeare's Antony and Cleopatra, 

An adulterous perlon is tied to reftitufion of 

the injury, fo far as it is reparable ■, and to make 

provifion for the children, that they may not injure 

the legitimate, Taylor. 

Think on whofe faith th' aduli'rous youth rely'd ; 

Who promii'd, who p rocur'd the Spartan bride ? 

Dryden's JEneid. 

ADU'LTERY. n. f. [adulterium, Lat.] 
The aft of violating the bed of a mar- 
ried perfon. 

All thy domeflic griefs at home be left, 
The wife's adult' ry, with the fcivant's theft; 
And (the moft racking thought which can intrude) 
Forget falfe friends, and their ingratitude. 

Dryden's Juvenal^ 

Adu'mbrant. adj. [from adumbrate.'\ 
That which gives a flight refemblance. 

To ADU'MBRATE. -v. a. [adumbro, Lat.] 
To {hadow out ; to give a flight like- 
nefs ; to exhibit a faint refemblance, 
like that which fliadows afford of the 
bodies which they reprefent. 

Heaven is defigned for our reward, as well as 
refcue ; and therefore Is adumbrated by all thofe 
pofitive excellencies, which can endear or recom- 
mend. Decay of Piety. 

Adumbra'ticn. n.f. [horn adumbrate.} 

1 . The 

A D V 

I. The aft of adumbrating, or giving a 
flight and imperfeft reprefentation. See 


To make feme adumbratitn of that we mean, 
it it rather an impullion or contufion of the air, 
thao an elifioa or fedion of the fame* 

Bae. Nat. Hip, N" iSr- 
X. The flight and imperfea reprefentation 
of a thing ; a faint fltetch. 

The eblervcrt view but the backfide of the h ing- 
ings ; the right one is on the other fide the grave : 
and our knowledge is but like thofe broken ends ; 
at bed a moil confufeJ adumbration. 

Clanville't Scefjii Scientifica. 

Thofe of the firft fort have fome aJumbration 
of the rational nature, as vegeublcs have of the 
fenfible. ««'''' Origin. 

Advna'tion. »./. [from ad and «»«/, 
Lat.] The ftate of being united ; union : 
a word of little ufe. 

When, by glaciation, wood, draw, duft, anJ 
water, are fuppofcd to be united into one lump, 
the cold does not caufe any real union or attunalhti, 
but only hardening the aqueous parts of the liquor 
into ice, the other bodies, being accidentally pre- 
(ent in that liquor, are frozen up in it, but not 
really united. BoyU. 

Aou'NCiTY.n./. [«<A«»a>flx, Lat.] Crook- 
ednefs ; flexure inwards j hookednefs. 

There can be no queftion, but the aJunc'itj of 
the pounces and beaks of the hawks, is the caufe 
of the great and habitual immorality of thofe ani- 
mals. Arittibmt and Pope's Mart. Scrih. 
Avv'KQVi.adj. [WawfBJ.Lat.] Crooked; 
bending inwards ; hooked. 

The birds that are fpeakers, are pariots, pies, 
jays, daws, and ravens ; of which parrots have an 
mdungut bill, hut the relV not. 

Bacons Nat. Hi/I. N° 238. 
A'dvocacy. »./. [from advocate.] The 
Z^ of pleading ; vindication ; defence : 
apology ; a word in little ufe. 

If any there are who are of opinion that there 

Sre no antipodes, or that the ftars do fall, they 

Ihall not want herein the applaufe or advocacy of 

Satan. Brotuni l^ulgar Errourt, h. i. 

. A'DVOCATE. «./. [adiwcatus, hiit.] 

1 . He that pleads the caufe of another in 
a court of judicature. 

An advcca'i, in the general import of the word, 
is that perfon who has the pleading and manage- 
ment of a judicial caufe. In a ftriS way of fpeak- 
ing, only that perfon is (tiled advocate, who is the 
patron of the caufe, and is often,-in Latin, termed 
togaliis, and, in £ngli{h, a perfon of the long 
robe. ^yliffe's Parergon. 

Learn whatthou ow'ft thy country and thy friend ; 
What's ttquifite to fpare, and what to fpend : 
Learn this ; and, after, envy not the (lore 
;. 0$ the greas'd tdvocaU that grinds the poor. 
1 ■rri Drydcn's Ptrjiuu 

2. He that pleads any caufe, in whatever 
manner, as a controvertift or vindicator. 

If Oie dares trull me with her litcic babo, 
I'll (hew 't the king, and undertake to be 
Her advocate to the loud'ft. Sbakefp. riatttlct. 

Of the feveral forms of government that have 
been, or are, in the world, that caufe fcems com- 
m»iiy the better, that bas the better advocate, or 
Is. advantaged by frelher experience* 

Tcir/ile'i Mifcellanies. 

3. It is ufed with the particle for before 
the perfon or thing, in whofe favour the 
plea is offered. 

Foes to all living worth except your own, 
And advocates fir folly dead and gone. 

Ptfc's Bpijiks, 

4. In the fcriptural and facrcd fenfe, it 
Hands for one of the oiBces of our Re- 

A E 

^ Me his aJvocMi, 

And propitiation ; all his works on me, 
•jood, or not good, ingraft. Milton's Parai. Lcjl. 
Advoca'tion. n.f. [from ad'vocate.'] The 
office or aft of pleading ; plea ; apology. 

My advocation is not now in tune; 
My lord i» not my lord ; nor fliould I know him. 
Were be in favour, as in humour, alter'd. 

Shaktffeare's Othello. 

Advola'tion. ». _/! [advalo, ad-volattmt, 

Lat.l The aft of flying to fomething. 

■^ Dia. 

Advolv'tion. n.f. [fl</W«/»e, Lat.] The 

aft of rolling to fomething. 
Advo'utrv. n. f. [avotttrie, Fr.] A- 

He was the moft perfidi*u9 man upon the earth, 
and he had made a marriage compounded between 
an advontry and a rape, Bacen's Henry Vll. 

Advowe'. n.f. He that has the right of 
advowfon. See Advowson. 

Advo'wson, or Advo'wzen, n.f. [In 
common law.] A right to prefent to a 
benefice, and fignifies as much as Jus 
Patronatus. In the canon law, it is fo 
termed, becaufe they that originally ob- 
tained the right of prefenting to any 
church, were great benefaftors thereto ; 
and are therefore termed fometimes Pn- 
troni, fometimes Advocati. Convell. 

To Adu're. v. n. [aduro, Lat.] To burn 
up : not in ufe. 

Such a degree of heat, which doth neither melt 
nor ftorch, doth mellow, and not adure. 

Bacon's Nat. Htji.ti" 319- 

Adu'st. adj. \aduftus, Lat.] 

1. Burnt up; hot as with fire ; fcorched. 

By this means, the virtual heat of the water 
will enter ; and fuch a heat as will not make the 
body adufl, or fragile. Bacon. 

Which with torrid heat. 
And vapours as the I^ibyan air adujl. 
Began to parch that temperate clime. 

Milton's Paradr hoji. 

2. It is generally now applied, in a me- 
dicinal or philofophical fenfe, to the 
complexion and humours of the body. 

Such humours arc «(/»/, as, by long heat, become 
of a hot and fiery nature, as choler, and the like. 


To eafe the foal of one oppreflive weight. 
This quits an empire, that embroils a ftate. 
The farse aduJI complexion has impell'd 
Charles to.thc convent, Philip to the field. Pope. 

Adtj'sted. adj. [See Adust.] 

1. Burnt; fcorched; dried with fire. 

Sulphurous and nitrous foam 
They found, they mingled, and with fubtle art 
Concofted, and adtijicd, they reduc'd 
To bhckell: grain, and into ftore convey'd. 

Paradife Lojl. 

2. Hot, as the complexion. 

They arc but the fruits of aduficd choler, and 
the evaporations of a vindicative fpirit. Howell. 

Adu'stible. adj.\(Tom aduJl.] That 
which may be adufted, or burnt up. Di^. 

Abu'stion. n.f. [from «(/»/?.] The aft 
of burning up, or drying, as hy fire. 

This is ordinarily a confequcnce of a burning 

colliquative fever ; the foftcr parts being melted 

away, the heat continuing its adujiion, upon the 

drier and flefliy parts, changes into a marcid fever. 

Harvey on Confumptions. 

Adz. n.f. SeeAoDicB. 

AE, or M. A diphthong of very fre- 
quent ufe in the Latin language, which 
feems not properly to have any place in 
the Englifli ; fmcc the et of the Saxons 

A E R 

has been long out of ufe, being changed 
to e fimple, to which, in words fre- 
quently occurring, the <jrof the Romans 
is, in the fame manner, altered, as in 
equatir, equinoSial, and even in Eneat. 
yE'ciLOPS. H.f. [ntytKu-^, Gr. fignifying 
goat-eyed, the goat being fubjeft to this 
ailment.] A tumour or fweHing in the 
great corner of the eye, by the root of 
the nofe, either with or without an in- 
flammation : alfo a plant fo called, for 
its fuppofed virtues againft fuch a dif- 
temper. ^incy. 

^gilops is a tubercle in the inner canthui of 
the eye. fVifeman's Surgery, 

JE'glogv?.. n. f. [written inftead of 
eclogue, from a mi(?aken etymology.] A 
pailoral ; a dialogue in verfe between 

Which moved him rather in plagues otherwife 
to write, doubting, perhaps, his ability, which he* 
little needed, or minding to furnilh our tongue 
with this kind wherein it faultcth. 

Spenfer^s Pajlorals, 

JEgyvti'acvh. n.f. An ointment con- 
fifting only of honey, verdigreafe, and 
vinegar. ^inty. 

Ml, or Eal, or Al [in compound names, 
as Tia.) in the Greek compounds] figni- 
fies all. Or altogether. So JElvjin is a 
complete conqueror : Albert, all illujlrieus : 
Aldred, altogether reverend : Alfred, alto- 
gether peaceful. To tbefe PammachiuSf 
Pancratius, P amphilius , Sic. do in fome 
meafure anfwer. Gibfon's Camden^ 

Mhv [which, according to various dia- 
lefts, is pronounced ulf, tuelph, hulph, 
hilp, helfc, and, at this day, help] im- 
plies afTiftance. SoAElfiuin is 'v'tSorious ; 
and j^lpuiold, an auxiliary go-vernour j 
j^lfgifa, a lender . of ajfjlance : with 
which Boetius, Symmachus, Epicurus, Sec 
bear a plain analogy. Gibfon's Camden. 

jEni'gma. See Enigma. 

Ae'rial. adj. [ai'rius, Lat.] 

1. Belonging to the air, as confining of it. 

The thunder, when to roll 
With terrour through the darkuirifl/hall, 

Paradife Lcji. 
From all that can with fins or feathers fly. 
Thro' the aerial or the wat'ry {ky. Prior. 

T gathered the thicknefs of the air, or aerial in- 
terval, of the glafles at that ring. 

Nrwtsn's Opticktr 

Vegetables abound more with aerial particics 

than animal fubftances. jirhutbnot on Aliments. 

2. Produced by the air. 

The gifts of heav'n my foU'wJng fong purfues^ 
Aerial honey, and anibrolial dews. 

Dryden's firg, Georf. 

3. Inhabiting the air. 

Where thofe immortal fliapcs 
Of bright aerial fpirits live infpher'd. 
In regions mild, of calm and fercnc air. 

Paradife Regained, 

Aerial anim^U maybe fubdivideJ into birds and 

flies, , Lode. 

4. Placed in the air. 

Here I'ubterranean works^ and cities fee. 
There towns aer'uiJ on the waving tree. 

Pope's Efpjy tn Man. 

5. High ; elevated in fttuauon, and therc» 
fore in the air. 

A fpocious city ftood, with flrmeft walls 
Sure mounded, and with numerous turrets crown'd. 
Aerial fpires, and citadels, the feat 
Of kings and heroes refolute in war. Philips. 


A F F 

A'ERtE. n. f. [airie, Fr.] The proper 
word, in hawks and other birds of prey, 
for that which we generally call a neft 
in other birds. Coivell. 

Aero'logy. n./. [aie and \oy&; Gr.] 
The doctrine of the *r. 

A'eromancv. «./. [aif and fia»)i?> Gr.] 
The art of divining by the air. Dii?. 

Aero'metry. »./ [i^ and (x/l^iV] The 
art of meafuring the air. DiiS. 

Aero'scopy. ft./. [a)ij and <r«V1«, Gr.] 
The obfervation of the air. DriS. 

.S'thiops-mineral. «./ A medicine 
fo called, from its dark colour, prepar- 
ed of quickfilver and fulphur, ground 
together in a marble mortar to a black 
powder. Such as have ufed it moil, 
think its virtues not very great, ^incy. 

^ti'tes. »./ [i(T^, an eagle.] Eagle- 
ftone. It is about the bignefs of a chell- 
nut, and hollow, with fomewhat in it 
that rattles upon fhaking. ^imy. 

Afa'r. adv. [from a and at., and/ar.] 
See Far. 

1 . At a great diftance. 

So ihaken as we are, fo wan with care. 
Find we a time for frighted peace to pant, 
And breathe (hort-winded accents of new broils, 
To be commenc'd in ftroudj afar remote ? 

Sbaiefpttirt'% Henry IV. 
We hear better when we hold our breath than 
contrary ; infomuch as in liftening to attain a 
foonil tfir off, men hold th«ir breith. 

Bacm'i Natural Htjiory, N° 284. 

n. To or from a great diftance. 

Heftor hiftcntd to relieve his boy ; 
Difmifs'd his burnilk'd helm that (hone tfar. 
The pride of warriours, and the pomp of war. 


3. From afar ; from a diftant place. 

The rough, furious in its courfe, 
With rapid dreams divides the fruitful grounds, 
And/roBi afar in hollow murmur (bunds. 

Addifon on holy. 

4. Afar off; remotely diftant. 

Much fufpcfling his fecrct ends, he entertained 
a treaty of peace with Frante, but fecretly and 
afar off, and to be governed as occaiiors (hnild 
\3xv. Sir J'^hn HayivarJ. 

Afe'ard. pJiTt'uifial adj. [from to fear, 

for to fright, with a redundant.] 
a. Frighted ; terrified ; afraid. 

He loudly bray'd, that like was never heard. 
And from his wide devouring oven fer.t 
A fhke of fire, that flafliing in hia beard, 
Him ail amaz'd, and almoft trnit aftard. 

Fahy Siutert. 
But fell me, Hal, art thou not horridly afiardf 
Thon being heir apparent, could the world pick 
thee out three fuch enemies again. 

Shaiefptari't Henry IV. 
Till h« cherifli too much beard. 
And make Love, or me, afrard. 

Ben yanfoni Underivsodj. 

2. It has the particle of before the objeft 
of fear. 

Fear is defcribed by Spenfer to ride in armour, 
at the claihing whereof he looks afeard o/himfelf. 


It is now obfelete ; the laft author 
whom I have found ufing it, is Sedley. 
jTFER. n.f. [Lat.] The fouth-weft wind. 

With adveric blaft upturni them from the 
Notut and Afer, black with thund'rous clouds. 

Milieu' I Paradife Lifi. It. x. 

Afpab j'lity. n.f. [affaiilile. Ft. af. 
fabilitai, Lau See AFPAii«i.] T'.e 

A F F 

quality of being affable? eafinefs of 
manners; courteoufnefs ; civility ; con- 
defcenfion. It is commonly ufed of 

Hearing of her beauty and her wit. 
Her affaiiiity and bailifu! nioderty, 
Her wond'rous qualities, and mild behaviour. 


He was of a mod flowing courtefy and affabi- 
lity to all men, and fo defirous to oblige them, 
that he did not enough confider the value of the 
obligation, or the merit of the perfon. Clarend. 

All inftinces of charity, fwcecnefs of converfa- 
tloi', affabil'uy, admonition, all (ignifications ol 
tendernefs, care, and watchfulnefs, mud be ex- 
prefl'ed towards children. Taylor. 

It is impoilible for a publick minifter to be fo 
open and eafy to all his old friends, as he was in 
his priva;e condition ; but this may be helped out 
by an affability of addrefs. VEjirangi. 

A'FFABLE. adj. [affable, Fr. affahilis, 

1. Eafy of manners; accoftable ; cour- 
teous ; complaifant. It is ufed of fu- 

He waj affable, and b«th well and fair fpoken, 
and would ufe ftrange fweetnefs and blandilh- 
ment of words, where he delired to afFe^ or per- 
fuade any thing that he took to heart. Baccn. 

Her father is 
An affable and courteous gentleman. 

Shaktjft. Tarn* Shrew. 

Gentle to me and affable hath been 
Thy condefcenfion, and (liall be honour'd ever 
With graceful memoty. Mit'tan'i Par. Lo/1, b. viii. 

2. It is applied to the external appear- 
ance; benign; mild; favourable. 

Augudus appeared, loi-king round him with a 
fcrene and affable countenance upon all the 
writers of his age. Tatlir. 

A'ffableness. n. f. [from affable. '\ 
Courtefy ; affability. 

A'ffably. adv. [from affable.'] In an 
. affable manner ; courteoufly ; civilly. 

A'fpabrous. adj. [affabre, Fr.] Skil- 
fully made ; complete ; iinilhed in a 
workman-like manner. DUl. 

Aff abula'tion. n.f. \affabulatu>, Lat.] 
The moral of a fable. Dia. 

Affa'ir. n.f, [affaire, Fr.] Bufinefs ; 
fomething to be managed or tranlafted. 
It is ufed for both private and public 

1 wai not born for courts or great affairi ; 
I pay my debts, believe, and fay my prayers. Pofie. ' 

A good acquaintance with method will greatly 
alTiii every one in ranging, difpofing, and manag- 
ing all human affairs. tVatti's Lcg'uk. St. John's (kill in date affairs. 
What Orm'>nd's valour, Oxford'^ cares, 
To aid their (inking country lent. 
Was all dcftroy'd by one cv -nt. Sivift. 

To Afpe'ar. v. n. [from affer, Fr.] To 
confirm ; to give a fandion to ; to 
eftablifti : an old, term of law. 

Bleed, bleed, poor country ! 
Great tyranny, lay thou thy balis furc; 
For gnodncfs ilares not check thee ! 
His title is offrar'd. Sbattfp. Marheth. 

Affe'ct. n.f. [from the verb nffeB.] 
1. Affeftion ; pafllon ; fenfation. 

It leemcth that as the feet have a fymprthy 
with the head, fo the wrifts have a fympathy 
with the heart; we fee the affeds and pallions of i 
the heart and fpirits are notably difclofed by the 
pulfe. Bacon's Natural Hifliry, a" ij-j. 

z. Quality; circumftance. 

1 (ind it difficult to make out one fmgle ulcer, 
as authors defcrifae it, without other fjmptoms or 
affea-. joined to it. ifijcman. 

A F F 

This IS only the antiquated worJ for 
To AFFE'CT. t/. a. [affe^er, Fr. affdo, 
affeilum, Lat.] 

1 . To aft upon ; to produce effefts in any 
other thing. 

The fun 
Had (ird his precept fo to move, fo /hine. 
As might afftSi'Cm earth with cold and heat, 
Scarce tolerable. Milton's Paradife Lojf, h. x, 

The generality of men are wholly governed by 
names, in matters of good and evil ; fo far ae 
thefe qualities relate to, and aff^^, the a£^ions of 
men. Soutb's Sermons. 

Yet even thofe two particles do reciprocally 
afftB each other with the fame force and vigour, 
ii they would do at the fame didance in any other 
fituation imaginable. Ben'ley's Sermons, 

2. To move the paffions. 

As a thinking man cannot but be very much 
affc3cd with the idea of his appearing in the pre- 
fence of that Being, whom none can fee and live; 
he mud be much more affiSled, when he con- 
liders, that this Being, whom he appears before, 
will examine the actions of his life, and reward or 
puni(h bim accordingly. 

AJdijon, SpeBai»r„ N» 513. 

3. To aim at ; to endeavour after : fpoken 
of perfons. 

Atrldes broke 
His filence next, but ponder'd ere he fpoke : 
Wife are thy words, and glad I would obey. 
But this proud man affells imperial fway. 

Dryden's Iliad. 

4. To tend to; to endeavour after; fpoken 
of things. 

The drops of every fluid affiSl a round figure^ 
by the mutual attraftion of their parts ; as the 
globe of the earth and fea affeHs a round figur*, 
by the mutual attra(3ion of its parts by gravity. 

Neivton's Optich. 

5. To be fond of; to be pleafed with; 
to love; to regard with fondnefs. 

That little which fomc of the heathen did 
chance to hear, concerning fuch matter as the 
facred Scripture plentifully containeth, they did 
in wonderful fort affe^. Hookerj b, i. 

There is your crown ; 
And he that wears the crown immortally, 
Ixing guard it yours ! If I affcfi it more. 
Than as your honour, and as your renown. 
Let me no more from this obedience rife. 

Sbakefpcare' s Henry IV. 

Think not that wars wc love, and drift; affeB ; 
Or that we hate fweet peace. Fairfax, b» ii, 

-None but a woman could a man diredl 
To tell us women what vie mo<i affefl. 

Dryd. mfe of Batb. 

6. To make a Ihew of fomething ; to 
ftudy the appearance of any thing j 
with feme degree of hypocrify. 

Another nymph, amongd the many fair, 
Before the reft affeaed dill to ftand. 
And watch'd my eye, preventing my command. 


Thcfe often carry the humour fo far, till their 
afffSled coldncfs and indifFcrcncc quire kills all- the 
fondnefs of a lover. Addifon, Speffator, N° j 7 1. 

Coquet and coy at once her air. 
Both dudicd, though both li^em negledled ; 

Carelefs (he is with artful c^e, 
AffcSling to feem una(feftcd. Congreve, 

The confcious hulband, whom like fymptomi 
Charges on her the guilt of their dlfeafe ; 
Affiiiing fury, adls a madman's part. 
He'll ri|i the fatal fccret from her heart. Gran-vlllr. 

7. To imitate in an unnatural and con- 
ftrained manner. 

Sj enfer, in affiBing the ancients, writ no lan- 
guage ; yet 1 would have him read for his matter, 
but as Virgil read £noius. 

Stnjonjun'i D'lfcoveries, 

8. T* 

A F F 

8. To convift of fome crime ; to attaint 
with guilt ; a phrafe merely juridical. 

By the civil law, if a dowry with a wife be pro- 
ttiifed and not paid, the hultand is not obliged to 
•llow her alimony. But if her parents (hall be- 
come infolvent by fome misfortune, (he (lull have 
alimony, unlefs you can affifi them with fraud, 
in promifing what they knew they were not able 
to perform. Ayliffc's Partr^m. 

AFFECTA'TiON. «./. [offiiHalio, Lat.J 
I. Fondnefs ; high degree of liking; 
commonly with fome degree of culpa- 

In things of tlieir own nature indifferent, if 
either councils or particular men have at any 
■ time, with found judgment, mifliked conformity 
between the church of God and infiJcls, the caufe 
thereof hath been fomewhat clfe than only affrc- 
tathn of diflimilitude. Huetf, k, iv. ^ 7. 

*. An artificial Ihew ; an elaborate ap- 
pearance ; a falfe pretence. 

It has been, from age to age, an afiHalion to 
love the pleafurc of folitude, among thole who 
cannot pofTibly be fuppofed qualifi'd, for pafling 
life in that manner. Sftfialor, N" 264. 

Affe'cted. participial adj. [ from affi3.'\ 
I. Moved; touched with affedtion ; in- 
ternally difpofed or inclined. 
No marvel then if he were ill affiBtd. 

Sbake/f, King Lear, 
The model they feemed afftfftd to in their di- 
reftory, was not like to any of the foreign re- 
formed churches now in the world. Clarendon, 

X, Studied with over-much care, or with 
hypocritical appearance. 

Thefe antick, lifping, affeBed f\\inX3S\ss, thefe 
■new tuners of accents. Shakr/p. Rcmeo and Juliet . 

5. In a perfonal fenfe, full of affeflation ; 

as, an affeSed lady. 
Affe'ctedly. adv. [from affeiled.'] 

1. In an aifefted manner; hypocritically ; 
with more appearance than reality. 

Perhaps they are affeHedly ignorant ; they arc 
fo willing it (hould be true, that they have not at- 
tempted to examine it. 

Gmernmeitt of the Tongue, § 5. 

Some indeed have been fo amBedly vain, as to 
jfountetfeit immortality, and have (lolen their 
deathf in hopes to be efteemed immortal. 

Brcnvn'i Vulgar Errours, h. vii. c. 10. 

By talking fo familiarly of one hundred and ten 
thoufand pounds, by a tax upon a few commo- 
dities, it is plain, you arc either naturally or af- 
feOedl) Ignorant of our condition. Sivifi. 

2. Studioufly ; with laboured intention. 

Some mifperiuafions concerning the divine at- 
tributes, tend to "the corrupt nj men's manners, 
a» if they were deligned and afftBtdty chofen for 
that purpofe. Duay t,f Piety. 

Affe'ctedness. n. /. [from affiled.'] 
The quality of being affefted, or of 
making falfe appearances. 

AFFE'CTION. «./ [etffeaio,,, Fr. ajec- 
tio, Lat.] 

1. The ftate of being affedled by any 
caufe, or agent. This general fenfe is 
little in ufe. 

Some men there arc love not a gaping pig j 
Some tliat are mad if they behold a cat ; 
And others, when the bag-pipe fings i' th'nofe, 
Cannot contain their urine, for afftFl'ion. 

Shaktff. Mtrthatit of Venice. 

2. Paffion of any kind. 

Then'gan the Palmer thus; moft wretched mm, 
That to affcBient Joes the bridle lend ; 

In their beginning they are weak and wan, 
But foon through fufferance grow to fearful end. 

Fairy Siueen. 

Impute it to my late foUtaty life, which is prone 

»fft£liinu Sidney, k. i. 

A F F 

jlfftHicni, at joy, grief, fear, and anger, with 
fuch like, being, at it were, the fundry falhions 
and forms of appetite, can neither rife at the 
conceit of a thing Indifferent, nor yet choofe but 
rife at the fight of fome things. Honker, h. i. 

To fpeak truth of Ciefar, 
I have not known when his affcCJicn: fway'd 
More than his reafon. Shakeff. Julius Cafar. 

Zeal ought to be compofed of the higheft de- 
geees of pious affcftions ; of which fome are mil- 
der and gentler, Tome (harper and more vehement. 
Sprat^i Sermons. 

I can prefent nothing beyond this to your af- 
fedions, to excite your love and defirc. Tilhlfin. 

3. Love ; kindnefs ; good-will to fome 
perfons ; often with to or ttrjjardi be- 
fore the perfon. 

I have acquainted you 
With the dear love I bear to fair Ann Page, 
Who mutually hath anfwer'd my affcBion. 

Shakcfp. Merry tfives of fVindfor. 
My king is tangled* in affeHion to 
A creature of the queen's, l.idy Anne BuUen. 

What warmth is there in your affeliiom totiards 
any of thefe princely fuitors ? 

Sbakefp. Merchant of Vt nice. 
Make his intercft depend upon mutual ajffiSion 
and good correfpondence with others. 

Collier on General Kindnefs. 
Nor at firft fight, like moft, admires the fair; 
For y< u he lives, and you alone (lull (hare 
His laft affcBion, as his early care. Pofe. 

4. Good-will to any objeft ; zeal ; paf- 
lionate regard. 

I have realbn to dlllruft mine own judgment, 
as that which may be overborn by my zeal and 
affcBion to this caufe. Bacin. 

Set your affcBion upon my words ; de(ire them, 
and ye (hall be inrtruited. IVijUom, vi. 11. 

His integrity to the king was without biemi(h, 
and his affefiion to the church fo notorious, that 
he never dcferted it. Clarendon. 

All the precepts of Chriflianity command us to 
moderate our p.idions, to temper our a^eBicnt to- 
•wards all things below. Temple. 

Let not the mind of a ftudent be under the 
influence of warm affeBi''* to things of fenfe, 
when he comes to the ft arch of truth. 

Walts' s Improvement of the Mind. 

5. State of the mind, in general. 

There grows. 
In my moft iU-compos'd afftfiim, fuch . 
A l^anchlcfs avarice, that w'ere I king, 
1 (hould cut o(i*the nobles for their lands. 

Shahfpeare's Af.uhetb. 
The man that hath no mufick in hirafelf. 
Nor is not mov'd with concord of fweet founds. 
Is At for treafons, ftratagems, and fpoils ; 
The motions of his fpirit are dull as night, 
And his affeiiicns dark as Erebus : 
Let no fuch man be trudcd. 

Sbakejp, Mercb, of Venice. 

6. Quality ; property. 

The certaintyand accuratenefs which is attributed 
to what mathematicians deliver, muft be reftrained 
to whac they teach,- concerning thofe purely ma- 
thematical difciplines, arithmetick and geometry, 
where the affeBions of quantity are abftradtedly 
confidered. Boyle. 

The mouth being neccffary to conduit the voice 
to the fliapc of its cavity, necclTarily gives the 
voice fome particular affeBion of found in its paf- 
fagc before it come to the lips. 

Holder's Elements of Speech. 

God may have joined immaterial fouls to other 
kinds of bodies, and in other laws of union ; and, 
from thofe different laws of union, there will 
arife quite different affcBions, and natures, and 
fpecies of th^: compound beings. Bentlfy's Sermons, 

7. State of the'body, as afted upon by any 

It feemed to me a venereal gonorrheea, and others 
thought it arofe from fome fcorbutical affeBion. 

fVifextn'i Surgery. 

A F F 

8. Lively reprefentation in painting. 

AffeBion is the lively reprefentment of any paf- 
fion whatfocvet, as if the figures (lood not upon * 
cloth or board, but as if they were afting upon a 
ftage. , , ffctton's ArcbittBure. 

9. It is ufcd by Shakefpeare fometime* 
for afftBatio't. 

There w is rothing in it that could 'indift the 
author of eiffeBicn. Stakcfptart. 

Affe'ction ATE. adj. [affeaionne, Fr. 
from affeilion.'\ 

1 . Full of auedlion ; ftrongly moved-j 
warm ; zc3:lou$. 

Ii> Iheif love of God, and defire to pleafe himi 
men can never be too affcBicnatc : and it is as 
true, that in their hatted of Cn, men may be 
fom^t-mcs too p-afiinnatc. Spratt's Sermons* 

2. Strongly inclined to; difpofed to; 
with the particle to. 

As for the parliament, it prefently took (ire, 
being cffeB'ionate, of o.U, rt the war of France. 

Bacons Henry VII, 

3. Fond ; tender. 

He found me fitting, beholding this pifiure, I 
know not with how afeBiorate countenance, but, 
I am fure, with a mcll affcBioiuste mind. Siiny, 

Away trey fly 
AffcBionate, and undefiring bear 
The mod delicious morfel to their young. 

Tliomfms Spring. 

4. Benevolent ; tender. 

When we reflcdl on all this aJfcBionate care of 
Providence for our happincfs, with what wonder 
muft we obfervc the little effjft it has on men ! 

R'-gcrs's Sermons, 
Affe'ctjon ATELY. adv. [from ajic- 
t innate.] In an affeftionate manner ; 
fondly ; tenderly ; benevolently. 
Affe'ction ateness. rt. /. [from af- 
feBionate."] The quality or ftate of be- 
ing afFeftionate ; fondnefs ; tendernefs ; 
good-will ; benevolence. 
Affe'ction ED. adj. [from aJeSlien.] 

1 . AfFefted ; conceited. This fenfe is 
now obfolete. 

An affeBioned afs that cons ftate without book, 
and utters it by great fwaths. 

Shaktfpejre's Ttvelftb Night, 

2. Inclined ; mentally difpofed. 

Be kindly affeBioned one to another. 

Rom. xii. lo. 

Affe'ctiously. ad'v. [from nffeB.} In 
an affeSing manner. Dii}. 

Affe ctive. adj. [from affcSt.] That 
which affefts ; that which ftrongly 
touches. It is generally uled for painful. 

Pain is fo uneafy a fentiment, that very little 
of it is enough to corrupt every enjoyment; and 
the effeft Cod intends this variety of ungrjteful 
and affeBive fentiments (hould have on us, is to 
reclaim our atfcflions from this valley of tears. 


Affectuo'sity. »./. [from ajfciluous ."l 
Paffionatenefs. Diil. 

Apfe'ctuous. adj. [from affcil."] Full 
of paffion ; as, an affeauous fpecch : a 
word little ufed. 

To Affe're. -v. a. [ajisr, Fr.] A law 
term, fignifying to confirm. See To 
A !■■ F E A R . 

Affe'rors. n./. [from ajfere."] 

Such as are appointed in court-leets, &e. upon 
oath, to mulft fuch a< have committed faults ar- 
bitrarily puni(hable, and have no exprefs penalty 
fet down by ftatute. Ci/ivell, 

AFFI'ANCE. n.f. [affiance, from affier, 

I. A mwriage-contraft. 


A F F 

At lift fuch grace I found, and meani I wrought, 
Thit 1 that lady to my fpoufe had won. 

Accord of friends, confent of parents fought, 
j^arce made, my happincfs begyn. 

Fairy ^emj i. n. 

2. Truft in general; confidence; fecure 

Tb^ duke Is virtuous, mild, and too well given 
To dream on evil, or to work my downfall.— 
^Ah ! what's more dangeious than thi» fond 

offi.;iice f 
Seemi he a dove ? his feathcrj are but borrowed. 
Sijkcf/.e.ire'i Hctrry VI. 

3. Truft in the divine promifes and pro- 
teftion. To this fenfe it is now almoft 

Religion receives man into a covenant of gracp, 
where there is pardon reached out to all truly pe- 
nitent finners, and afllHancc prooufed, and en- 
gaged, and beftowed upon very cafy conditions, 
vis. humility, prayer, and afijnce in him. 

Uopmond's Fundmrurleh. 

There can be no furer way to fucccfs, than by 
ffclain-.tng all confidence in ourleJvcs, and refer- 
jint; the events of things to God with an implicit 
aftjnce, Atterbury^s Serrmnt* 

To Affi'ance. "v. a. [from the noun 

1 . To betroth ; to bind any one by pro- 

mife to marriage. 

To me, fad maid, or rather widow fad, 
He was a^anced long time before. 

And facred pledges he both gave and had j 
Filfcj errant Icaighc, infamous, and forefwore. 

Fa'try Sluan, 

Her ftiuld Angelohavc married, was a^anced to 
her b) oath, and the nuptial appointed ; between 
which time of the contra^, and limit of the fo- 
lemnity, his brother was wrecked, having in that 
veiM the dowry of his lifter. 

Shahjfearti Meafurifar Mtajure* 

I. To give confidence. 

Strjngei- ! wh e'er thou art, fecurely reft 
Affjnc'd in my faith, a friendly gued. 

Po/te's OJ}Jpy- 
ArFl'AKCER. K. /. [from affiance.] He 
that makes a contraft of marriage be- 
tween two parties. Did. 
Affida'tion. l"./. [from affii/o, Lat. 
Akfida'ture. J See Affied.] Mutual 
coatraft ; mutual oarh of fidelity. Diil. 
Affida'vit. »./ [njii/a'vit figni&es, in 
the language of the common law, he 
mode talh.] A declaration upon oath. 

You faid, if 1 return'd next *fize in Lent, 
I flioulu be in remitter of your grace ; 
In th' interim my letters (hould take place 
Of nff.da-vin. D',nne. 

Cjunt Rechteren Ih^uM have m.ide ajjiAai-it 
that his fervants had been aSronted, and then 
Monficur Mcfiia^cr wouid have dsne him juf^icc. 
Spiiliiior, N ' 4S I . 
Afpi'ed. participial adj. [from the verb 
ojy, derived from ajfido, Lat. Brafton 
uling the phrafe afidare mulieres.] Join- 
ed by coutraii ; affianced. 

Be we affuii-, and fuch aHurancc ta'en, 
Asrhallwithcithcrpart'*ia^reeni«ntltand. Shaktjp. 
A F F I L r a't I o N . n.f. [ from ad and fiUui, 
Lat.] Adoption; the aft of taking- a 
for.. Chamtcrs. 

A'ffinace. n. /, [ttffiaage, I'r.] The 
aft of refining metals by the cupel. Dicl. 
Af fi'ned. adj. [from affinii, Lat.] Join- 
ed by affinity to another ; related to 

If p irtially affin'd, or leagu'd in office, 
Thou doft deliver more or lefs than truth, 
Thou art no foldicr. Sbahfprtri't Oliilh. 

A F F 

Affi'nitv. «. / [ajiitite. Ft. from a/, 
f.nii, Lat.] 

1. Relation by marriage; relation con- 
trafted by the h'jibaud to the kindred 
of the wife, and by the wife to thofe of 
the hufband. It is oppofed to conjan- 
guinity, or relation by birth. 

In this fenfe it has fometiraes the par- 
ticle •■with, and fometimes to, before the 
perfon to whom the relation is contraftcd. 

Tliey had left none alive, by the blindnefs of 
rage killing many guiltlefs perfons, cither fir 
affir'ity ta the tyrant, or enmity to the tyrant-kil- 
lers. Sidney, b. ii. 

And Solomon made affinity taith Pharaoh king 
of Egypt, and took Pharaoh s daughter. 

I Kings, iii. I. 

A breach was made with France itfelf, notwith- 
ftanding f) (irait an rjiriy, fo lately accomplilhed ; 
as if indeed (according to that pleafant maxim of 
ftate) kingdoms were never married. fyomn. 

2. Relation to ; connexion with ; refera- 
blance to : fpoken of things. 

The Britifh tongue, or Welfh, was In ufe only 
in this iflar.d, having great affinity luitt the old 
Callick. Camden. 

All things that have affinity toiih the heavens, 
move upon the center of another, which they be- 
nefit. Bacon, Effiay xxiv. 
The art of painting bath wonderful affinity with 
that of poetry. Dryd. Dufrcjnoy, jfrtf. 
Man is more diftinguilhed by devotion than by 
reafon, as feveral brute creatures difcover fome- 
thing like reafcn, thou^jh they betray not any 
thing ttut bears the Icall affinity tn devotiutu 

MJipn, Sfecl. No zoi. 
Tc AFFI'RM. V. n. [affirmo, Lat.] To 
declare ; to tell confidently : oppofed 
to the word deny. 

Yet their own authors faithfully affirm. 
That the land Salike lies in Germany, 
Between the floods of Sala and of Elve. 

Sbakejf. Henry V. 
To Affi'rm. «y. a, 

1 . To declare pofitively ; as, to affrm a 

2. To ratify or approve a former law, or 
judgment : oppofed to rcverfe or repeal. 

The houfe of peers hath a power of judicature 
in fome cafes, properly to examine, and then to 
affirm ; or, if there be caufe, to revcrfc the judg- 
ments wliich have been given in the court of king's 
bench. Bacm'i Ad-vice 10 Sir G. fi/lien. 

In this fenfe we fay, fo affirm the truth. 
Afpi'r M ABLE. «i^'. \ixc3m. affirm.] That 
which may be affirmed. 

Thofe attributes and coucepcrons that were ap- 
plicable and offirmabU of him 'vhen prefcnt, arc 
now affirmable and applicable to him though pal^. 
Haters Origin of Mankind. 

Affi'rmance. n.f. [from affirm.] Con- 
firmation : oppofed to repeal. 

Thio AatutE did but rel'.orc an ancient fta- 
tute, which was itfelf alio made but in affirmance 
of the common law. Bacnn. 

Appi'hmant. n.f. [itom affirm.] The 
perfon that affirms ; a declarer. Diil. 

Affi rma'tion. n.f. [affirmatio, hat.] 

1. The aft of affirming or declaring : op- 
pofed to negation or denial. 

This gentleman vou*.hes, upon warrant of bloody 
affirmation, hik to be more virtuous, and lefs at- 
temptable, than any of our ladies. 

Sbate/peare't Cymhirme. 

2. The pofition afftrmed. 

That he ShM receive nu benefit from Chrift, is 
the affirmation whereon his dcfpair is founded ; and 
one \\ay of removing this difmal apprehenlion, is, 
to cgnvinu lum, that Chriil't de«tli, if he per- 

A F F 

form the condition required, {hall certainly belong 
to him. Hammcnd^i Fundametitalu 

3. Confirmation : oppofed to repeal. 

The learned in the laws of our land obferve, 

that out ftatutes fometimes are only itic affirmation, 

or ratification, of that which, by common law, was 

held before. Hooker. 

Affirmative, adj. [fiom ^^rw.] 

1, That which affirms, oppofed to uega- 
fi've ; in which fenfe we ufe the affirma- 
tii'i abfolutely, that is, the affirmati-ve 

for the affirmative, we are now to anfwer fuch 
proofs of theirs as have been before alleged. 


Whether there are fuch beings or not, 'ti^ juffi- 
cient for my puvpofe, that many have bcl'ev.d 
the affirmative. Dryd.n. 

2, That which can or may be affirmed : a 
fenfe ufed chiefly in fcience. 

As in algebra, where a/^rma/ii<« quantities va- 
nlflr or ccafe, there negative ones begin; fo in 
mechanick?, where attradion ceafes, there a re- 
pulfive virtue ought to fucceed. Netut. Opt. 

3, Applied to perfons, he who has the 
habit of affirming with vehemence ; po- 
fitive ; dogmatical. 

Be not confident and affirmative in an uncer- 
tain matter, but report thmgs modeftly and tem* 
peratcly, according to the degree of that perfua- 
fion, which is, or ought e> be, begotten by the 
efficacy of the authority, or the realon, inducing 
thee. Taylor. 

AFFi'RMATlvBLy. «</*. [from affirnux' 
ti-ve.] In an affirmative manner; on 
the poUtive fide ; not negatively. 

The reafon of man hath no fuch reftiaints 
concluding not only affirmatively, but negatively; 
not only affirming, there is no magnitude beyond 
the lall heavens, but alfo denying, theie is any 
vacuity within them. Brown i Vtilgar Errours. 
Affi'rmer. ». /. [from affirm.] The 
perfon that affirms. 

If by the word virtue, the affirmer intends our 
whole duty to God and man ; and the denier, by 
the vi-ord virtue, means only courage, or, at 
moft, our duty toward our neighbour, without in- 
cluding, in the idea of it, the duty which we owe 
to God. fVatts't Logitkt 

To AvFl'x. -v. a. [affigo,a^xHm,'L^i>.] 

1. To unite to the end, or apojieriori; to 

He that has fettled in his mind determined 
ideas, with names affixed to them, will be able 
to difcern their difTerences one from another. 


If men conftantly affixed applaufe and difgrace 

where they ought, the principle of fliame would 

have a very good influtnce on publick conduftj 

though on fecret viilinies it lays no rellraint. 

Rogtrs't Sermam. 

2. To conneft confequentially. 

The d"£lrine of irrefiftibility of grace, in work, 
ing whatfoever it works, if it be acknowledged, 
there is nothing to be affixt to gratitude. 

Hammotid'i Fundamentals 

3. Simply to fatten or fix. Obfulete. 

Her modcli eyes, abafhed to behold 
So many gazers as on her do Hare, 
Upon the lowly ground affixed arc. Spenfcr. 

Affi'x. ?i.f. [affixum, hs-t.] A term of 
grammar. Something united to the end 
of a word. 

In the Hebrew language, the nr.un has its affixi, 
to denote the pronouns poiicHive or relative. 

C/jrie's Latin Grammar. 
Affi'xion, n.f. [from affix.] 

1. The aft of affixing. 

2. The ftate of being affixed. ^ DiiT. 

a AF^•LA'T^o^. 

A F F 

Afpia'tion. »./. [/7^o, /i^atum, L».t.] 
The kEL of breathing upon any thinj;. 


jtFFLJTrS. r. f. [Lat.] Coromuni 
cation oKthe power of prophecy,. 

The poet writing ngainrt his genius, will be 
nke ■^ projliet withoac his afiatus. 

SfcKct nil tbt Oiiffiy. 
7'e AFFLI'CT. 1'. a. [afiiao, affliaum, 

I . To put to pain ; to grieve ; to tor- 

It tucheth us how God thought fit to pliguc 

■ and affi'iti them; it doth not appoint in what 

form and manner »• ought to punifli the fin ol 

idohtry ir) others. Ihdlcr, h. v. § 17. 

O coward conl'ciencc, how doft thou agliil mc ! 
The lights burn blue — Is it not dead mijiiight ? 
Coid tearful drop« tUnd on my trembling fle/h. 


Give nnt over thy mind to heavinefs, and affiiH 
not thyfglfin thireown counfel. Ecclus. xxt. zi. 

A father aJjUSltd ivith untimely mourning, when 
lie hath made an image of his child foon taken 
awiy, now honoured him as a God, which was 
then a dead man, and delivered to tliofe that were 
under him ceremonies and facrifices. ffiftiuit, 

A melancholy tear tiJliBs my eye. 
And my heart labours with a fudden figh. Prior. 
Z. The paffiv e to be nffliaed, has often at 
before the caufal noun ; by is likewife 

'I he mother was fo affllStd at the lofs of a fine 
boy, who was her only fon, that (he died for grief 
of ". ^ Add'Jan, HfcB. 

Affli'ctrdness. n. f. \itom affliaed.'] 
The ftate of affliftion, or of being af- 
flided ; forrowfulnefs ; grief. 

Afpli'cter. ». /. [from a^;V7.] The 
perfon that affliils. 

Affli'ction. n.f. [a^iaic, Lzt.] 

I . The caufc of pain or forrow ; calamity. 

To the flclh, as the apoftle himfdf granteth, 

all afflmion it naturally grievous ; therefore na- 

^, tiire, which caufeth fear, tcacheth to pray againft 

all adverfity. JUokcr, h. v. §.4?. 

We'll bring you to one that you have cozened 
uf m )ney ; I think to repay that money will be a 
V-ing ^fflirtm, SL-Jkcffcare. 

2. 'The ftate of forrowfulnefs; mifery : 
'oppofed toyoy or prc/perity. 

Bjfidci you know, 
Profperity's the vei-y bond of love, 
Whofe frelh complexion, and whofe heart to- 
jff.l'Jkn altera. Shaieff,. trimn's Tall. 

Where fliall we find the man that bears aMk- 


, Great and majeftic in hit grieft, like Cato ? 

AdtlifaCi Crf/c. 
Some virtues are only fccn in iiffliahr, and fomc 
in profperily. Mii}J'M, Sptliaf.r, ti't^y. 

Akfm'ctive. a///, [from ajlia.] That 
which caufes aihidtion ; painful ; tor- 

Tiiey tiund martyrdom a duty drefled up in- 
deed with all that was terrible and ajp.-flive to 
huHjan nature, yet not at all the lefs a duty. 

Nor con they find 
;,/Whe« tJ) rcdre thcmfclves,'or where appeafe • '. 
I 2! 'V^"''^' J'-'^" c.irc of food, expos J 

To windj, and ftorms, and jaws of fava^e death. 

Reftlefs Ptoferpine — 
—On the fpacious land and liquid main 
Spreads (low difeafc, and darts aJllU'mi pain. 


A'rrLWENCE. ,,. /. [aj^mtce, Fr. nfflu- 
*«//«, Lat. J 

A F F 

1. The aft of flowing to any place; con- 
courfe. It is almoft always ufed figu 

I (hall not relate the affvenic of young nobles 
from hence into Spain, after the voice of our 
pri^tc being therr liaJ been nnlfcd. H^otrcr. 

2. Exuberance of riches; ftream of wealth ; 

Thofe degrees of fortune, whlch~give fuUief! 
and afflutncc to one ftation, may be want and pe- 
nury in another. Rcgcrt. 

Lit joy or eafe, let affucree or content. 
And the gay confcicnce of a life well fpcnt, 
Calm ev'ry thought, infpirit ev'rj' grace. Poft. 

A'ffluency. n.f. The fame with /t/"- 

A'FFLUENT. adj. l^-ffiutnt. Fr. affluent, 

1 . Flowing to any part. 

Thefe parts are no more than fnundition-piles 
of the enfiiing body; which are afterwards to be 
increafcd and raifed to a greater bulk, by the 
a^K.w blood that is tranfmitted out of the mother's 
°^^'^. }!aney on dnfimftiOK!. 

2, Abundant ; exuberant ; wealthy. 

I fee thee, Lord and end of my defire. 
Loaded and bleft with all the ajftuenl ilore, 
Which human vows at fmoking (hrines implore. 


A'ffluentness. n.f. [from affluent.] 
The quality of being affluent. Dia. 

A'fflux. ti.f. [affiuxus, Lat.] 

1 . Tlie aft of flowing to fome place ; af- 

2. That which flows to another place. 

1 he caufe hereof cannot be a fupply by pro- 
creations; crgt, it by new affiuxa to 
London out of the country. "* Craunl. 

The infant grows bigger out of the womb, b\ 
agglutinating one affiux of blood ^o.anotl)er. 

Harviy en Cvi:fumftwtii. 

An animal that muft lie Hill, receives the afflux 
of colder or warmer, clean or foul \yater, as it hap- 
pens to come to it. Locke.- 

Afflu'xion. n.f. [affluxioyhax,] 

1. The aft of flowing to a particular 

2. That which flows from one place to 

An inflammation either fimple, confifting of 

an ho: and fanguincous affluxiou, or elfc denomi- 

nablc from other humours, according unto the 

prcdomiaaocy of melancholy, phlegm, or choler. 

Bro^vn^i l^ulgar Errouri. 

To Affo'rd. V, a. [ajourrer, alfourra- 
ger, Fr.] 

1. To yield or produce ; as, the fill af- 
fords grain ; the trees afford fruits. This 

feems to be the primitive fignification. 

2. To grant, or confer any thing; gene- 
rally in a good fenfe, and fometimes in 
a bad, but lefs properly. 

So foon as Maurmon there .irriv'd, the door 
To him did open, and afforJ/J way. Fairy Sluetn. 
This is the coiifolatiun of all good men, unto 
whom his ubiquity a^r,/./i. continual comfirtand 
fecurity ; and this is the alHiai.m of hell, to wham 
it affiide'.h dcfpair and rtmcdilefs calamity. 

ISrcivrl'i Vuhor Err6urs. 

3. To be able to fell. It is uled always 
with reference to fome certain price ; as, 
/ can afford this for lefs than the other. 

They lisl their magazines in times of the grcareft 
plenty, that li> they may nj^ri/ cheaper, nnd in- 
Cfcafe the public revenue at a fmall exp-nce of its 
■n^^'^'n'w'"!- MJifon m Italy. 

4. To be able to bear expences ; as, tra- 

A F F 

ders can effird more fncry in peaee than 

The f.ime errours run through ill families, 
where there is wealth enough to afford that their 
fons may be good for twthing. 

S'U'ift ^n Motiirr Education. 
To AFFO'REST. i/. a. [affcrcftare, Lat.] 
To turn ground into forcft. 

It appcareth, by Chana dt Forrfta, that he 
affirtjird many woods and waftes, to the grievance 
of the fubjeft, which by that law were difaffo. 
retted. S,r Jihn D:smcs 'n Irtlaxi. 

Afforesta'tiok. n. f. [from afforeft.'] 

The charter de Forcjlj was to rcf jj m the en- 
croachments made in the time of RUbard I. and 
Henry II. who had made new ojftrejlar'ient, and 
much extended the rigour of the foreft laws. 

Halt's C'.mvar. Law of England. 
To Affra'kchise. i/.«. {affrancbertYx.] 

To make free. 
To AFFRA'Y. -v. a. [effrayer, or effriger, 
Fr. which Menage derives from /V<7f cr ; 
perhaps it comes . from frigus.] To 
fright ; to terrify ; to ftrike with fear. 
This word is not now in ufe. 

The fame to wight he never would difclofe. 
But when as mongers huge he would difmay. 

Or daunt unequal armies of his foes, 
Or when the flying heavens he woiAd affray. 

Fairy Shtecn. 

AFFRA'Y,or ApFRA'yMEfTT. n.f [from 
the verb.] 

1. A tumultuous aflault of one or more 
perfons upon others ; a law term. A 
battle : in this fenfe it is written //-ay. 

2. Tumult; confufion : out of ufe. 

Let the night be calm and quietf >me. 
Without tempcftuaus ftorms or la J affray. Sp!nfer. 

Afpri'ction'. n.f. [affriaio, Lat.] The 
aft of rubbing one thing upon another. 

I have divers times obferved, in wearing filver- 
hilted fwords, that, if they rubbed upon ray 
cloaths, if they were of a light-coloured cloth, 
the affriliiun would quickly blacken them ; and, 
congruouily hereunto, I have found pens blacked 
almoft all over, when I had a while carried them 
about me in a filver cafe. £y/«. 

To Affri'ght. "o. a. [See Fright.] 

1. To afi^eft with fear ; to terrify. It gene- 
rally implies a fudden impreffion of fear. 

Thy name affrights me, in whofe found is death. 
Sbakefprnre's henry VI, 
Godlike his courage feem'd, whom nor delight 
Could foften, nor the face oi Am'n affright. Waller. 

He, when his country (threaten'd with alarm] 
Requires his courage and his conq'ring arm. 
Shall, more tlian once, the Punic bands affri/^bt. 
Dry/Un'i j^neid. 

2. It is ufed in the paflive, fometimes with 
at before the thing feared. 

Thou ftialt not be affrigkud at them : for thf 
Lord thy God is among you. Drut.vVi. ai. 

3. Sometimes with the particle iv/VA be- 
fore the thing feared. 

As one affrigbt 
With hetlilh fiends, or furies mad uproar. 
He then uprofc. Fairy Slueai, h. ii. car.t. 5. 

Afpri'cht. n.f. [from, the verb.} 
I. Terrour; fear. This word is chiefly 

As the moon, doathed With cloudy night, ' 
Does (liew to him that walks ia fear and fad 
affright. Fairy S^uten, 

Wide was his parifh, not contraflcd clofe 
In ftieets, but here and there a draggling houfe ; 
Yet ftill he was at hand, without rcqtieft. 
To ferye the fick, to fuccour the diftrefs'd ; 
Tempting, on /oot, alone, without affright. 
The dangcri of a dirk tcmpeftuous mght. 

Dryden's Faifeu 

2. The 

A F F 

A F L 

A F O 

e. The caufe of fear; a terrible objedl; 
dreadful appearance. 

1 fee the gods 
Ufbra-d our fuff'rings, and woulj humble them. 
By fending thcfe afrighti^ while we are here, 
That we might laugh at their ridiculous fear, 

B. Jorf. Catilhi. 

The «-ir at hand appeal with more affright. 

And rifes cv'ry moment to the fight. Dryd. AEntiJ. 

Affri'ghtfui,. ai/J. [from afrigbt.] 

Full of aft'right or terrour ; terrible ; 


There is an ahfence of all that is dcrtrufllTe or 
effrigirful to humia nature. D^caycf Pictv, 

Affri'chtment. n.f. [irom aj'fight .^ 
t. The impreflion of fear; terrour. 

Slie awaked with the effrighiment of a dreama 

Paflionate words or blows from the tutor, fill 

the child's mind with terrour ar.d uffrigbiirint ; 

which immediately takes it wholly up, np.d leaves 

no room for other impreflion. Locke. 

2. The ftnte of fearful nefs. 

Whether thofe that, under any an^uifli of 
mind, return to or doubtings, have 
not been hypcrites. Eantimr.d. 

To AFFRO'NT. v. a. [affronter, Fr. that 
is, ad front em Jlare ; ad frontem contu- 
tiuJiam allidcre, to infult a man to his 
i. To meet face to face ; to encounter. 

■ This feems the genuine and original 
fcnfe of the word, which was formerly 
indifferent to good or ill. 

We haic clofcly fent for Hamlet hither. 
That he, as *twerc by accident, may here 
Affr^M Ophelia, Skahfpeare't Hamlit. 

The feditioui, the next day, offrintid the king's 
forces at the cntiaice of a highway ; wliom when 
tliL*y found both ready and rcfolute to fight, they 
dL-fir'^d ent;rparlance. Sir Jr,tn Hayivard, 

2. To meet, in an boftile manner, front 
to front. 

His holy rites and folemn feails profan'd, 
And with their darknefs durft affnr.t his light. 

Paradijt L;]i. 

3, To offer an open infult; to offend 
avowedly. With refpecl to this fenfe, 
it is obicrved by Cervantes, that, if a 
m.m ftrikes another on the back, and 
then runs away, the perfon fo llruck is 
\v.]\McA,\)W\. nor. affrDitled ; a.n affrcnt dX- 
ways implying a juftificationofthe aft. 

Did nijt this latjl war affrort thy coaft .' 
Yet fjtteil ih.ou an idle looker-on. Fairfax, i. 51. 

But harm precedes not fin, only our foe. 
Tempting. a^iCTtti us with his fool cfteem 
Of our integrity. Mi,'l'/n'i Paradift L'_H, b. ix. 

I would learn the canfe, why I'orrifmond, 
Wi;hln my palace walls, within my hearing, 
Almoft within my fight, affrtni) a prince, 
Wt.o fbortly Oiail command him. 

• Drydtn'i Uparijh Friar. 

This brings to mind Faultina's fondnel's for thi- 
gh liator, and is interpreted as f;rire. But how 
can one imagine, that the Fathers would have dared 
t'l affr:r.t the wife of Autelius ? Addijon. 

Afpro'nt. n.f. [from the ■^txh affront .'\ 

1. Open oppofition ; encounter: a fcnfe 
not frequent, though regularly deduci- 

■ ble from the derivation. 

Frarlcfj of danger, like a petty god 
I walk'd ab'jul admir'd of all, and dreaded 
0.1 boftilc ground, none daring my affront, 

Samfon A^'^fijlri, 

2. Infult offered to the face ; contemptu- 
0U5 or rude treatment-; contumely. 

He wiiuld of'rn maiulaiu I'lao'.ianus, in dnlr. ; 
»ffri, to hi» fun. Baeon'x EJjayi. 

YouVedone enough; foryoudefign'd my chains: 
The grace is vanifii'd, but th' affront remains. 

Drydof s Aitrengx.i:ht. 

He that is found reafonabic in one tiling, is con- 
cluded to be fo in all j and to think or fay otherwif?, 
is thought fo unjurt an affrcr.t, and fo fcnfelefs a 
cenfurc, that nobody ventures to do it. Locke. 

There is nothing which we receive with fo much 
rcluft.mce as advice : we look iipon the man who 
gives it us, as offering an a/?/-';^? to our uiiderftand. 
ing, and treating us like children or idiots. 

Addifon'! SfcStator, N" 512. 

3. Outrage ; aft of contempt, in a more 
general fenfe. 

Oft have they violated 
The temple, oft the law with foul affrnnn. 
Abominations rather, Mdr-n^s Par.Tdife Regained, 

4, Difgrace ; (hame. This fenfe is rather 
peculiar to the Scotti.1i dialeft. 

Antonius attacked the pirates of Crete, and, bv 
his too great prcfumptinn, was defeated"; upon the 
fenfe of which affmni he died with grief. 

Ariutbr.ol 01: Coins. 

Affro'nter. ».yi [{torn affro/it.] The 
perfon that affronts. 

At f no' XT t KG. participial aJJ. [from «/"- 
_/0-o»/.] That which has the quality of 
affronting ; contumelious. 

Among words which fignify the fame principal 
ideas, fome are clean and decent, others unclean ; 
fome arc kind, others are a/froiitit:g and reproach- 
ful, becaufe of the fccondary idea which cuttom 
has affixed to them. lyal'i's Logici. 

To AFFLTSE. -v. a. \affundo, aff'ufum, 
Lat,] To pour one thing upon another. 

I poured acid liquors, to try if they cont^iined 
any volatile fait or fpirit, which would probably 
have difcovered itfelf, by making an ebullition 
with the affujcd liquor. Boyle. 

Affu'sion. n.f. [affiijio, Lat.] The aft 
of pouring one thing upon another. 

Upon the affujion of a tincture of galls, it im- 
mediately became as black as ink, Grciv^i Muj'awr,. 
To AFFY'. -v. a. [nfficr, Fr, affidare mu- 
lierem, Brafton,] To betroth in order 
to marriage, 

Wed-lcd be thou to the hags of hcli. 
For daring toa^ a mighty lord 
Unto the daughter of a wurthlefs king. 

Shahefpearc^i Henry VI. 

To AfFy'. t. n. To put confidence in; 
to put trull in ; to confide. Not in ufe. 

Marcus A«- Ironicus, fo I do affy 
In thy upri^iUtnefs and integrity. 
That I will here difmifs my loving friends. 

Sbakefp. Titus Andr. 

Api'eld. adnj. [from a T^nii field. See 
Field.] To the field. 

We drove afield, and bith togi^ther heard 
What time the grey fiy winds her fultry horn, 
Batt'nirg our flocks with the frelh dews of night, 

Afield I went, amid the morning dew. 
To milk my kine, for fo fiiould houfcwives do. 

Apla't, ad'v. [from a and flat. See 
Flat.] Level with the ground. 

When you would have many nev/ roots of fruk- 
trees, take a low tre-, and bow it, and lay all W> 
branches afiat upon the ground, and cart crfrth 
upon them ; and every twig will take root. 

Baton'' I Natural WJliry. 

Ai'Lo'at. etdv. [from a and float. See 

Float.] Floating; born up in the 

water ; not finking : in a rigurauvc 

fenfe, within view ; in motion. 

There h a tid" ir, the alTain of men, 
Which taken at the flood, Inds on to fortune ; 
Omitted, all the voyage of their life 
is bound in IhatlDwi* and in miferies. 
On fuch a full fca are wc sow ajitj: ; 

And we muft take the current when it fetvei. 
Or lofe our venturer. Shakrjfenre's 'Jiditii C^efjr. 

Take any paflion of tire foul of man, while it is 
predominant and afiiat, and, jiift in tlie critical 
height of it, nick it <vith fome lucky or unlucky 
■ word, and you may as certai;:!y over-rule it ta 
your own purpofe, as a fpark of fire, filling upon 
gunpowder, will infallibly blow it up. Scmh, 

There arc generally fcvcral hundred loads of tim- 
ber afloat, fcr tiicy cut above f.venty-.nve leagur>> 
up the river ; and other rivers bring in their con- 
tributloi 3. Adi'i/cn'i July. 

Afo'ot. adv.. [from a and foot.] 

1. On foot ; not on horfehack. < 

He tliought it bell to rttiun, tor that day, t> a 
vilLig': not far off; and difpa:ching his horfc (n 
fome fort, the next day early, to come afcr.f thi- 
ther. _ ShaL:fl>eait. 

2. Ill aftion ; as, a deftgn is afoot. 

I pr'ylhec, when thou fecit that aft a/lot, . 
Ev'n with the very comment of tiiy foul 
Ob.erve mine uncle. isbakeffcare. 

3. In mction. 

Of Albany's and Cornwall's pow'rs you hearti 
'Tis faid tiiey are .if>,ct. Sbaiefpeare'i King Lear. 

.^fc'r E. /re/, [from a and/ir^. See Bs;- 


1. Not bcLind ; as, he held the fiiicli 
efor^ : not in ufe. 

2. Before ; nearer in place to any tJiino-; 
as, he Hood nTore hiin. 

3. Sooner in time. 

If jour diligence be not fpeedy, I fhall be there 
afore you. Hhakcjpeare s Kit:g Lear. 

Afo're. adv. 

1. In time foregone or pad. 

Whofoever fti>ulJ make light of any thing afore 
fpoken or written, out of his own houfe a tree 
ihould be taken, and he thereon be hanged. 

Efdras, vi. 22. 

If he never drank wine afcre, it will go near to 
remove his fit. Hbakcjfearc'i Taitjc^. 

2. Firft in the way, 

Emilia, run you to the citadel. 
And tell my lord and lady what hath hap'd ; 
Will you go on afore? Sbakj'feare'i OtbelU. 

3. In front ; in the fore-part. 

Approaching nigh, he reared hijh afore 
His body monltrous, horrible, and vaft. Fairy 9. 

Afo'regoinc, participial adj. [from afore 
andje/'/f.] Going before. 

Apo'reh AND.oa'f. [from afore znd band.'] 

1. By a previous provifion. 

Many "f the paiticular fubjcds of difcnuife are 
occafional, and fuch as cannot tforeband be re- 
duced to any certain account. 

Gcvernment of tbe ToMgm. 

2. Provided; prepared; previoufly fitted. 

Kor'ic will be faid, that in the former times, 
whereof we have Ipiken, Spain was not lo raigh.7 
as now it is ; and England, on the other fide, was 
tnoie afrehatid In ali matters t»f power. 

Baton'i Confidnatirni on ff,H- wifi Sfaiii, 
Afo'rementioned. adj. [from afore 
and acnticned.] Mcntio.aed before. 

Among the nine other parts, five are n.jt in ■ 
condition to give alms or lelicf to thofe aforemen- 
tioned i being very near reduced thcmfelves to the 
fame mifctable condiS-jn. Addill!, 

Ak ©'renamed, adj. [from afore and 
named.] Named before. 

Imitate fomcihng of ciicular form, in which, 
as in all other aforenamed proportioos, jou fhall 
help youuclf by the aiaiiwar. 

feaebam en Drataittjr. 
Ato'rimaid. adj. [from afore ^ad faid.] 
bald before. 

It need not po for repetition, if we refume agnin 
that which we iVld in the aforrjid cxcerimeiit. 

Ctcaifi lleiurai ifiijicrf, N" 7^ i . 

G 3 Afo're- 


Afo'kbtimi. adv. [from afortiXiA timi.'\ 
In time paiL 

O thou that art waxen old !n victEcdncfs, now 
thy fins which thou had committed afom'.vu itc 
come to light. 

.\fv.\'it>. pkrti.lpial a/ij. [from the verb 
affray : It fnould therefore properly be 
written with_^".] 

1. Struck with fear ; terrified; fearful. 

To perfcrute fhem with thy trmpcft, and make 
them a/Vfl/V with thy ftorm. PJ'alm ixxxWi. 15. 

2. It has the particle e/ before the objedl 
of fear. 

There, loathing life, and yet cf death efraiJ, 
In anguilh of her fpirit, thus Hie pray'd, 

Drydtn's FabUu 
If, while this wearied flelhdraws fleeting breath, 
Not fatisfy'd with lite, afraid of death. 
It haf 'ly be thy will, that I ihould know 
Glimpfe of delight, or paufe from anxio-js woe j 
From now, fiom inftant now, great Sire, dil'pil 
The clouds that prcl's my foul. t'rior. 

Apre'sh. adv. [from a AaA frejh. See 
Fresh.] Anew; again, after inter- 

The Germans ferving upon great horfes, and 
charged wijh heavy armour, received jrcat hurt b) 
light Ikirmifliesj the Turks, with their light 
horfes, ealiiy Oiunning their charge, and again, 
»t their p'eafure, charging them afrtjb, when 
they faw the heavy horfes almofl weary. 

Kmlltl's Hifiory cf the Turks. 
When once we have attained thcfe ideas, they 
may be excited afrijhby the ufe of words. 

tyatts'i Logkk. 
Afro'nt. cdv. [from a andyrew?.] In 
front ; in direfl oppofitlon to the face. 

Thcfe four came all afront^ and mainly thruil at 
me. Shakefpeare^s Henry IV. p. i. 

A'FTER./r(r/. [xprep. Sax.] 

1. Following in place, j^/ur is com- 
monly applied to words of motion ; as, 
he came a/ter, and flood behind him. 
It is oppofed to before. 

What lays Lord Warwick, (hall we after them ?— 
^»Afttr them ! nay, hefcre them, if we can. 

iStaifjxare'i Henry VI. 

2. In purfuit of. 

•//; r whom is the Icing of Ifrael come out? 
After whom doft thou putfue i After a dead dog, 
after aflea. i Sam. xxiv. 14. 

3. Behind. This is not a common ufe. 

Sometimes I placed a third prifm after a fecond, 
and fomctimes alfo a fourth after a third, by al, 
which the image might be often refraflcd fidc- 
*ays. Neivtcn'sOjiiicki, 

4. Poilerior in time. 

Good after ill, and after pain delight ; 
Alternate, like the fccnes of day and night. 

Dry Jen' I Fahlet. 

We (hall examine the ways of conveyance of the 
fovereignty of Adam to princes that were to rcijn 
after him. Locke. 

5. According to. 

He that thinketh Spain our over-match, is no 
good mint-man, but takes grcatnefs of kingdoms 
according to bulk and currency, and not after thci; 
intrinfic value. Bacon. 

6. In imitation of. 

There a c, among the old Roman ftatucs, fevc- 
ral of Venus, in different poftures and habits; as 
there are many particular figures of her made after 
the fame dilign. Mdijaris Italy. 

Thiiallufion is after the oriental m.i ;ier : thui 
in the Pfatms, how frequently are [).i:uns com- 
pared to cedars. Fofe't Oayfj'eyy notei. 

A'fteb. ad-v. 

I. In fjcceeding time. It is ufed of time 

mentioned as fucceeding fome other. 

Sk> we cannot fay, I fliall be happy af- [ 


tir, but htreafter ; but we fay, I was 
firft made miferablc by the lols, but 
was after happier. 

Far be it from me, ti juftify the cruelties which 
were at lirft ufed towards tbein, which bad their 
reward foon after. Bacon. 

Thofe who, from the pit of hell 
Roaming to feck tlieir prey on earth, durft fix 
Their feats long after next the feat of God. 

Faradife Ufl. 

2. Following another. 

Let go thy hold, when a great wheel runs down 
a hill, le;l it break thy neck with following it ; but 
the great one that goes upward, let him draw thee 
after, Sbakeffieare't King Lear, 

After is compounded with many words, 
but almoft always in its genuine and 
primitive fignification ; lome, which 
occurred, will follow, by which others 
may be explained. 

A'fter acceptation. »./. [from a/itr 
and acceptation.] A fenfe afterwards, 
not at lirll admitted. 

*Tis true, fonic dolors in a fcantier fpace, 
I mean, in each apart, contrail the place : 
Some, who to greater length extend the line. 
The church's after accefiation ]o\n, 

Vryden'i Hind ami Panther, 
A'fteraces. »./ [Uom after and ages.] 
Succeffive times ; pofterity. Of this 
word I have found no lingular ; but fee 
not why it might not be faid. This 'will 
be done in fome afterage. 

Noc the whole land, which the ChuGtes 0iould 
or might, in future time, conquer ; feeing, in 
afierages, they became lords of many nations. 

Raleigh'! Hijtory of the IVorld, 
Nor to philofophcrs is praife deny'd, 
Whofe wife inftruftions afterages guide. 

Sir y. Denham. 

What an opinion will afterages entertain nf their 

religion, who bid fair for a gibbet, to bring in a 

fupcrftition, which their forefathers perilhcd in 

flames to keep out. Addifon, 

A'fter all. When all has been taken 
into the view ; when there remains no- 
thing more to be added ; at laft ; in 
fine ; in conclufion ; upon the whole ; 
at the mod. 

They have given no good proof in aflerting this 
extravagant principle ; for which, after at:, they 
have no ground or colour, but a p:*fage cr two of 
fcripture, mifcrably perverted, in oppofition to 
many exprefs texts. Alterhury's Sermom, 

But, after all, if they have any merit, it is to 
be attributed to fome good old authors, whofe 
works I ftudy. Fcfe on Fafi^val Fcetry. 

A'fter BIRTH. ». / [from afler and 
birth.] The membrane in which the 
birth was involved, which is brought 
away after ; the fecundine. 

The exorbitances or degenerations, whether from 
a hurt in labour, or from part of the after-butb 
left behind, produce fuch vlr- lent diftempers of 
the blood, as make It call out a t imour. 

}r:i.mani Surgery, 

A'fterclap. v.f. [from «//<T and <■/<./.] 
Unexpedled events happening after an 
affair is fuppofcd to be at an end. 

For tlie nex t morrow's mead they clofely went. 
For fear of afterclafs to prevent. 

Spinf. Huh. rale. 

It is commonly taken in an ill fcnfc. 
A'ftercost. ». f. [from after and cofi.] 
The latter charges ; the expence in- 
curred after the original plan is exe- 

You mud take care to carry off the land- floods 
and ftreams, Ijcforeyou attempt Uiaining ; left your 



^ttreojt and labour prove unfticceftfol. 

Mortimer i Hufhandry, 
A'ftercrop. n.f. [from after and rr-5/.] 
The fecond crop or harvell of the fame 

Aftercrops I think neither good for the land, nor 
yet the hay good fur the cattle. 

Afortimer'i Hujbondry, 

A'PTER-DINNER. n.f. [from after and 

dinner,] The hour paffing ju.'t after 

dinner, which is generally allowed to 

indulgence and amufement. 

Thou haft nor youth nor age. 
But, as it were, an afier-dimer's deep, 
Dreaming on both. Shakefp,MeaJureforMeafart, 

A'fter-endeavour. n.f. [from after 
a.nd endeavour.] Endeavours made after 
the firft effort or endeavour. 

There is no reafon why the found of a pipe 
Ih^yld leave traces in their brains, which, not firft, 
but by their after-endeavours, ihould produce the 
like founds. Locke. 

A'fter-enquiry. n.f, [from after a.nd 
enquiry.] Enquiry made after the fati 
committed, or after life. 

You muft either be directed by fome that take 
upon them to know, or take upon yourfelf that, 
which, I am fure, you do not know, or lump the 
after-enquiry on your peril. Shakrfp. Cymheline. 

Tij A'p T E R E Y E . f. a. [from afier and eye.^ 
To keep one in view ; to follow in view. 
This is not in ufe. 

Thou (houldft have made him 
As little as a crow, or lefs, ere left 
To aftereye him. Shakejpeare' s Cymtelint^ 

A'fte R GAME. n,f. [from after andgame.J 
The fcheme which may be laid, or the 
expedients which are pradifed after the 
original defign has mifcarried ; methods 
taken after the firft turn of affairs. 

This earl, like certain vegetables, did bud and 
open flowly ; nature fometimes delighting tx) play 
an aftergame, as well as fortune, which had both 
their turns and tides in courfe. tVotton. 

The fables of the axe-handle and the wedge, 
ferve to precaution us not to put ourfelvcs need- 
lefsly upon an aftergame, but to weigh beforehand 
what we fay and do. L'EJirange's Fables, 

Our firft defign, my friend, has prov'd abortive ; 
Still there remains an aftergame to play. 

Addifon" s Cato, 

.Vfterhours. n, f, [from afier and" 
hour.'.] The hours that fucceed. 

So fmile the heav'ns upon this holy aO, 
Thzt afterlfours with forrow chide us not. 

Siakefpeare's Romeo andyuliet, 

A'fter-liver. n. f, [from after and 
li-ve.] He that lives in fucceeding times. 

By thee my promife font 
Unto myfelf, let after-livers know. Sidney, b. ii. 

A'fterlOve. n.f. [from /T/Jtv and love.l 
The fecond or later love. 

Intended, or committed, was this fault i 
If but tlie firft, how heinous e'er it be. 
To win thy after-love, I pardon thee. 

Shakrfpeare's Richard II; 

A'fter MATH. n.f. [from after s.nd math, 
from moiu.] The latter math ; the fe- 
cond crop of grafs, mown in autumn. 
See Aftercrop. 

A'fternoon. n.f. [from afier and noon.] 
The time from the meridian to the even- 

A beauty-waining and diftreffed widow, 
Ev'n in the afternoon of her beft days, 
Made prize and porchafe of his wanton eye. 

Sbikefpeare's Richard III. 


Howtvtr, keep the Ih-ely tafte you ho'.S 
Oi God i and lo\s him now, but fear him more 5 

And, in your afttmocm, tliink what you told 
And proaiis'd him at morning -prayer bcfwc. 

S-ach, all the morning, to the pleadings run ; 
But, when the bus'nefs of tW- day is done. 
On dice, and drink, and drabs, they fpend the af- 
tertt^^n. Oryden^sP£rJius,Snt,\. 

A'fterpains. n.f. [fiom^/^r and/a/».] 
The pains after birth, by which women 
are delivered of the iecundine. 

A'fterpart. »./. [from nfter and fart."] 
The latter part. 

The flexibletcfs of the former part of a man's 
age, not yet grown up to be headftrorg, makes it 
more governable and fafc j and. In the afterparty 
reafon and forefight begin a little to take place, 
and mind a man of his fafety and improvement. 


A'fter.proof. ». /. [from aflcr and 

1. Evidence pofterior to the thing in 

2. Qualities known by fubfequent expe- 

All know, that he likewlfc at firft was much 
under the expeftation of his ajrcrproof-^ Tuch a 
folar infl.cnce there is in the folar afpefl. Jfo/.cn. 
A'ftertaste. n.f. [from after zad tajld .] 
A taile remaining upon the tongue after 
the draught, which was not perceived 
in the aft of drinking. 
A'fterthought. a.f. [from after and 
thought A Refledions after the adl ; ex- 
pedients formed too late. It is not pro- 
perly to be ufed fw fecondtbcught , 
£xpence, and afurtbougbt ^ and idle care. 
And doubts of motley hue, and dark defpair ; 
S-^fpicions, and fantaflical furmifc, 
Aad jealoufy fuffusM with jaundice in her eyes, 
Difcol luring all fhe view'd, in tawny drcfs'd, 
Downlook'd, and with a cockow on her fill. 

Vrydini Fabln. 

A'fter-times. n.f. [from after and 
ti>ru.'\ Succeeding times. See After- 

you promis'd once, a progeny divine 
Of Romans, ilfing from the Trojan line. 
In uftertimti Ihould hold the world in awe, 
. And Co the land and ocean give the law. 

DryJen'i Virg'il. 

A'ftertossinc. ». f. [from after and 
tofs.'\ The motion of the fea after a 

Confusions and tumults are only the impotent 
remains of an unnatural icbellion, and are no more 
than the aftirio^iiigt of a tea when the ftorm is 
. laid. AdJijoift Frtchildu!. 

A'fterward. adv. [from after aifd 
p<3pb. Sax.] In fucceeding time : fome- 
times wriiten eftertuards, but lefs pro- 

Ufcs not thought upon before, may afterivard 
fpring up, and be leafcnab.'e caufes of retaining 
that, which former confi^ierations did formerly 
procure to be inllitutrd. H'^ohr. 

An aniious diftruft of the divine goodn^fs, 
makes a man more anti more unworthy of it j and 
miTerable beforehand, for fear of being fo afur- 
noard. ' L^EJirange, 

A'fterwit. n.f. [from after and tvit.'] 
The c iiitrivance of expedients after the 
occafion of ufing them is part. Sec 

There i> r^i recalling what's gone and pa!t ; fo 

that i-.fttrviit comes too late, when the mifrHcf is 

done. L'tjtrMi,!. 

A'K-f er-wrath. H.f. [from after and 

A G A 

. 'vurath.'] Anger when the provocation 
feems paft. 

I hear him mock 
The luck of Caefar, which the gods give men 
T' excufc their after-ivrath. 

Shaktfp. Anttmj and Clecfatra. 

jfGJ. n.f. The title of a Turkilh mili- 
tary officer. 
Aga'in. adv. [agen. Sax.] 

1. A iecond time ; once more ; marking 
the repetition of the fame thing. 

Tlii poor remnant of human feed, which re- 
mained in their mountains, peopled their country 
again ilowly, by little and little. 

Baccn's New yf/nlantis. 

Should Nature's felf invade the world again. 
And o'er the centre fpread the liquid main, 
Thy pow'r were fafe. ffalUr. 

Go now, deluded man, and feek again 
New toils, new dangers, on the duffy plain. 

Dryd. j^tield. 

Some are already retired into foreign countries ; 
and the reft,, who polTefs lands, are determined 
never to hazard them ag^in, for the fake o( eftab- 
liiVmg their fuperilition. Sivift. 

2. On the other hand ; marking fome op- 
pofition or contrariety. 

il'^ wit increafed upon the occafion; and fo 
much the more, if the occafion were fharpaned 
with danger, jigain. whether it were the fhoitnefs 
of his forefi^ht, or the ftrength of his will, certain 
it is, thit the peipetual Lruble of his fortunes 
could not have been without defeds in his nature. 


Thofe things that we know not what to do 
withal, if we had tliiim, -nd thofe things, again, 
which another cannot part with, but to his own 
lol's and (hame. L'EJirangc's Fables. 

3. On another part ; marking a tranfition 
to fome new confideration. 

Behold yon mountain's hoarv height. 
Made higher with new mounts 'f fnow ; 

j^gain, behold the winter's weight 
Opprcfs the lab'ring woods below. Dryden. 

4. In return, noting re-aftion, or recipro- 
cal a£Uon ; as. His fortune worked up- 
on his nature, and his nature again upon 
his fortune. 

5. Back ; in reditu tion. 

When your head did but ake, 
I knit my handkerchief about your bro.vs ; 
The belt 1 had, a princefs wrought it me. 
And I did never alk it yon again. 

Sbakfjp. Kiig yobn. 

6. la return for any thing ; in recom- 

That he hath given will he pay again, 

Prov. xir. 47. 

7. In order of rank or' fucceJlion ; mark- 
ing diftribution. 

Queftion was afkeJ of Demofthene-, Whit 
the ciiief part of an grator ? He anfwercd, Adtion. 
What next? Aftion. What next a^ain ? Aflion. 

Bacmi Fffiy:. 

The caufe of the holding green, is the clofe .uid 
compaS fubftance of their leaves, and the pedicles 
of them : and the cauie of that again is either 
the cough and vifcous juice of the plant, '.r the 
ftrength and h«ac thereof. Bacon' i Natural Hifl. 

8. Befides ; in any other time or place. 

Tlicy have the Walloor.s, who are tall foldicrs , 
yet tb.Tt is but a, fpot of ground. But, on the 
other fide, there is not in the world again fuch a 
fpring and feminaiy of brave military peopl, as 
in England, Scotland, and Itelajid. BacoH, 

9. Twice as much ; marking the fame 
quantity once repeated. 

There are whom heav'n has bleft with ftore of 
Yet want as much again to manage it ; 

A G A 

For wit and judgment ever are at rtrife, 
Tho" meant each other's aid, like man and wife. 

I (hould not be forry to fee a chorus on a theaue, 
more than as large and as deep again as ours, built 
and adorned at a king's charges. 

Dryden' i Dufrefnoy, 

10. Again and again ; with frequent repci- 
tition ; often. 

This is not to be obtained by one or two hafty 
readings: it mud be repeated again and again, 
with a dofe attention to the tenour of the dif- 
courfe. Locke.. 

11. Pn oppofition j by way of refiftance. 

Who art thou that anfwerelt .^ J'" ? 

Rom, ix. lo. 

\z. Back; as, returning from fome mef- 

Bring us word again wh'rch way we fiiall go. 

Deut. i. 72. 

Aca'iust. prep, [aenjeon, onjconb. Sax.] 

1. In oppofition to any perfon. 

And he will be a wild man , his hand will be 
againjl every man, anii. every man's hand againjl 
him. Cfa. xvi. lit. 

2. Contrary ; oppofite, in general. 

That authority of men fhould prevail with men' 
either againji or above reafon, is no part of our be- 
lief. Hooker, 

He is melancholy without caufe, and merry 
againji the hair. Sbaieffeare'i Troilus and Crejidi, 

We might work any effeft without and againji 
matter; and this not holpen by the co-operation 
of angels or fpirits, but only by the unity and har ' 
mony of nature. Bacon's Namral Hijicry. 

The preventing goodnefs of God docs even wreft 
him from himfelf, and fave him, as it were^ 
againji his will. Soutb, 

The god, uneafy till he (Icpt again, 
Refolv'd, at once, to rid himfelf of pain;. 
And, tho' againji his cuftom, call'd aloud. Dryden,. 

Men often fay a thing is againji their confcience, 
when really it is not. S-wift'i Mijcellanies. 

3. In contradiftion to any opinion. 

After all that can be laid agai:Ji a thing, this. 
v\-ill ftill he true, that many things polfibly are,, 
which we know not of; and tliat many more thinge 
may be than are : and if fo, after all our argu- 
ments againji a thing, it will be uncertain whether 
it be or not. Tillotjvn, 

The church-clergy have written the beft collcc- 
f'on of trails againji popery that ever appeared in 
England. isiuift. 

4. With contrary motion or tendency : 
ufed of material adlion. 

Boils and plagues 
Plainer you o'er, that one infcft another 
Agalfj} the wind a mile. Sbakcjfeare's Coriclaiiui, 
The kite being a bird of prey, and therefore 
hot, delighteth in th» frerti air ; and many times 
fficth agaixji the wind, as trouts and f.ilmuns fwim 
againji the itream. Bacoo.. 

J. Contrary to rule or law. 

If aught agairji myli.'i; 
Thy country fought of titee, rt fought unjuftly, 
jiiiirfi the lavr of nature, law of nations. Miltoiu. 

jlgiUnji the public fauftions of tlie peace, 
ylgawji all on.tns of their ill fuccrft ; 
With fat».' .jverfe, the rout in arms refort,. 
To force t'- eh monarch, and ial'uh the court. 


6. Oppofitt: to, in place. 

Againjl the Tiber's mouth, but faraway. 


7. To the hurt of another. See fenfe 5. 

And, wh.-i thou think'!! of her eternity. 
Think not that death againji her nature is j 

Thisk it a birth : and when thou go'H to diej. 
Sing like a fwan, as if tliou went'fl'to blifs. 

.Sir y. Daviif 
3. In provifiorj for ; in expeftation o£ 

This mode of fpeaking probab'y )ted- 
its original from the idea of. making" 


A G A 

•provifion againft, or in oppofuion »o, a 
time of misfortune, but by degrees ac- 
quired a neutral fenfe. ft fometimes 
hus the cife elliptically fuppreffed, as,i 
again/} he cpmes, that is, aga'uift the 
Aimt when he comes. 

Thentc (he them biocght into a ft«t«l) ball, 
Wheiein wire many tables fair d'fprcd. 
And iraiiy J'lght with drapets feftival, 
jigaUfi thcviaiidi JhouU be miniftred. 

Kiiry S>^ftn. 

Tlie I'lw charge "was given them igaii-jl the 

time ili«y flituid to fettle, tjsemlch is iYi the 

■land proiTiifcd unto their fatliers. 

S >nic lay, t'.fTt e«r 'gaiiyi that fcafon comci, 
"Wherein bur Saviour's birth is cclcbialcJ, 
The bird nf dawning fingeth all night ieng :' 
^nd then they fay no ffirit walks abroad ; 
The nights are wholcfomc, then no.pJanets ftrifcc, 
.No fairy tales, ni' witch hath power to charm j 
Su ballow'd and fo gracious U the tirr.e. 

Sh^kifp. H.-wlet. 

To that psrpofe, he made hade to B.ilVol, that 

!all things might be ready agah-J! the prince CJnic 

-thither. , X-lamilnn. 

■Agahft the promis'd time provides with care, 
.And hadcns in the woot' the robes he waj to wean 


AU which 1 grant to be reafonablj and trul> 

./aid, and only dcfire they may be remcnibe ert 

agairjl another day. in/.'m^iir. 

A'oALAXY. »./. [from a and yu>M, Gr.] 

Want of milk. Dia. 

'Ach''j. [from aand_^<j/Sf.] Staring 

with eagernefs ; as, a bird gapes for 


In himfolf was all.hU ftatc; 
■More folenin than the tedious pomp that waits 
On princes, when their rich retinue long 
Of hurfes led, and grooms befmear'd with gold, 
•Uaztlcs the crowd, and fets them iW.agejie. 

Paradife L'fi. 
Uarfk the cron-d, ani fet them all aga',t, 

The whole crowd ftood agafi, and ready to take 
the doftor at his word. S/'taMor, N" 572. 

A'CARICK. »./ [agaricum, Lit.] A drug 
of ufe in phyfic, and the dying trade. 
It is divided into male and female ; 
the male is ufed only in dying, the fe- 
male in medicine : the male grows on 
oaks, the female on larches. 

'I here are two excrefccmes which grow upon 
tree.', both of them in the nature of mu/hrooms ; 
the one the Romans call toiitus, which gr ,weth 
upon the rootb of oaks, and was one of the daintier 
i»f their table ; the other is medicinal, that is call- 
ed agarkk, which growcth upon the tops of oaks; 
though it be affirmed by fome, that it groweth 
alfo at the roots. _ Baan. 

At; a'st. adj. [This word, which is ufual- 
ly, by later .luthors, written aghajl, is, 
not improbably, the true word derived 
from aga%e, which has been written 
aghtijl, from a miftaken etymology. 
See AfiHAST.] Struck with tcrrour ; 
amazed ; frighted to alloniftiment. . 
Thus roving on 
. Jn confns'd march forli.m, th" adiont'rous bands, 
' Wth (hudd'ring horrour pale, and eyes egaft, 
View'd iirft their lamentable lot, and found 
No reft. MUiOKi Parod'tfi h-ifi- 

A'cATE. n.f. \agau, Fr. «cA«w, Lat.] A 
precious itone of the loweft clafs, often 
clouded with beautiful variegations. 

In (liape no bigger than an aiate Itone, 
On die forefinger of an alJemian. 

.... Stakiff. R'nit'j and yuli:t. 

^itlii ape only varieties of the tlint kind ; they 

' lave a :_;reyi <borny ground, clouded, lineated, o, 


,A. G .E 

fpottcJ w'.tli different colours, chiefly dalvy. Mack, 
brown, red, and fometimes blue. fVatdmai'd 

A'cATY. aJJ. [from agate.] Partaking o) 
tha nature of agate. 

An a^cfy flint- was above tw3 inches in diame- 
ter i the whole coveied over with a friable creta- 
ceous cfuft. H^!xdward- 

To Aoa'ze. I'.^a. [from «and gaze, to fet 
a gaxitig ; as, amaze, amuje, and others.] 
To ftrikc with amazerhent ; to ftupify 
with fiidden terrour. Tlte verb is now 
out of ufe. 

So as they travell'd, fo they 'gan efpy 
An armed knight toward them ga'.lop taft, 
T!\it fcemcd from foinc feared foe to fly, 
Or.other grifly thing ih-U him agaji. Fairj ^atn. 
Aa'A'zED.farticifial adj. [from agaze ; 
which fee] Struck with amazement ; 
«*terrified to ftjpiJity. 

Ilundrtus he lent to hell, and none durft ftand 
Here, there, and every where, enrag'd he flew : 
The French exclaim'd, " Thcdevi! was in arms!" 
All the whole army flood egaxtd on him. 


AGE. »./. \_age, Fr. anciently cage, or 
aag.' ; it is deduced by Msnage from 
txiaiium, of 'atas ; by ''Junius, from aa, 
which, in the Teutonic dialeils, figni- 
fied long duration.] '; 

1. Any period of time attributed to fome- 
thing as the whole, or part, of its du- 
ration : in this fenfc, we fay, the age of 
man, the feveral ages of the world, the 
golden or iron age. 

One man in iiis time plays many parts, 
His life being fcvcn ag(i. Shalrjftare. 

And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt fcienteen 
years ; fo tlie whole age of Jacob was an hundred 
forty and feven years. Cenefis, xlvii. 28. 

2. A fucccffion or generation of men. 

Hence, laftiy, fprings care of poftcrities, 
For things their kind wnild eve. lading make. 

Hence -sit, that old men do plant young trees. 
The fruit whereof another agi flial! take. 

Sir y. David. 
Nrxt to the Son, 
Diftin'd Rcftorcr of mankind, by whom 
New heav'n, and earth, (hail to the ag'rs rife. 
Or down from heav'n deiccnd. 

Mi/titi's Pnradi/s Lijl. 
No declining ege 
E'er fe'lt the raptures of poetic ra ,e. Rcfccmmon. 

3. The time in which any particular man, 
or race of men, lived, or ihall live j as, 
the age of heroes. 

No longer now the golden agf appears, 
When patriarch wits furtivd a thoufan* years. 

. . • . Pofe, 

'4. The fnace of a hundred years ; a fecu- 
lar period ; a century. 

5 . The latter part of life ; old -age ; old- 


You fee how full of,;e his itgr is! the ob- 
fervation we have m.idc of it hath not been little ; 
he always loved our lillcf moft, nnd with what poor 
judgment he hath now call her off! 

Sl\iiefirare's King L'ur. 

Boys muft nrit hiive th' ambitious care of men, 
Nor men the weak anx»ftk**s of ^^i BUcommc:, 

And on this forehead, where your vcrfe has faid 
The loves delighted, and the i,raccs play'd j 
Infulting <!;i;e will ttace his ciuel wjy, 
And lca»c lad marks of hi» deilruftive fwajr. 


6. Maturity ; ripencfs ; years of difcre- 
tion ; full llrength of life. 

A folemn admilfioii of profeiytes, a'.l cither, 
being of age, dcfire that admiliitfn for themfilves. 


or that, in infancy, are b; others ptefcnted to that 
charity of the church. VamniMj, 

We thought our fires, not with their own content. 
Had, eie we Came to age, our portion Ijient. 

, In law. 

la a man, the age of fourteen years is the tige 
of difcrcti.-.n ; and twenty -one y.ars is rhe full .in: 
In a woman, at feven years of agi, the lord her 
father may diftr.iin his ten mts for aid to marry herj 
at the age of nine years, flic is dowabie ; at twelve 
years, (he is able finally to ratify and confirm her 
former confent given to raaa-imony ; at fourteen, 
(he is enabled to receive her land into her own 
hands, and (hall be out of ward at the death of her 
anceftor : at fixteen, (he ihall be out of ward, 
though, at the death of her anceftor, flie was within 
the age of fourteen years; a; twenty-one, file is 
able to allei-.ate her lands and tenements. At the 
age oi fjuneen, a enabled to choofe hit 
iwn guarJian ; at the age of fourteen, a man may 
confent to marriage. Couctl, 

A'cED. adj. [from age. It makes two fyl-" 
•lablcs in poetry.] 

1 . Old ; flricken in years ; applied gene- 
rally to animate beings. 

if the com^iar'fon do ftand be^vccn man and 
man, the aged, for the moll part, are bcft experi- 
enced, leaft fubie£l to raJh and unadvifed palTion*. 


Novelty is only in rcqueft i and it is as danger.'in 
to be aged in any kind of courfc, as it is virtuou* 
to be conftant in any undertaking.' 

Sbakeff). Meafurefar Meajitre. 

Kindnefs itfclf too weak a charm will prove. 
To raifc the feeble fires of dj^ei love. Pn.r, 

2. Old; applied to inanimate things. This 
ufe is rare, and commonly with fome 
tendency to the profcpopceia. 

The people did not more worihip the Images of 
gold and ivory, than they did the groves j and tlio 
lame Quintilian faith of the aged oaks. 

SuUingf.etCi Defcme of D'ifc. «i Rem. IdtU 
A'cEDLY. adv. [from, aged.] After the 

manner of an aged perfon. 
Age'n. adv. [ajen, Sa.ic.] Again; in 
return. See Again. 

This word is now only written in this 
manner, though it be in reaiity the true 
orthography, for the fake of rhime. 

Thus Ve.ius : Thus her fon reply'd agin; 
None of your fifters have we heard or Icen. 


A'cENCY. n.f. [from agent.] 

1. The quality of afting ; the ftate of be- 
ing in adlion ; aftion. 

A few .advances there are in the following papers, 
tending to alTert the fuperintendence and agency of 
Providence in the natural world. 

H-'oc'divaid s Pief. to Nat. HiJIoty. 

2. The office of an .igent or faftor for an- 
other; bufinefs performed by an agent. 

Some of the purchjfers themfclves may bi; con- 
ten: to live cheap in a worfe country, rather than 
br at the charge of exchange and agennes. Sw'ij't, 

A'GENT. adj. [agens,] That which 
afts ; oppoled to />a/ient, or that which 
is afied upon. 

This fuccef-, is oft truly afcribcd unto the f.^rce 
of imagination upon the body agent ; and ilicn, by 
a !ccond.iiy means, it may upon a diierle body 5 
as, for exav.ple, if a man cany a ring, or fome_ 
part of a bcaft, S-i'cvlng Jliongly that it will help 
him to obtain his lo\r, it may make him more 
indulWous, and a;ain more confident and p.-rti >inj 
than clliciwiCe.hc would be. Baccn! N.U. Hiji. 

A'gent. n.f. 

1 . An aftor ; he that afts ; he tiiat polTcfrcs 
the ficulty of ailion. 



A G G 

Where there is no doubt, d''*on is not e:c- 
cluded as -mpertincrt unto the thing, but as necd- 
fcfs in reg ird of the winch .iccth airc?.dy 
what to refolve upon.' ■ / ' . Haofa-. 

To wliom nor a^f»i:, fi-om the inftrumcnt, 
Nor pow'r of working, from the work is known. 

Hca%''n made us egenu fr*l to good or ill. 
And forc'd it not, tho' he forefaw the wiil. 
Freedom was firtl Leftow'd on human race, 
And prefcicncc onU held the I'econd place, 


A miracle is a work exceeding the power of any 
create:! fftrcrty confetjccntly being an effect of the 
divine cmni^^-rcnc^, Scathes oA-iro.vr. 

2. A lubllinite ; a deputy; a faftor; a 
perfon employed to tranfaft the bufinefs 
of another. 

— Ail hearts in love, ufe your own tODg'JCS ; 
let ever)' CTc nejotiate for itfcif. 
And cruft no agtirt, Sbakf^art, 

The) had n^t tlic wit to find to them, in a'ly 
orderly fauiit^n, egsnti or clicfea mtji, to" tcrnpt 
them, and to treat with them, fiaon'j //.rry VII. 

Remember, Sir, your fury of a wife, 
• Who nut content to be reveng'd on yoa, • 
The agents of your palfion will purfne.' 

Vytuti't Auretig, 

3. That which has the power of operating, 
or producing efteils upon another thin^. 

The) prcduc.d wcnderfui effecis, by the propr 
application ofagtnls to patients. "tcm/ile. 

AcGEtA-'TioN. n./. [Lat.f£/«.] Concre- 
tion of ice. 

It Is round in hail, and figured in its guttuious ; 
deicenMroin the air, growing greater or lefler ac- ' 
carding to the accretion or plu > i jus aggtUtkt ab3ut ' 
the fundamental atoms thereof. ; 

Brtiun s yulTor Erriart. 

AccENER.'i'TiON. n. /. [from «</ and ^*- 
reratio, Lat.] The ftate of growing or 
uniting to another body. 

To make a perfect nutiition, there is. reotiiiifd a 

tranfmutation of nutriment } now- where this-con. 

vcTfir'U,ortf|*^ewrtfri£if is made, there isalfo requited, 

in <he aliment, a fimilatil^ of matter. | 

^rMcn't fafgdr Erriurs 

To A'ccER.\TE. t/. a. [from a^gef, Lat.]^ 
To heap up. Dia. 

Agcero'se. adj. [from agger, Lat.] FuUj 
of heaps,' ' .' DUl. 

To AGGLO'MERATE.' ^. «. [cg^hiairo, 

■ Lat.], ' ■ 

1. To gather up in a ball, af thread. 

2. To gather together. 

To Ag G L o'm e r a t e . 1-. n. 

Bcfide$, the hard agglcmeral'mg fait:, 
The fpoil of ages, would impcfvious choke ■ ' 
Their frcret channels. 7i.?-!''fn'j Aulumr. 

Acclu'ti N ANTS. 71./. [from a^t;ft'finaU.]' 
Thofe medicines or appIicitici'S wh'ich 
have the power of uniting parts together. 

To AGGLUTINATE. t..». [from ad'and 
gli'ien, glue, Lat.] To unite one part to 
anotrier; to join together, foas not to fall 
afunder. Jt is a word almoll appropri- 



•t.riomejiough ' 


Tlie occafion of it^not healinj hy ff,7-|r/r, -.■...;';•.<,, 
as the other did, was from the alteration the ichoi 
had begun to make in the bottom of the wnind. 

Ac G\.v'ri'K^liy%'.iUiJ.\Jtomag^l:itii7ate.'\ 
That which Ips the power of procuring 

Rowl up the member with the eggluthat'i'j- 
rowler. JViunan. 

To AGGRANDI'ZR. -v. a. [aggraniiijer, 
Fr. ] To make great ; to enlarge ; to 
exalt ; to improve in power, honour, or 
rank. It is applied to perfons gene- 
rally, fometimes to thiiig.s. 

It the king Ihould ufe it no better than the pope 
did, only to nggrandi-ci: covetous churchmen, it 
cannot be called a jewel in his crown. 

Ayl.fe's PartrgDn. 
_ Thefc fumilh us with glorious f'prings and me- 
diums, to raife and aggrantiixe our conceptions, to 
warm our fouls, to awaken the better paflions, and 
to elevate thcra even to a divine pitch, and that for 
dcvjtional purpolcs. fl-'jt.'s^s Imf-r. cf:UATlneS. 
A'CGRANDIZEMENT. n. /. \aggrandijpi. 

ment, Yr."] The ftate of being aggran- 
dized ; the aft of aggrandizing. 

A'c o R A N D I z E R . 11. J. [from aggrandize. ] 
The perfon that aggrandii;es or makes 
great another. 

ToAgcra'te. 'V. a. \aggYatare, Ital.] 
To pleafe ; to treat with civilities : a 
word not now in ufe. ^ 

And in the midft thereof, upon the fldor, 
A lovely bvy of fair ladies fatej 

'■> ; Conned'of many a jolly' parampur ; 
The which them did in model! wife amate, 
A.^d cac'h one fought his lady to aggraie. 

Fairy ^veen. 

TVA'GGRAVATE. V. a.laggra'uo, iTat.] 
r. To make heavy, flfed only in a nfieta- 

phorical feai'e ; as, to c^^irrtt/^ an ac- 

cufation, or a puniQiraent. 

A grove hard by, fprung.ij> with this «heir change, 
■ .His wiil who reigns ab^ve! to aggritvaie 
Their penaace, Udcn with fruit, like that 
Wli'ich grew in Paradife, the b.iit of Eve 
UsM by the tempter. " muH'] P^radift Lcjl. 

Ambitious Turmis in the prtfs appears, ' 
AaittggrfvifUKg cjimcs aogmeats fears. , . 

Dryd. j^^ci.l. 
2. Fo make any thing worfe, by the ad- 
dition of forae particular ciiCuinHance, 
not eflential. ' 

This offence, iii ItfeH" B> '•: ,:. 

him «^r*waW by'.thc rastiv* thereof, which was 
not malice or diftontunt, but in afjiiring mind tc- 
the papacy. "" ' "" 

Acf.R AV/i' 

I. The'aa oi 
heavy., . 

Z. Th. :r;7^' 

A I 

and h. 
it in: 

3. The 
dents, which. 

criinc. r,r rh#* 

Bjccni Henry Vll. 
'" \Jr()vn aggrai.ale.'] 
ii^graviating, ^^" or ! making 

' ^ ' '• imity. ,^ 

..t'J.Uie f^ce, 

•-' n ,..■: r-.iTures ch^nge^l 
'", : . It'. ■■- Ai^^iiltt. 

...cnmflances or afci- 

increafe tai 

: guilt of a 

■'"mity..- ■ 
iiatii the Vtt. 

t'lnated to the foundatic 


O.v. n.J. 


he (Lite l. 

ftsi r.' 



4*11.11 cunltficnre, a^air;:. 

-';■' -.oif it'br^ifgh'd .: I 

'h a^rritu/.auj not furcharg'd, 
'^ allowance cnumerpois'd, •■ ' 

r.'y I .ird'>n fii.d ' 

.1 , 111 'If hi'iij lef-.. M'lhm.;[ Fra-1' 


A G G 

The foljd reafon of one man with unprejudicate'* 
apprehenlions, begets as firm a belief?, rh^ aulho- 
lity or uggrfgute leltiniuuy of many hundred.!. 

Bnwv's !':llgtir Errcu)!, 

They had, for a long time together, producci 
mahy other inept combirations, or ti^rre^.j.'c forms 
of particular^, and nonftnllcalfyftems of fhe 
"■!iole. ■ Ry t,n the Cnaur.n. 

A'cGREGATE. n. f. [from the verb.] The 
complex, or colleftive rcfult of the con- 
junflion or acervation of many parti- 

The reafon of the far greateft part of mankind, 
is but ^Mi'aggngetc of miltalieii phanrafms, and, 
in things not feniible, a conftant deiuiion. 

GlanvUlt's Reef,/:! Siifnt'ifia, ■ 

A great number of living and thinking particles ^ 
could not poiiibly, by their mutual contact, and 
pic/hng, and Rriking, compofe one greater indi- 
vidual animal, with one mind and uiiJerftnndin?, 
and a vital confenfion of the whole b .dy ;, aiiy 
more than a fwarm of bees, or a crowd of men and 
women, can be conceived to make up one paiticular 
livihg creature, compoundftd and conltituted of the 
aggrrgiiic of them all. B.-ni/rv. ■ 

To A'GGREGATE. nj. a. [aggrego, La*t'] 
To colleft together ; to accumulate; to 
heap many particulars into one mafs. 

The aggregated foil 
Death, with his mace petrifick, cold, and dry. 
As with a trident, fmote. Miltcns Parad. Ltft,. 
Aggrega'tio-n. n.f. [from aggrtgate.^ 

1. Colleiaion,., or ftate of being collcfted. 
Their individual Imperfeflions being great, th.-y 

ire moreover enlarged by their nggregatwn ; and 
being erroneous in their tingle numbers, once hud- 
: died together, they will be errour itfelf. 
. . : ' ■ > Brt/iuti^i Vitlgijr ErrourSt 

2. The colleftion, or aft of collefting many 
particulars into one whole. 

The water refident ii\^i abyfs is» in all parts ■ 
of u, doted with .a coufiderable quantity of, 
aad more efpei^i.illy in thofc where thcfe extrao;di- 
riary a^gr,giiiicni of this fire happen. 

IV^odtvard* s Natural Hiftorym 

3. The whole compofed by the coacerva- 
tion of many particulars ; an aggregate. 

Tt> A'GGRE'SS. <v. n. [aggredior, aggref- 
fi.i:, Lat.] To commit the firll ad of. 
violence ; . to begin the quarrel. 

. Tho glorious pair .ndvance. 
With mlot^cd anger, and collei51ed might, 

To turn the w,ir, and t^ "g^ejing franc?, . 
How Bfitajn's fons and Britam's friends can fijfit.. 
,,'-''■ ■ l-'rior. 

Accre ssion. n-./.[aggye^o,l.3-i-'\ Thft 
firfl aft of injury ; commencement of 
a quarrel by fome aftof i.iiquity. 

Tiicrc is nordiliinqof a c 'mmo:! enemy, *itb3ut 

an union for 4 mjutual dtfiBCc; and, th?re inay 

' be iilfo, 01^ tlic6therhanJ,''acy(ifcomi» n 

:fn!nhy^nii.,iggr(ff;,n. \ I'S/ln-rgt. 

AcGRE.ssOR. a./, [fronj aggr,/s.] The 

perfon. tliat firlt commencvjs hotlility ; 

the aflafllter-or invader, oppofcd to the- 

difcifdanf. " ' ' 

- 1 I'^y'ifl. nature's face.' 

Pit Iinw, ..' n^M.i-. Hv It',' ,'-„ (■,.- . r,..'i > 

..T .okto'f. ■ 

'"' . ' Dryd.n.. 

; • .. JtiJ^ >iC;Jl.uiJu<iiiy ciiCjjTji/Jai^ei to be oWigcd 

to retali.ite the ir.ji,r.c.i of fuch .lutliois, v-holi 

works ,, :ir;that we arc in danger 

' ^'"^y ■ ',i i!ggr'cij!,r!. 

Pspe and Sio'tft. 

Ao c R j't VAN CE.«./ [Sec Grievance.]' 
Injury; hardfliip inflifted ; wrong en-- 

Tr, Ar 


^'■vt,. ti^a^ [^rom ^j-fl-wV, Ji»t.- 
I. To 

A G I 

«. To give forrow ; to caufe grief; to rex. 
It is not improbable, that to grie've was 
originally neuter, and aggrieve the ac- 

But w.hile therein I took my chief delight, 
' 1 (aw, jIu \ the gaping earth devour 

The fprinc, the plice, and all clean out of fight : 
■Whitli }-•! iggr'uvci my heat even to this ho'ir. 

3. To impofe fomc hardftiips upon ; to 
harafs ; to htirt in one's right. This 
is a kind of juridical fenfe ; and when- 
ever it is ufed now, it feetns to bear 
fome allufion to formsof law. 

Sewall, archbiibop ol York, much aggr\r-.rH 
with foin: prjfiicei of ihc pope's collectors, cock 
ail patiently. Camkv. 

The landed man finds himfelf ii^jr;?T/««/ by the 
ifalling of ^is rents, and the {(reightcning of his 
ifo/tune; whilrt the m^uied man Ictept up his gain, 
»nd the meichant thiivcs and grows rich by trade. 

Of injw'd fame, and mighty wrongs teceiv'd, 
Cbloc complains, and wond'rcuAy 'i a^ricu'd- 

* ■ GrajwilU* 

fo Agcrotj'p. v. a. \^aggri)pare,\t3.\.'\ To 
bring together into one figure ; to crowd 
together: a teria of painting. 

Bodies of divers naluics, wliivh are {jggr:upftl 
(or combined) together, are agreeable and pleaUnt 
to the fight. _ Drydcn. 

Acha'st. adj. [cither the participle of 
agaze (fee Agaze), and then to be 
written agaxed, or ago/}, or from a and 
.j^aj-r, a ghoft, which the prefent ortho- 
graphy favours ; perhaps they were ori- 
ginally different words.] Struck with 
horrour, as at the fight of a fpedtre ; 
ftupified with t^rrour. It is generally 
applied to the ^iernal appearance. 

She fighing fore, as if iier heart in twaine 
Had riven been, and all her heart-ftrings braft. 
With d reary drooping eyne l»ok'd up like o«e agbjjl. 

The aged eartTi a^baft. 
With terxour of that bla/l. 
Shall from thefurface to the centre (hake. Mdtun. 

jtgbafi he wak'd, and, ftirting from his ted, 
•Cold fweat in clammy drops his limbs o'erfprcad. 
Drydin'i Mr.cid. 
1 laugh to think how your unrtiaken Caco 
Will lo<Sk aghafi, while unforefecn deftruftion 
Pours in upon him thus from every fide. 

j^difoti^s Cat^. 
A'GILE. adj. [agile, Fr. agilis, Lat.] 
Nimble ; ready ; having the quality of 
being fpeedily put in motion ; active. 

With that he gave his able horfe the head. 
And bending forward ({ruck his agili heels 
Againftthe panting fides of his poor jade, 
Vp to the rowel-head. Sbakrfp. }!inry IV. 

The immediate and agik fubfervience of tlje 
^irits to the empite of the mind or foul. 

Hale' I Origin of Matihind. 
To guide its anions with in/brming care. 
In peace to judge, to conquer in the war. 
Render it ogilt, witty, valiant, fage. 
As (its the various courfe of human age. Trhr. 

A'oiLBNEss. n.J. [fromoj-/7«.] The qua- 
lity of being agile ; nimblenefs ; rea- 
dinefs for motion ; quicknefs ; adivity ; 

Aci'i-tTY. »./. [agilitas, Lat. fiomagilis, 
agile.] Nimblenefs ; readinefs to move ; 
quicknefs ; aftivity. 

A limb ovcr-llrained by lifting a weight al>ove 
Its pawer, may never recover its former agility and 
vigour. TT'aiti. 

AGl'LLOCHUM. n.f. Aloes-wood. A 
tree in tiie Eaft-Indies, brought to us in 

A G I 

fmall bits, of a very fragront fcent. It 
is liot, drying, and accounted -a llrength- 
enerof the nerves in general. The beft 
is of a blackifh purple colour, and fo 
light as to fwim upon water. Sluincy. 
jfGJO. n.f. [An Italian word, fignifying 
cafe or conveniency.] A mercantile 
term, nfcd chiefly in Holland and Ve- 
nice, for the ditFerence between the value 
of bank notes, and the current money. 

To AGI'ST, V. a. [from gijie, Fr. a bed 
or refting-place, or from gifter, i. e. 
ftabulia-i.'] To take in and feed the 
cittle of Ih-angers in the king's foreft, 
and to gather the money. The officers 
that do this, are called cgiftors, in Eng- 
lifli, gueft or gift-takers. Their funftion 
is terflied agiftment ; as, agiftment upon 
the fea-banks. This word agiji is alfo 
ufed, for the taking in of other men's 
cattle into any man's ground, at a cer- 
tain raxe per week.] Blount. 
Aoi'sTMENT. n.f. [See Agist.] It is 
taken by the canon lawyers in aiuither 
fenfe than is mentioned under agift. 
They feem to intend by it, a modus or 
conipofition, or mean rate, at which 
fome right or due may be reckoned : per- 
haps it is corrupted from addoucijfement , 
or adjuftment. 
Aci'sToa. n.f. [ffom /Jfj/?.] An officer of 

the king's forefl. See Agist. 
A'g 1 T A B L E . adj. [from agitate ; agitahilis, 
Lat.] That which May be agitated, or 
put in motion ; perhaps that which may 
be difputed. See Agitate, and Agi- 
tation. . . . , 
To A'GITATE. v. «. [agio, Lat.] 

1 . To put in motion ; to (hake ; to move 
nimbly ; as, the furface of the waters 
is agitated by the wind ; the veffel was 
broken by agitating the Uquor. 

2. To be the caufe of motipn ; to aftuate ; 
to move. 

Where dwells this (bv'reljn arbitrary foul, 
Which does the human animal concroul, 
Inform each part, and agitata the wliole? Blacknore. 

J. To affed with perturbation ; as, the 
mind of man is agitated by various 

4. To ftir ; to bandy from one to another ; 
to difcufs ; to controvert ; ^s, to agitate 
a quelHon^ 

Though this controverfy be revivedi an4 hotly 

agitated among the moderns ; yet I doubt whether 

it be not, in a great part, a nominal difpute. ' 

Boyie on Colours.- 

5. To contrive; to revolve; to form by 
laborious thought. 

Farmalitics of extraordinary ecal and piefy arc 
never more (ludied and elaborate, than when poli-{ 
ticians nioH agitate defperate defjgns. K'nig Charles. 

Agita'tion. »./. [homagitate; agitatio, 
Lat.] ; ' 

1. The aftofmovingor fhaking anything. 

Putrefadtion alkoth rcll ; for the lubtle motion 
which putrefaction requireth, is difturbed by any 
agitation. Boicr,. 

2. The ftate of being moved or agitated ; 
as, the waters, after a ftorm, are fome 
time in a violent agitation. 

3. Difcu&on ; controverfial examinatisn. 


A It'md of a fchool qutllion is Sarted !n this fable, 
upon reafon and inliinO ; this deliberative pro. 
ceeding of the crow, was rather a logical agiia:iaii 
of the matter. i: tfiran^e' s fahUi, 

If. Violent motion of the mind ; pertur- 
bation ; difturbance of the thoughts. 

A great perturbation in nature '. to receive at 
once the bene(it of fleep, and do the eRetts of 
watching. In this (lumbry agitation, belides her 
walking, and other aflaal performances, what 
have you heard her fay ? Shakejftart'i Macbeth. 

His mother could no longer bear the agitatioru 
of (0 many palTions as tlirongcd u"on her. 

■ Taller, N" 55. 

5. Deliberation; contrivance; the ftate 
of being confulted upon. 

■The projeil now in agilaian for repealing of 
the teft aft, and yet leaving the narae'of an ellad- 
lifhment to the prefent national church, is incon- 
fiftcnt. Sivifi'i Mi'celhnie!. 

Agita'tor. n.f. [from agitate.] He that 
agitates any thing ; he who manages 
affairs : in which fenfe feems to be ufed 
the agitators of the army. 

A'rtLET. n.f. [Some derive it from afyXi!, 
fplendour ; but it is apparently to be 
deduced from aigulette, Fr. a tag to a 
point, and that from aigu, fharp.] 

1 . A tag of a point curved into fome re- 
prefentation of an animal, generally of 
a man. 

He thereupon gave for the garter a chain wortti 
2col. and his gown addre(red with aglets, efteemed 
worth 15!. Hayward. 

Why,. give him gold enough, and marry him 
to a puppet, or an aglet baby, or an old trut, and 
ne'er a tootli in her head. 

Sbakejfeare" s T.inir.g of the Sbrrio. 

2. The pendants at the ends of the chieves 
of flowers, as in tulips. 

A'cMiNAL. adj. [from a^/»^«, Lat.] Be- 
longing to a troop. D:S. 

A'g NAIL. adj. [from anje, grieved, and 
najle, a nail.] A difeafe of the nails ; 
a whitlow ; an inflammation round the 

Agna'tion. n.f. [from agnatus, Lat.] 
Defcent from the feme father, in a di- 
reft male line, diftinfl from cogaation, 
or confanguinity, which includes defcea- 
dants from females. 

Agni'tion. n.f. [from aguitie, XaI.^ 

To Agni'ze. ■v. a. [from agtofco, Lat.] 
To acknowledge ; to own ; to avow. 
This word is now obfolete. 

1 do agniau 
A natural and prompt alacrity 
I find in hardnefs. Shalrffeari's OiiilU. 

Agnomina'tio.v. n.f. [agnominatio, Lat.] 
Allufion of one word to another, by rc- 
femblance of found. 

The Bririlh continueth yet in Wales, and fome 
villages of Cornwall, intermingled with provincial 
Latin, being very lignificative, copiois, and plea- 
(^ntly running upon agnotr.intnons, although hardi 
in al'pirations. Catnden. 

AGKVS CASTUS. n.f [Lat.] The name 
of the tree commonly called the Chafe 
Tree, from an imaginary virtue of pre- 
ferving chaftity. 

Of laurel fjme, of woodbine many more. 
And wreathes of agnut cajius others bore. Dryd, 

Ago', adv. [ajan. Sax. pall or gone ; 
whence writers formerly ufed, and in 
fome provinces the people ftill ufe, agone 
for ago.] Pall ; as, long ago ; that is, 



Jong time has pad fince. Reckoning 
time towards the prefent, we \ik fence ; 
as, it is a ye3.x fence it happened : reck- 
oning from the prefent, we ufe ago ; as, 
it happened a year ago. I'his is not, 
perhaps, always obferved. 

The great fupp?y 
Are wreck'd three nights ami on Gadwin finds. 

Stahf^ eare. 
This both by othfn and myfelf I know. 
For I have fcrv'd their rovercign long tigo ; 
Oft have been caught within the winding train. 
Dryd,rCi Fabics, 
I (hill fct down an account of a difcourfc I 
chanced to have with one of the.n fjme time c^o. 
j^iUiji^ni Frtiiotdir. 

Ago'c. aJv. [a word of uncertain ety- 
mology : the French have the term a 
gcgo, in low language ; zi.ils iiivc/it a 
gcgo, they live to their wilTi : from this 
phrafe our word may be, perhaps, de- 

I. In a (late of defire ; in a ftate of warm 
imagination ; heated with the notion 
of fome enjoyment ; longing ; llrongly 

As fjr the fcnfe and reafon of it, that has little 
«r nothing to do here ; only let it found full and 
round, and chime right to the humour, which 
is at prefent agog (juft as a big, long, rattling 
natne is faid to command even adoration fiom a 
Spaniard), and, no doubt, with this powerful, 
fenfelefs engine, the rabble driver flialj be able t^ 
carry all before h;m. Scuib'i S.tkhiii. 

Z. It is ufed with the verbs to be, or to fet ; 
as, he is agog, or you may fet him 

'i'he gawdy gnflip, whfn the'sfer agog. 
In jewels dreft, and at each ear a bob. 
Goes flaunting out, and, in her trim of pride. 
Thinks all flic fays or does is juftifj'd. 

Dryd. Jiiv. Sat. vi. 

This maggot has no {ooner Jet him agc', bui 
he gets him a fliip, f eights hor, builds caitlcs in 
the air, and conceits both the ladies in his cof- 
fers. L'E/lr.tnzt. 
3. It has the particles on, or far, before 
the object of defire. 

On which the fj'nts ar« all agog, 
Ard all this for a bear and dog. Hudihr. (ant, ii. 

Gvffios generally ft.agi;le into thefe parts, and 
fet the heads of our fervant-maidi fo agcg fir 
hulbands, that we do not cxpefl to have any bufi- 
nefs done as it fliouij be, whil.1 they are in the 
country. Mdifuit't SfiBatcr. 

Aco'iNC, participial adj. [from a and 
going.^ In aftion ; into aftion. 

Their firft movement, and imprejed motions, 
demanded the impuli'e of an almighty hand to fet 
them firll agolrtg, TatUr, 

Aco'ne. adv. [ajan. Sax.] Ago; paft. 
See Ago. 

is he fuch a princely one. 
As you fpeak him long agent? 

Ben 'Jonffm^s Fairy Prhce. 

A'cONiSM. n.f. [iyMiiTfio,-, Gr.] Conten- 
tion for a prize. Diil. 

A'coNisT. n.f. [aytjVijj Gr.] A con- 
tender for prizes. Diit. 

AcoNi'sTES. n.f. [Uyc^nrrii; , Gr.] A prize- 
fighter ; one that contends at r.»y pub- 
lic folemnity for a prize. Milton has 
fo ftyled his tragedy, bec.iufe Samfon 
was called cut to divert the Philiftines 
with feats of llrength. 

AcoNi'sTiCAL.a*^'. [from<7jo«//?cv.] Re- 
lating to prize-fighting. Did. 

I« A'coNizE. V. n. [from agonisx, low 
Vol. I. 

A G R 

Latin ; iyuti^u, Gr. rgonifer, Fr.] To 
feel agonies ; to be in excefTive pain. 

Doft thou behold my poor diltrafled heirt, 
Thus-rent with agoi:izing love and rage. 
And afic me what it means ? Art tliyu not falfe ? 
R'.'tU'-'s f-int S/^are. 
Or touch, if, tremblingly alive all o'er, 
To fmait and agonixe at evVy pore ? 

Fc/re's Fff-iy on Man. 
Acokothe'tick. adj. [xyut z'i^r,fn, 
Gr.] Propofing publick contentions for 
prizes ; giving prizes; prefiding at pub- 
lick games. Ditl. 
A'GONY. n.f. [aya*, Gr. agon, low Lat. 
agonie, ^r.'\ 

1 . The pangs of death ; properly the lall 
contcil between life and death. 

Never was there more pity in faving any than 
in ending me, bccaufj therein my agony fliali end. 


Thou who for me did'feel fuch pain, 
Whofe precious blood the crofs did ftain. 
Let not thc.fe agcn'us be va.n. Rofccmmcn. 

2. Any violent or exceflive pain of body 
or mind. 

Betwijt them both, they have mc done to dy. 
Thro' wounds and lirokes, and ftubborn handeling. 

That death were better than fuch agcny. 
As grief and fury unto me did bring. Fairy Slueen. 

Thee I have mifs'd, and thought it long, depriv'd 
Thy prefence, ag'nj of love ! till now 
Not felt, nor (hall be twice. Mihon't Par. Lofl. 

3. It is particularly ufed in devotions for 
our Redeemer's conflict in the garden. 

To propofe our defires, which cannot take fuch 
effciS as we fpecify, fhall, notwithftaniing, other- 
wife procure ui his heavenly grace, even as this 
very prayer of Chr.ft obtained angels to be fent 
him as comforters in his t:gony. Hooker. 

Ago'od. adv. [a ATiA gcod.'\ In eameft ; 
• not fJAttioudy. Not in ufe. 

At that time 1 made her weep agood, 
For 1 did play a hmeitable pirt. 

Stikeffejr:'! Ttvn Gent, ef Ver'na- 

Acot;'TY. n.f. An animal of the An- 
tilles, of the bignefs of a rabbet, with 
bright red hair, and a little tail without 
hair. He has but two teeth in each jiw, 
holds his meat in his fore -paws like a 
fquirrel, and has a very remarkable cry. 
When he is angry, his hair Hands on 
end, and he ilrikes the- earth with his 
hind-feet, and, when chafed, he flies 
to a hollow tree, whence he is expelled 
by fmoke. Tre'voux. 

•ToAcra'ce. "v. a, [from a ?mA grace. "[ 
To grant favours to ; to confer benefits 
upon : a word not now in ufe. 

She granted, and that knight fo much agra<'i. 
That the him taught celeftial difcipline. 

Fairy Sluiin. 
Acra'mmatist. n. f. [a, fri'u. and 
yfa.jj.u.!ic, Gr.] An illiterate man. Did. 
Agra'rian. adj. \_agrarius, Lat.] Re- 
lating to fields or grounds ; a word fel- 
dom ufed but in the Roman hillory, 
where there is mention of the agrarian 
yiAoRE'ASE. 1/. (T. [{roai a And greafe.'] 
To daub ; to greali; ; to pollute with 

The waves thereof fo (low and fluj?gi(h were, 
Engrofs'd with mud, which did them foul agreafe. 

Fairy liluetn. 

To AGRE'E. If. n. [agreer, Fr. fromgre, 
liking or good-will; gratia smd gratus, 

V A G R 

1. To be in concord ; to live without con- 
tention ; not to differ. 

The more you e:g!ee together, the Icfs hurt can 
your enemies do you. Brccme's P*iitv '^f Epic Poetf y. 

2. To grant ; to yield to ; to admit ; with 
the particles to or upon. 

And perfuaded them to agree to all rcafonable 
conditions. z RTjccateci, xi. 14. 

We do not prove the origin of the earth from a 
chaos ; fccirg that is agreed on by all that give it 
ary origin. Burnet. 

3. To fettle amicably. 

A form of vi ords were quickly agreed on between 
th'-m for 3 pertVdt combinat'.on. C'arendr^n. 

4. To fettle terms by fiipulation ; to ac- 
cord : followed by ivit/j. 

Agree zviib thine aJverfary quickly, whilft thcu 
art in the .way with him ; left at any time the 
adverfary deliver t.hee to the judge, and the judge 
deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cart into 
prifon. Matt. v. 15. 

5. To fettle a price between buyer and 

Friend, I do tlice no wrong; didft not thou 
agree vjilb me for a penny? Mal>. xx. 13, 

6. To be of the fame mind or opinion. 

He exceedingly provoked or unJerwent the 
envy, and reproach, and malice of men of all 
qualities and conditions, who agreed in nothing 
elfe. Clarendon. 

Milton is a noble genius, and the world agree: to 
confefs it. ff^attt^s Imprtjvcment of the Mind. 

7. To concur ; to co-operate. 

Muft the whole man, amazing thought! return 
To the cold ma.ble and contra-ted urn ? 
And never Ihall thofe particles agree, 
That were in life this individual he ? Prior. 

8. To fettle fome point a;nong many, with 
upon before a noun. 

Strifes and troubles would be cndlefs, except 
they gave their common confent all to be ordered 
by fome whom they fiijuld agree upon. Honker. 

If men, iktUed in chymical affairs, {hsW agree 
to write clearly, and keep men from being ftunned 
by dark or en>p;y words, they will be reduced 
eitiier to write nothing, or books that may teach 
u^ fjniething. Boyle. 

9. To be confiilent ; not to contradift; 
with to ot luith. 

For many bare falfe witnefs againft him, but 
their witnefs agreed not together. Mark, xiv. 56. 

They that ftood by faid again to Peter, Suely 
thou art one of them : for thou art a Galilean, 
and thy fpeecli ogreeib thereto. Mark, xiv. 70. 

Which teftimony I the lefs fcruple to all/ge, 
bec.iufe it agrees very well -with what has been af- 
firmed to me. Bayle, 

10. To fuit with; to be accommodated 
to : with to or --with. 

Thou fceJeft thine own people with angels food, 
and didft fend them from heaven bread agreeing to 
every tafte. _ mjdom. 

His principles could not be ma.le to agree with 
that conftitulion and order which God had fettled 
in the world ; and, therefore, muft needs clalh 
with common fenfe and experience. Locke, 

1 1. To caufe no difl:urbance in the body. 

I have often thought, that our prefcribing affej 
milk in fuch fmall quantities, is injudicious; for, 
undoubtedly, with luch as it agrea with, it would 
perform much gieater and qnicker cflefls, iit 
greater quantities. .Orbutbnot. 

To Ac re'e. 1;. a. 

1 . To put an end to a variance. 

He faw from far, or feemed for to fee. 
Some troublous uproar, or contentious fray, 
Whereto he drew in haflc it to agree. 

Fairy Slueen, i. it. 

2. To make friends ; to reconcile. 

The mighty rivals, whofe deftrud^ive rage 
Did the whole world io civil aims engage. 
Ate now agreed. Rojcommm. 

H VLore'eable. 

A G R 

^cke'iaBLC. dJj. [agreaile,¥t.'] 

1. Suitable to ; confiftent with j conform- 
able to. It has the particle to, or ivith. 

This piucity of blood is agrciabU It many other 
•nimilt, at ft-tgs, lizardi, and other fidies. 

£rawH*t Vulgar Errouri, 

Tha Hcl'isht whlc!i men have in popuhirlty, 
fame, fubmiffiw, and fubjcflion of otlier n)cii'» 
minds, fecmeth to he a thing, in itlelf, witliout 
contemplation c( confcqiience, agmAh- and grate- 
ful to the natuve ot" man. Baan's Natura/ Ui/lory 

What you do, is not at all ogneahlt either 
wkb fo good a chriftian, or fo rcalbnabic and (c 
treat a pcifun. Tewfk. 

That which is agriealk fj the nature of one 
thing, is many times contrary to the narure of 
another. VEJlr.wge. 

As Uic praflice of all piety and viitue is agrec- 
ciie to our reafon, fo is it likcwlfe the iniereft 
both of private perl'ons and of public focieties. 


2. In the following paflage the adjedive 
is ufed by a. familiar corruption for the 
adverb agreeably. 

jigreiahlc tereunto, perl?sps it might not beamifs, 
to make children, asibon as they are capable of it, 
«ften to tell a ftory. ttcke on EJucatim. 

3. Pleafing ; that is fuitable to the incli- 
sation, faculties, or temper. It is ufed 
in this fenfe both of perfons and things. 

And while the face of outward things we find 
Pleafant and fair, agricatU and fweet, 
Thefc things tranfport. SlrJ.Dav'm. 

1 rtcollefl in my mind the difcourfes which 
feave palTed between us, and call to mind a thou- 
fand agretahli remarks, which he has made on 
thefe occafions. Addijr.n, SfeSatcr, N^ 541. 

Agre'eableness. n.f. \^(rom agreeabU.'\ 
». Confiftency with; fuitablenefs to: with 
the particle to. 

Plealant tafles depend not on the things them- 
felves, but their agrtiablnefi to this or that parti- 
cular palate, wherein there is great variety. Locke. 

3. The quality of pleafmg. It is ufed in 
an infericur fenfe, to mark the pro- 
duftion of fatisfadlion, calm and laft- 
i.Tg, but below rapture or admiration. 

There will be occafion for largenefs of mind 
Uki agremk/entfi of temper. Co/tier of Frieniljhip. 

It is very much an image of that author's writ- 
ing, who has an agrieahhmfi that charms us, 
without corrcflncfs J like a miftrefs, whofe faults 
We fee, but love her with them all. Pope. 

3. Refemblance; likenefs; fometimes with 
the particle betiveen. 

This re'.a'ion is likewife fecn in the agrteahlt- 
tuft icnireta m^n and the other parts of the uni- 
verfe. dviu'j Cofmchgia Sacra. 

Agre'eably. a^'v. [from agreeable.] 
1. Confiftently with ; in a manner fuitable 

They may look into the affairs of Judea and 
JcrufaletD, agreeai/y to that which is in the law of 
tlic Loirf. I EJJ, xviii. II. 

i. Pleafingly. 

1 did never imagine, that fo many excellent 
rules could be produced fo advanugeoufly and 
•igrtcatlj. iivift. 

Agrb'ed. participial adj. \Jtoxa agree.] 
Settled by confent. 

When they had got known and agreid names, 
to fignify thofe internal operations of their own 
minds, they were fuificiently furnifhed to make 
known by words all their ideas. I.ccke. 

Aore'eingness. n./. [from agru.] Con- 
fidence ; fuitablencft. 

Ar;RE'EMENT. tt. J. [agremea/, Fr. in 
law Latiri agreemeattus, which Coke 
would willingly derive from aggrtgatio 

'A G U 

1. Concord. 

What agreamtt is there between the hyeni and 
the dog ^ and what peace between the rich and 
the poor ? Ecctuy. xiii. 18. 

1, Refemblance of one thing to another. 

The djviliiin and quavering which pleafc fo 
much in mufick, have ah agravmii with the glit- 
tering of light, as the moon-beams playing upon a 
wave. * Bacon. 

Expanfion and duration have this farther agrit- 
mti.i, that though they are both confidered by 
us as having parts, jet their parts are not feparahi. 
ore from another. Locke. 

3. Compafk ; bargain; condufionof con- 
troverfy ; llipulation. 

And your covenant with death (hall be difan- 
nulled, and your agreement with hell (hall not 
(land J when the overflowing fcourge (hall pafs 
through, then ye (hall be trodden down by it. 

Jfaiab, xxviii. iS. 
Make an agreerrent with me by a prefcnt, and 
come out to me, and then eat ye every man of 
his own vine, and every one of his fig-tree. 

2 K'mgs, xviii. 31. 
Frog had given his word, that he would meet 
the company, to talk of this agreement. 

I jirbuthnot's Hiftory af John Bull. 

Agre'stick, or Acre'stical. adj. 
[from agrejlis, Lat.] Having relation 
to the country ; rude ; ruftick. Di£i. 
Agricola'tjon. n. f. [from agricola, 
Lat.] Culture of the ground. DiB. 
A'griculture. n.f. [agricultiira, Lat.] 
The art of cultivating the ground; til- 
lage ; hufbandry, as dillinft from paf- 

He ftrictly advifeth not to begin to fow before 
the fftting of the (lars; which, notwithftanding, 
without injury to agriculturey cannot be obferved 
in England. Brotvn^s Vulgar Errours. 

That there was tillage bellowed upon the ante- 
diluvian ground, Mofes does indeed intimate in 
general ; what fort of tillage that was, is not 
expreffed : I hope to (hew that tlieir agriculture 
was nothing near fo laborious and trcublefome, 
nor did it take up fo much time as ours doth. 

H^ooiiivartts Natural Hi^ory, 
The difpcfition of UlyiTes inclined him to war, 
rather than the more lucrative, but more fecure, 
method of life, by agriculture and hulbandry. 

Broome's Notes c/t tbe Odyff^y. 

A'grimon'y. n.f. [a^rimoiiia, Lat.] The 
name of a plant. The leaves are rough, 
hairy, pennated, and grow alternately 
on the branches ; the flower-cup con- 
fifts of one \ezf, which is divided into 
five fegments : the flowers have five or 
fix leaves, and are formed into a long 
fpike, which expand in form of a rofe ; 
the fruit is oblong, dry, and prickly, 
like the burdock ; in each of which are 
contained two kernels. Miller. 

To AoRi'sE. f. rt. [ajpipan. Sax.] To 
look terrible. Out of ufe. Spenfer. 

Te .A.ORi'sE. -v.' a. To terrify. Spenfer. 

Acro'und. ad<v. [from a and^ro»»</.] 

1. Stranded ; hindered by the ground from 
pafling farther. 

With our great (hips, we durft not approach the 
eoail, we having been all of us aground. 

Sir W. RaUlgb's EJJays. 
Say what you fecic, and whither were you bound ? 
Were you, by ftrefs of weather, cad aground f 


2. It is likewife figaratirely ufcd, for 
being hindered in the progrefs of af- 
fairs ; a'^, the negotiators were aground 
at that objeftion. 

.'\'GUE, n.f. [aigu,Ft, acute.] An in- 


termitting fever, with cold fits fuceeed- 

ed by hot. The cold fit is, in popular 
language, more particularly called the 
/ ague, and the hot the fever. 

Our caftle's ftrength 
Will laugh a fiege to fcom. Hctp let them lie. 
Till famine and tbe ague eat them up. Shakefif 

'I hough 
He feels the heats of youth, and colds of aget- 
Vet neither tempers nor correfls -he others 
As if there were an ague in his nature. 
That (lill inclines to one extreme. Dtnbam'tSofiby. 
A'cviu. adj. [from ague.] Struck with 
an ague ; (hivering ; cJiill ; cold : a 
word in little ufe. 

All hurt behind, backs red, and facei pale. 
With flight and agued tear ! Sbaktfp. CtrioLnm. 

A'gi/e fit. ti. f. [from agiu and yS/.] 
Tlie paroxyfm of the ague. 

This ague Jit of fear is overblown. 

Sbakeff. Rich. ir. 

A'gue PROOF. <j<^'. [from ague and proof. 1 
Proof againft agues ; able to refift the 
caufes which produce agues, without 
being afl^efted. 

when the rain came to wet me once, and the 
wi«J to make me chatter; when the thunder would 
not peace at my bidding ; tliere I found 'em, 
there 1 fmclt 'em out. They told me 1 was every 
thing : 'tis a lie ; I am not ague proof . 

Shakffearci King l^ar. 
A'cuE-TREE. n.f. [from ague and trie.] 
A name fometimes given to faffafras. 

ToAovi'sE. "v. a. [from a znd guife. See 
Guise.] Todrefs; to adorn; to deck : 
a word now not in ufe. 

As her fantaftic wit did moft delight. 
Sometimes her head (he fondly would aguift 
With gaudy garlands, or frelh flowers dighc 
About her neck, or rings of rulhes plight. 

f-iiVy Slueen. 

A'guish. adj. [flora ague.] Having the 
qualities of an ague. 

So calm, and io lerenc, but now. 
What means this change on Myra's brow ? 
Her aguijh love now glows and bums. 
Then chills and (hakes, and the cold fit returns. 


A'guishness. ». f. [from aguijh.] The 
quality of refembling an ague. 

-Ah. Inter jcQicn. 

I. A word noting fometimes diflike and 

ylhl fmful nation, a people laden with ini- 
quity, a feed of evil-doers, children that are cor- 
rupters, they have forfaken the Lord. Ijaiah, i. 4. 

z. Sometimes contempt and exultation. 
Let them not fay in their heart*. Ah I fo we 
would have it : let them not fay, we have fwal- 
lowed him up. P/olmxxxy. 2^. 

3. Sometimes, and moft frequently, com- 
panion and complaint. 

In youth alone, unhappy mortals live; 
But, ab .' the mighty blifs is fugitive : 
Difcqiour'd (ickncfs, anxious labour come, 
And age and death's inexorable doom. 

Dryd.Vlrg. Geerg. iii,. 

^^met the blooming pride of May, 
And tl'^t oi' beauty are but one : 

At morn botlvflouriih bright and gay. 
Both t\dc at evening, pale, and gone. Prion 

4. When it is followed by tiat, it ex- 
prcflTes vehement dcfire. 

In gooJncfs, as in greatnefs, they excel ; 
Ab I that we lov'd ourfelvcs but half fo well. 

Drydcn's JuvtruL 

Aha'! Aha'! intcrjeilion. A word inti- 
mating triumph and comenipt. 



They opened their mouth wide aga!nflf mty 

>nd faid, aba I aha ! our eye hath fcen it. 

Pfalm XXXV. II. 

Ahs'ad. aJv. [from a and i6fW.] 
1, Farther onward than another : a fea 

And now the mighty Centaur fe«ms to lead. 
And now the fpeedy Doiphin gets akiad. 

DrydiTs't j^nehl. 

t. Headlong ; precipitanlly :^ ufed of ani- 
mals, and figuratively of men. 

It is mightily the fault of parents, guardians, 
tutors, and governours, tiut lb many men mif- 
carry. They fuffer them at firil to run ahead, 
and, when perverfe inclinations arc advanced into 
habits, there is no dealing with them. 

VEfirargfi Tahiti. 

'.Ahe'icht. adv. [from a and hcigbt.'\ 
Aloft ; on high. 

But have I falPn or no ?— 
—From the dread I'ummit of this chalky bourne ! 
■ Look up aheigbf, the ftir!ll-gorg'd iafk {o far 
Cannot be fecn or hlard. HhahJ^, Khr Lfar, 

jiHOUjfl. n.f. The name of a poifonous 

7» AID. T/. a. \aider, Fr. from adjutare, 
Lat.] To help ; to fupport ; to fuc- 

Into the lake he leapt, hh lord to a'u!. 
And of him catching hold, him Itrongly Ifaid 
From drowning. Fairy ^uetr, 

Ncnhfr fliail they give any thing unto them 
that make war upon them, or aid them with 
rituals, weapons, ir.oney, or fiiips. 

Mauabet!, viii. 26. 
By the loud trumpet, which our courage aidiy 
We learn that found as well as fenfe perfuadcs. 

Aid. n.f. [from To aid.] 

1 . Help ; fupport. 

The memory of ufeful thiiigs may receive con- 
£derable aid, if they are thrown into verfc. 

fVatti^t Improvtment cf tbt Mind. 

Your patrimonial ftorcs in peace poifefs j 
Undoubted all your filial claim confefs : 
Your private right HiouU impious power invade, 
The peers of Ithaca woutd arm in aid. Pift's Od. 

2. The perfon that gives help or fupport ; 
a helper ; auxiliary. 

Thou haft fajd, it is not good that man fhould 
be alone ; let us make unto Elm an aid, like unto 
himfelf. Tidiit, viii. 6. 

Great aidi came in tq him, partly upon mi/fives, 
and partly voluacaries from many parts. 

Bui.n't Henry Vn. 

3. In law. 

A fubfidy. jlid !• alfo particularly ufed, in 
matter of pleading, for a petition made in cuurt, 
for the calling in of help frcm another, that hath 
an interrft in the caufe in ijueflion ; and is I.kc- 
wife both to give (trength to tne party that pray, 
in aid of hiiti, an<i' alio to avoid a prejudice ai.- 
cruing towards his own right, except it be pre- 
vented : as, when a ter.ant for term of lite, c.iur- 
tefy, £*?. being impleaded touchinf; his cftate, lit 
may pray in aid of him in the reverlion ; that is, 
entreat the court, that he may be called in bv 
writ, to all-ge what he thinks good for the main- 
tenance both of his right and his own. O/ivrll. 

Ai'dance. n.f. [from aid.] Help; fup- 
port : a word liiile ufed. 

Oft have I Icca a timely parted ghoft, 
Of aOy femblancc, meagre, pale, and b|.)»d!tf3, 
R ■- ; defcendcd to the lab'ring heart, 

the wnflift that it holds with death, 
^.t rrtUs the fame foraidance 'gainft the cnemv. 

Sbattlfrert's Hrrtry VI. 

Ai'dant. adj. [aidant, Fr.] Helping; 
helpful : no! in ufe. 

,.,. "^n ibliOi'd virtues of r'-,' ~ ■' 
S ■ tent ; \>t aidai:' 

ii. . • :.-. ;n'5 diftrcfi. Si. Liar. 

A I M 

Ai'der. h./. [from aid.] He that brings 
aid or help ; a h-lper ; an ally. 

.'^11 along ..s he \tect, were punilbed the adhe- 
rents and aidits of the late icbels. 

Bacon^s Ilcmy VII, 
Ai'dless. adj. [from aid and /e/s, an in- 
feparable particle.] Hclplefs ; unlup- 
ported ; undefended. 

Alone he entered 
The mortal gate o' th' city, which he painted 
AVith ihunlefs deftiny : aldld': came off, 
Aod, with a fudden rc-enforcemcnt, ftruck 
Coriolj, like a planet. ShaUfp. Corlolanus. 

He had met 
Already, erS my befl fpeed could prevent. 
The eiV/^s innocent lady, his willi'd prey. 


A'jcuLET. n.f. [aigulet, Fr.] A point 
with tags ; points of gold at the end 
of fringes. 

It all above befprinkled was tliroughout 
With golden ajjutoi that glifter'd bright, 

Like twinkling ftars, and all the &irt about 
Was hemm'd with golden fringes. Talry S"cer. 

To AIL. -u. a. [ejlan. Sax. to be trouble- 

1 . To pain ; to trouble ; to give patn. 

And the angel of Cod calleJ to Kagar out of 
heaven, and faid unto her. What ailclh thee, Ha- 
gar .' fear not : for God bach heard the voice of 
the lad where he is. Gtn, xxi. 17. 

2. It is afed in a (enJe Itffs determinate, 
for to afflB in any manner ; as, Jcrrie- 
thiiig aiis ttit that I canhot ft jiill; tubal 
ails the man that he laughs riiithout rea- 


Love fmiled, and thus faid. Want joined to 
defire is unhappy ; but if he nought do defire, 
what can HeraclitusfliV ? Sidney. 

What aiJs me, that I cannot lofe thy tlioujht ! 
Command the cmprefs hither to be brought, 
I, in her death, fliall Come diverliun find. 
And rid my thoughts at once of woman-kind. 

Drydcrr's Tyrannkk Love. 

3. To feel pain ; to be incommoded. 

4. It is remarkable, that this word is 
never ufed but with forae indefinite 
term, or the word nQlhiag ; as, t^hat 
ails bim ? IVhat does he ail? He ails 
fifnething ; he «»/,r mthing. Something ails 

him ; nothing ails him. Thus we never 
fay, a fever ails hini, or he ails a fever, 
or ufe definite terms with this verb. 
Ail. n.f. [from the verb.] A difcarc. 
Or heal, £> Narfcs, thy obfcener aH. ftpe. 

Ai'lmekt. n.f. [fn>m«/A] Pain ; dif- 

Little aUmehtt oft attend the fair. 

Not decent for a huftand's eye or. ear. Granville. 

1 am never ill, but 1 thing of your aiftnei::i, 

and repine that they mutually hinder our being' 

together. , Sii-fi's Lefters. 

A'lLiNG. participial adj. [ffom- To ail.] 
Sickly; full of complaints. 

To AIM. f. n. [It is derived Ey Skiltner 
from efmnr, to point at ; a word which, 
I have not found.] 

1. To endeavour to llrike with a milTive 
weapon ; to diie£l towards ; with the 
particle at. j 

Aimji thou at princes, all araae'd they faid, 
The lall of games ? Piipt r Od^ly. 

2. To point the view, or dTfcft the fteps' 
towards any thing ; to tend toward-. ; 
to endeavour to reach or obtain : with 
to formerly, now only with at. , 

he, here the world Is blilV j lo hen; tliff-end 

A I R 

Tc which all men do aim, rich to he madu, 
Such grace now to be happy is bcfoie thee laid. 

Another kind there is, which although wt de- 
fire for itfclf, as health, and virtue, a;.d know- 
ledge, neverthelefg they are not the ial> ma-.k 
ivtereat wc /litn^ but have their furclicp end where* 
unto t; ey arc referred. , Hnilier. 

Swoln with applaufe, and aiming ftill at more. 
He now provokes the fea-gods from the (hore. 

Vryoens JEneid. 

Religion tends to the t?Xt and pleafure, the 
pe.lce and tranquillity of our minds, whlfh ail 
the wifdonrt of the world did always aim ati as the 
ulrftoft felicity of this life. Tiiyj'.n. 

3. To guefs.X 

To Aim. 'V. a. To direfl the miffle wea- 
pon ; more particularly taken fjr the 
aft of pointing the weapon by the eye, 
before its difmiffion from the band. 

And proud Ideus, Prlam*s charioteer, 
Who fliakes his empty reins, and ahm his airy 
fpear. Dryden. 

Aim. n.f. [from the verb.} 

1 . The direftion of a milTile weapon. 

Afcanius, young and eager of his game. 
Soon bent his bow, uncertain of his aim ; 
But the dire fiend the fatal arrow guide.S| 
Which picic'd his bowels throutth his panting 
fid's. Dryden, JEk. \\\. I 691. 

2. The point to which the thiog thrown it 

That arrows fled not fwifter toward their aim, 
Thaiv did <)iir ioldiers, aiming at their fafety. 
Fly from the Acid. S/j,:hefji. Henry IV. f, ii, 

3. In a figurative' fenfe, a purpofe ; a 
fcheme ; an intention ; a defigii. 

He [rafted to have equali'd the Aluft Hi^h, 
If he oppos'd : and, with ati»bitioiis aim, 
AgainU the throne and monarchy of God 
Rals'd impious war. /Wj/r. Par. LcJ{, h. i. /. 41, 

But fee how oft ambitious aitn arecrolV, 
And chiefs contend till all the prize is loth Pripc, 

4. The objedl of a defign ; the thing after 
which any one endeavours. 

The fafcft way' is to fuppofe, that tM; epiftle 

has but one aim, t'.W, by a frequent pcrufal o'f it, 
you are forced to fee there arc diftin^ independi nt 
pans. Lwk^i EJfay en St. Paul': BfifU:. 

5. Conjefture'; giiefs. 

It is impofiible, by aim, to tell it ; and, for 
expeilcnce and knowledge thereof, I do not think 
that £hcie was ever any of the particulars thereof. 
Sptn/er &n Ireland. 
There is 3 hiftory In all men's lives. 
Figuring the nature of the times' dcceas'd ; 
Tie which obferv'd, a man ir.ay prophefy 
With i near aim, of the main chance of things. 
As yet net come to life, which in their feeds 
And "v^eak. be^innlngv lie intre-ifurcd. 

Sh^kiff. BeniylV. 
AIR. if./, [a'ir, Fr. ai'r, Lat.] 
I., The element encompaffing the tena- 
queous gfobe. ; 

If I were to Icll wjiat I ntcan by the word air, 
I may fay, it is that fine matter which, we breathe 
in and* bieathcout contiimaliy ; or it:is that thin 
fluid body. In v\hich l!ic birds fly, a little abova- 
the earth; or it is tliatinvilible matter, which 
flils all places near the earth, or which ir:i medi- 
ately encompaflis the globe of earth and Water. 

H'attrs Lcgick. 

2, The Sate of the itr } or the air con- 
■ iGdieredwithregard to health. 

. 'flicrt!, be many gopd and healthful »(«, that 
do appear by habitation and other proofs, that 
4il'iief not in fmeil from other ain. 

Bacm! Ka!ural Hijlory, N° 904. 

3. Air in motion ; a frtiall gentle wind. 

Ficrh guiles, and gentle airs, 
Whifri!i'd it 10 the woods, and from their wiilgs 
Hung rofer flung odours from the fpicy fhrub 
Uilporting ! MUim't Par^ife Lojf, i, viii, /. 51 ;. 

II 2 hM 

A I R 

But Cafe Kpofe, without an a'r of breath, 
Dwell! here, and a dumb ^uict next to death. 

Let Tcmal «iVi through trnnbling ofiers pUy, 
And Alhioa's diffi nfouod the rural lay. 

Popt'i Pap-rah. 

4. Scent ; vapour. 

Stinl:s wh;ch the noftrilt ftraight abhor are not 
the mull pcrnicluus, but fuch airi as have fu;iic 
£miiituue with maii*» body ; and fo infinuatc 
ihemicives, and betray the fpirlts. Bacon. 

5. filaft ; peiljlential vapour. 

All the ftur'd vengeances of heaven fall 
On her ingtateful top ! ftrike her young bones, 
You talcing atn, wlthlameners ! Sbak. KJitgLtar, 

6. Any thing light or uncertain ; that is 
as ?yght as air. 

momentary grace of mortal men. 

Which we more hunt for than tlie grace of God ! 
Vi'ho builds his hope in air of your far looks, 
Lives like a drunken Tailor on a maft, 
Ready with cv'ry nod to tuinblc down. " 

Sbakffpeare's Rii hard 111. 

7. The open weather ; air unconfined. 

The garden was inci os'd within the fquare, 
Where ycung Emilia took the morning air, 

Diytlcns Fahls. 

t. Vent ; utterance ; emiffion into the air. 

1 would have alk*d yf>u, if I du; ft for Ihame, 
If ftill you I iv'd ? you gave it air before me. 
Bur ah ! why were we not both of a fcx ? 

For then we might have lov'd without a crime. 


9. Publication ; expofure to the publick 
view and knowledge. 

I am forry to find it has taken air, that 1 have 
fomc hand in thefe papers. Ptfe's Litttn. 

10. Intelligence ; information. This is 
not now in ufe. 

It grew from the airt which the princes and 
f^ates abroad received from their an)bairaJors and 
agents here. iJ.;rt/>"j //.nry VI!. 

It. MuAck, Vk'hether light or ferious ; 
found ; air modulated. 

This muCck crept by me upon the waters. 
Allaying both their fury and my palTion, 
With its fweet air. Sbiktjftart' i Tanfeji. 

CaU in fome mufick ; I have hejrd, fofi airs 
Can charm our fenfes, and expd our cares. 

Doibiim'i Scply. 
The fame airs, wh'ch fome entertain with ni;d 
liclightful traniports, to others are importune. 

Glanville's Sccpjts Scitntijtca. 
Since we have fuch a trcafury of words fi 
proper for the airs of mufick, I wonder that pcr- 
fcns Ihould give fo Utile attention. 

Mdifan, S/rflj/or, N" 406. 
Borne on the fwelling note?, our fouls afpire. 
While folemn «ir» improve the facrcd fire; 
And angels lean from beav'n to hear ! 

Popis St. Cacilia. 
—When the foul is funk with Cares, 
Exalts her in enliv'ning airj.' Pefe't St.Cgecilia. 

12. Poetry ; a fong. 

The repeated air 
Of fad Eleflra's poet had ihe powV 
To fare th' Atheniao walla from ruin bare. 

Paradife Rtgained. 

13. The mien, or manner, of the perfon ; 
the look. 

Her graceful innocence, her ev'ry air, 
Of geflure, orlcall a<3ian, over-aw'd 
His malice. Millin's ParaJife Left. 

For the air of youth 
Hopeful and cheerful, in thy bl->od {hall reign 
A melancholy damp of cold and dry. 
To wcijh thy fpiriti down ; and lall confume 
The balm of life. Mi/ton's Paradijr Lcjl. 

But, having the life before us, brfides the ex- 
perience of all they knew, it is no wonder to hit 
fome airs and features, which they haie mined. 
Drydcr. on DramalUk Pmuy, 

A I R 

Thfrt is fotnething wonderfully divine !n the 
airs of this picture. Addijan on Italy. 

Yet fliould the Graces all thy figures place. 
And breathe an air divine on ev'ry face. Pope. 

14. An affefted or laboured manner or 
gellure ; as, a lofty air, a gay air. 

Whom Ancus follows with a fawning <ii/ j 
But vain within, and preuiily popular. 

Drydtn's ^neid, vi. 

There are of thefe fort of beauties, wliicb 
la(f but for a moment ; as, the different <ii;i of 
an aficmbly, upon the fight of an unexfecled and 
uncommon objci>, fome particularity of a violent 
palTion, fome graceful a(aion, a fmile, a glance of 
an eye, a dilaainful look, a look of gravity, and a 
thoufand other fuch like things. 

Drydtn's Dnfrrfnoy. 

Their whole lives were employed in intiigues ot 
Bate, and they naturally give th'emfelves airs of 
kings and princes, of which the minifters of other 
nations ate only the rcprcfentatlves. 

Mdijuns Remarks en Italy. 
To curl their waving hairs, 
Aflift their bli.flies, and infplrc their airs. Poft. 

He afluTics and affefts an entire fet of very 
diftVrent <iir« ; he conceives himfelf a being of a 
fuperlour nature. S-wift. 

15. Appearance. 

As it was communicated with the <fir q{ a fe- 
cret, it foon found its way into the world. 

Pcpt's Ded. to Rape of the Loci. 

16. [In horfemanlhip.] yiirs denote the 
artificial or pradlil'ed motions of a ma 
naged horfe. Chambers. 

To Air. f. a. [from the noun/u'r.] 

1. To expofe to the air; to open to the 

The others make it a matter of fmall com- 
mendation in itfelf, if they, who wear it, di 
nothing elfe but air the robes, which their place 
requircth. Hooktr, b. v. § i,g. 

Fleas breed principally of ftraw or mats, wh;rc 
there bath been a little moillure, or the chamber 
and b=d-ftraw kept cinfe, and n.t aired. 

Bacons Natural hijlory, N" 696. 

We have had, in our time, experience twice or 
thrice, when both the' judges, that fat upon the 
jail, and numbers of thjfe that attended the 
bulinefs, or were prefcnt, (ickened upon it, and 
died. Therefore, it wde good wifdom, that, in 
fuch cafos, the jail were aired, before they were 
brought forth. Bacon's Natural Hijiory, N" 9 1 4. 

As the ants were airing their proviiions oik 
winter, up comes a hungry grafsh^pper to them, 
and begs a charity. L'EJirarge's Fables. 

Or wicker-bailiets weave, or air the corn. 

Drydens yirrH. 

2. To gratify, by enjoying the open air, 
with the reciprocal pronoun. 

Nay, ftjy a little 
Were you but" riding forth to air ycuifelf. 
Such parting were too petty. Shakfjp. Cymhclinc. 

I afcendeJ the higheft hills of Bagdat, in order 
to pafs thcreflof thcday in meditation and prayer. 
As I was here airing viyfdf on the tops of the 
mountains, I fell into a profound contemplation 
on the vanity of human life, j^ddif^n, Sje^at^r. 

3. To air liquors ; to warm them by the 
fire : a term u'cd in converfation. 

4. To breed in ncfts. In this fenfe, it is 
derived from aerie, a ncft. It is now out 
of ufe. 

You may adj their bufy, dangerous, difcour- 
teous, yea and fometimes defpitetui ftcaling, one 
from an 'thcr, of the eggs and young ones; who, 
if they were allowed to air naturally anJ q ui t'j , 
there would be ftoie fufhcient, to kill not only the 
pirtiidges, but even all the gu^d houfcwives 
chickens in a country. 

Carnv's Survey of Corwwalf. 

A'i RBLADDER. n. f. [from air and blad- 

A I R 

1. Any cuticle or veficle filled with air. 

The pulmonary artery and vein pafs along th« 
furfaces of thefe airbladders, in an infinite num- 
ber of ramifications. Arluibmi on Aliments, 

2. The bladder in fifhes, by the contrac* 
tion and dilatation of which, they vary 
the properties of their weight to that of 
their bulk, and rife or fall. 

Though the airbt'aiidtr in fiihes fcemt necelTary 
for fwimminj, yet fome are fo formed as to fwi-n 
withf^ut it. Citdwcrtb, 

A'iRBuiLT. at^. [from air and inild.] 
fiuilt in the air, without any folid foun- 

Hence the fool's paradife, the ftatefman'sfcheme. 
The airbudt callle, and the golden dream. 
The maid's rotnantick wilh, the chymill'i flame. 
And poet's vifion of eternal fame. 

Pope's Dunciad, h. iii. 

Air-drawn, adj. [from o.'r and dra':Ln.'\ 
Drawn or painted in air : a word not 

This is tlie very painting of your fear. 
This is the (i/>-</r<jw» dagger, which, you faid. 
Led yoj to Duncan. Shakifp.' Mailietb* 

A'i R E R . /;. / [from To air. ] He that cx- 
pofes to the air. 

A'i R HOLE. n. /, [from air and iJe/f.] A 
hole to admit the air. 

A'iriness. n. f. [from a/ry.] 

1. Opennefs ; expofure to the air. 

2. Lightnefs ; gaiety ; levity. 

The French have indeed taken worthy pains to 
make clafiick learning fpeak their language; if 
they have not fucceeded, it muH be imputed to a 
certain talkativencfs and airinefs reprcfented in 
their tongue, which will never agree with the fe- 
datenefi of the Romans, or the folemniry of th© 
Greeks. f.-/»'.ii. 

A'i RING. »./. [from (j/r-.] A fliort jour- 
ney or ramble to enjoy the free air. 

This lit le fleet fervcs only to fetch them wine 
and corn, and to giie their ladies an airing in the 
fummer feafon. Addikn, 

A'lRLESs. adj. [from a/r.] Wanting 
communication with the free air. 

Nor ftony tower, nor walls of b-aten brafs. 
Nor airfefs dungeon, nor Urong links of iron. 
Can be retentive to the (Irength of fpirit. 

Shakefpcare's yulius Cafar. 
A'iRLlNC. n. /. [from air, iat gayety.'\ 
A young, light, ihoughtlefs, gay per- 

Some more there be, flight airftngsi will be wo» 
With dogs, and horfes, and perhaps a whore. 

Sen yonfrn* 

A'i R p u M P . n./. [from air and fumj>. ] A 
machine by whofe means the air is ex- 
hauited out of proper vefiels. The piin- 
cipleon which it is built, is the elafti- 
city of the air ; as that on which the wa- 
terpump is founded, is on the gravity of 
the air. The invention of this curious 
inllrument is afcribed to Otto de Gue- 
rick, conful of Migdebourg, in 1654. 
But his machine laboured under feveral 
defefls ; the force nectflary to work it 
was very great, and the progrefs very 
flow; it was to be kept under water, 
and allowed of no change of fubjefts for 
experiments. Mr. Boyle, with the af- 
iiftance of Dr. Hi-oke, removed feve- 
ral inconveniencies ; though, ftill, the 
working laborious, by reafon of the 
prefi'ure of the atmofphere at every ex- 
fuition. This labour has been fiace re- 

A I S 

moved by Mr. Hawkfbce ; who, by 
adding a fecond barrel and pifton, to 
rile as the other fell, and fall as it rofe, 
made the preflure of the atmofphere on 
the delcending one, of as much fervice 
as it was of diflervice in the afcending 
one. Vream made a farther improve- 
ment, by reducing the alternate motion 
of the hand and winch to a circular 
one. C ha fitters. 

The air that, in rxhaurtcd rrcc!v;rs of airfuxj!, 
a exhaled trom minerals, and fl :fli, and fruits, 
and litjuois, is as true and genuine as to elafticit\ 
and dcniity, or ra^e-'aftitin, as that we refpire in ; 
and yet this Udlitious air is I'o far fr:m being lit t ■ 
be breathed in, that it kills animals in a moment, 
even fooner than the abfence of air, or a vacuum 
itfelf. BtntUy. 

A'iRSHAPT. tt.f. [from air zxii Jhaft.'] 
A palTage for the air into mines and 
fubterraneous places. 

By tiie finking of an ai^jhajt-t the air ha'h 1'- 
berty to circulite, and carry ouc the fteams both o( 
the miners b'cath and the damps, which w^uld 
otherwifc ftagnate there. Hay 

A'lRV. adj. [from a/r ; rrV^ar, Lat.] 

1. Compoled of air. 

Tlie liiil i. th; tranfniiflion, or eirifTun.of the 
tliinner and more a\ry parts of bod.cs ; as, in 
odours ar.d infe^ions ; and this is, oi all the ref), 
the moft corporeal. Boc'>n 

2. Relating to the air; belonging to the 

There are fiOies that have wings, that are no 
ftrangers to the a'uj region. Boyli. 

3. High in air. 

Wnole rivers hee forfalce the fields below, 
\Anci, wond'ring at their height, through a>y chan- 
nels fl .W. Mdij'M. 

4. Open to the free air. 

Joy'd to tai'ge abroad in frrfli attire 
Thro' the wide C'<mpafs of the try coaft. Sfmftr. 

5. Light as air ; thin ; unfubftaotial ; 

without folidity. 

I bold ambition of fo a'lry and light a quality, 

that it is but a fliadow's Aiacow. Shaiiff. Hatr.Ut. 

Still may the dog the wa:id'ri->g troops conftrain 

Oi airy ghoHs, and vex the guilty train. Dryd^n. 

6. Wanting reality ; having no fteady 
foandatioa in truth or nature ; vain ; 

Nor think with wind 
Of airy threats to aw.-, whom yet with deeds 
ThOK cnn'll not. Mifuri ParjJi/t Liji. 

Kor (to avoid fuch meannefs) foaring high, 
With empty found, and tirj notions, fly. 

1 have friund a complaint concerning the Tea. city 
of money, which nccaiijnei many a\ry pr-ipofitions 
for the reme 'y of it. Ttmplt 1 Mijcellamrs. 

7. Fluttering ; loofe ; as if to catch the 
air ; full 01 levity. 

The painters draw their nymphs in thin and 
sirj h.ibic9; but tlie weight of gold and of embroi- 
deries is reieneJ fjr queens and goddeffes. Drydtn, 

By this name of ladies, he mea.ns all younj 
pe fon^, flendcr, finely {haped, airy^ and delit ate : 
fuch as aie rymplis n^ NaVids. /Jry./m. 

8. Gay; fprightly; full of mirth; viva- 
cious; lively; Ipiritcd ; light of heart. 

He tr jt .1 merry and airy at Ih-rc wh?n he tees 
a fad lempeil on the (ea, or dances when Cod 
thuhders from heaven, regards not when G ^d 
fpeaks to a I thi- world. Taylor. 

Ai»i. E. n.f. [Thus the word ii written by 
Addifot), but perhaps improperly ; iince 
it feems dcducil'le only Irom, either a/7?, 
a wing, or aliir, a path, and !<; there- 
fore to be written aile.^ The walks in 
a church, or wings of a ^uire. 


The abbey !s by no means fo magnificent as on* 
would rxped from its endowments. The church 
is one huge nef, with a double a':fii to it ; and, at 
each end, is a large quite. Jlddlfon, 

Ait, or Eyght. a. /. [fuppofed, by 
Skinner, to be corrupted from ijlct.^ A 
fmall idand in a river. 

AJUTAGE, n.f. [njutage, Fr.] An ad- 
ditional pipe to water-works. Di^. 

To Ake. 1). >i. [from a-x^, Gr. and 
therefore more grammatically written 

1. To feel a lafting pain, generally of the 
internal pirts ; diilinguilhed from fmart, 
which is commonly ufed of uneafinefs in 
the external parts ; but this is no accu- 
rate account. 

To fue, and be deny'd, fuch common grace. 
My wounds ake at yru ! Slaktf^eare. 

Let our finger ake, and it endues 
Our other hi-althful membeis with a fenfe 
Of pain. Shahefpfort. 

Wcicthe pleafure of drinking accompaneti, th- 
very moment, with that fr k ftomach and ak'iig 
hcaJ, which, in Lmc men, are fuie to f Uow, 1 
think no body would ever let wine touch his lips. 


His limbs muft tie, with daily toils oppreft, 
Ere long-wilh'd night brings neceflary reft. Frior. 

2. It is frequently applied, in an impro- 
per fenfe, to the heart ; as, the heart 
ake! ; to imply grief or fear. Skake- 
fpeare has uled it, ilill more licentioufly, 
of the foul. 

My foul a\n 
To know, when two authorities are up. 
Neither fupreme, how fo'jn confufi^^n 
May enter. Staiifp, Ccrhlartis. 

Here fliame difTuades him, thcie his rear prevails, 
And each, by turns, his aiirg heart aHails. 

Aki'n. adj. [from <T and i/».] 

1. Related to; allied by blood: ufed of 

1 do not envy thee, Pamela ; only T wi/h, that 
being thy liRcr in nature, I were not fo far oCf air 
in fortune. Sidney, 

2. Allied to by nature ; partaking of the 
fame properties : ufed of things. 

The cankered paDion of envy is nothing ak'm to 
the fiirj^envy of the afs. I/EJirargis I'aiiht. 

Some limbs ag-^n in bulk or itature 
Unlike, and not akin by natuie. 
In corccft aS, like modern iiiends, 
Becaufe one fcrvcs the other's ends. Prior. 
He feparates it from qucAionswltlr which it may 
have been compiicated, and diflingu.Oies it from 
queilions which m-iy be akin to it. 

H''atrs's Irfproi-emfrf of tbe Afird. 
Al, Attle, Adi.e, do all feem to be 
corruptions of the Saxon My^i, naile, 
famous ; as alio, Ailing and Aultng, arc 
corruptions of iEpehnj. noble, jflendid, 

Al, Aid, being initials, are derived 
from the Saxon Kalb, ancient ; and fo, 
oftentimes, the i:iitial all, being melted 
by the Normans from the Saxon ealb. 

Gibjcn s Camden, 
A'laeaster. n.f. [iiA«ti?arto».] A kind 
of foft marble, ealicr to cut, and Icfs 
durable, than the other kinds ; fome is 
white, which is moll common ; fome of 
the colour of horn, and tranfpa-ent ; 
fome yellow, like honey, marked with 
veins. The ancients ulcd it to make 
boxes for perfumes. Savarj, 


"Vet I'll not (hed her blood. 
Nor fear that whiter Ikin of hers than fnow. 
And fmooth as monumental alahaficr. ShaLefpt 

A'l A B A s T E R . adj. Made of alabailer. 

1 cannot forbear mentioning pai t of an atabufitr 
column, found in-the ruins of Livias portico. It 
is of the colour of fire, and may be leen over the 
high altar of St. Matia in Canipitello; for they have 
cut it into two pieces, and fixed ir, in the rt-.ipe 
of a cnls, in a hole of the wall; fo that theiiglit 
palling through it, makes it look, to thofe^ in tha 
church, like a huge tranfparent ctofs of artibcr. 

Addifon on I'aly. 

Ala'ck. interjea. [This word feems only 
the corruption of fl/aj.] Alas; an ex- 
preffion of forrow. 

A'.aik I when once our grace we have forgot. 
Nothing goes right ; we would, ap.d we would not. 
Shakefp.,,Meafure for Meajurt, 
At thunder now no more 1 ftart, 
Than at the rumbling of a cart : 
N.ty, what 's incred"ble, alack! 
I hardly hear a woman's clack. Sivifi' 

Ala'ck A DAY. interjsiiion. [This, like 
the former, is for alas the day.'\ A word 
noting forrow and melancholy. 

Al a'criously. ad'v. [from alacrious, 
fuppofed to be formed from alacris ; but 
oi alacrious I have found no example.] 
Cheerfully ; without dejeftion. 

Epaminondas olacr^onjly expired, in confidi-nce 
that he left behind him a perpetual memory of the 
viftories he had achieved f r his country. 

Co-utnmtr.t of tie Tongue, 

Ala'crity. »./ [alacritas, Lat.] Cheer- 
fulnefs, exprefltd by fome outward to- 
ken ; fprightlinefs ; gayety ; livelinefs ; 
cheerful willingnefs. 

Thelc orders Wire, on all fides, yielded unto 
with no Iffs a/acriiy of mind, than cities, unable 
to hold outany longer, are wont to (hew when they 
take cond tioos, fuch as it likcth him to offer 
them, which hath them in the narrow ftraits of 
advantage. . Hi/ohr, 

Give me a bowl of wine ; 
I h.ive not that alacrity of fpirit. 
Nor cheer of mind, that I was wont to have. 


He, gind that now his fea Ihould find a Ibore, 
Witji frefli alacrity, and force renew'd. 
Springs upward. Milton' i Paradift Lofl, 

Never did men morejoyfulh obey. 
Or fooner underftord the fign to fly : 

With fuch ahirriiy ihey bore away. 
As if, to praile thcin, all the dates ilood by. 


ALAMI'RE. n. f. The loweft note but 
one in Guido Aretine's fcalc of niufick. 

Alamo'de. adv. [a la mode, Fr.] Ac- 
cordino; to the fafhion : a low word. It 
is uffd likewife by (hopkeepers for a kind 
of thin filken manufacture. 

Ala'nd. ad'v. [from a for at, and land."] 
At land; landed; on the-dry ground. 

I'e only, with the prince his c -ufin, were caft 
aland, far ( ff from the place whither their dufires 
would have guided ihent. Sidnry, 

Three more fierce Eurus, in his anqiy mood, 
Dafli'd on the thallows of the m' ving fand, 
And, in iriid ocean, left them moor'd aland. 


.ALA'RM. n.f. [from the French a I'arme, 
to arms ; as, crier a I'arme, to call to 
I. A cry by which men are fummoned to 
their arms ; as, at the approach of an 

When the congregation is to be gathered toge- 
ther, you (hall blow, but you (hall not found an 
alarm, Humbert 


' TJod faimfcif is with ns for our cjptiin, anj h 3 ■ 
friertj with founding trumpets, to cry jlam 
(gainft you. zCkron. xiii. iz. 

The trumpett loud cUngour 

Excites us to armSy 
Wiih thrill notts of ang«r. 

And mortal alarmi. Drjilcr. 

Taught by this llrolcc, renounce the wars alaras. 
And leain to trembie at the name of arms. 

f c,Wj Iliad. 

<■ A cry, or notice, of any danger ap- 
proaching ; as, an r.!arm of fire. 
3. Any tumult or difturbance. 

Crowds of rivals, for thy mother's chirms, 
Tliy r»Uc« fill with iafuiti and aJarmi. 

Faft's Oihj[<y. 
To Ala'r m. c. a. [from aJurm, the noun.] 
J. To call to arms, 

J. To dillurb ; as, with the approach of 
an enemy. 

The waip the liivc alarms 
With louder hums, and with uiiequ^l arms. 

3. To furprife with the apprehenfion of 
any danger. 

When rage mifguides me, or when fear alarms, 
When pain diiiretTes, or when- pleafure charms. 

4- To difturb in general. 

His fon, Cupavo, brufti'd the briny Aood j 
• Upon his ftern a brawny Centaur ilood, 
Who heav'd a rock, and threat'ning ftill to throw, | 
With lilted hinds, «/j7rmV the feas below. Drydcti. 
Ala'rmbell. a.y. [from alarm and ^^//.] 
The bell that is rung at the approach of 
an enemy. 

Th' alarmhrll rings from our Alhambra walls, 
And, from the ftreets, found drums and atabillcs. 


Ala rmikg. particip, aefj. [from, alarm. "l 

Terrifying ; awakening ; furprifing ; 

as, an alarming melTage ; an alarming 

Ala'rmpost. n.f. [from fl/«rOT and /5/?.] 

The poll or place appointed to each body 

of men to appear at, when an alarm 

thall happen. 
Ala'rum. «./ [corrupted, as it feems, 

f torn alarm. See Alarm.] 
Now are our brows bound with vi^orious wreaths, 

Our bruifed arms hung up for monuments, 

Our ftern a/arums chang'd to merry meetings. 

That Almatro might better bear, 

She fcts a drum at cither car j 

And loud or gentle, harlh or fwect, 

Are but th' aUnims which th^y bear. frier. 

To Ala'rum. 'v. a. [corrupted from 7c 
alarm.l See Alarm. 

Withered murder 
(Ahrum'ii by his fentinel the wr'lf, 
Whofe howl's his watch} thus with his ftealthy pace 
Moves like a ghoft. Sbntefpeare. 

Ala's, intcrjea. \helau Vr.eylaes, Dutch.] 
J. A word expreffing lamentation, when 
we ufe it of ourfelves. 

But yet, alatl O but yet, n/jt .' our haps be but 
hard hapi. Sidney. 

jilas) h iw little from the grave we claim ! 
"Thou but preferv'ft a form, and I a name. Fife. 

2. A word of pity, when ufed of other per- 

''ytLt ! poor Ptothelis, thou haft entertain'd 
A fox to be the (hepherd of thy lambs. Staitff. 

3. A w6rd of forrow and concern, when 
ufed- of things. 

Thus faith the Lord God, Smite with thine 
h*nii,.and P«mp with thy foot, and fay, Alas ! 
Ivf ail tlK evil abominations of tke houfe of Il'racl. 


A L C 

jVas ! both for tke deed, ani for the caufc ! 

yl/as ! for pity of this bloody field 5 
Piteous indeed muft be, when I, a fpirit. 
Can have fj foft a fenfe of human woes. Drydm. 

Alas THE DAY. iiitcrjeS. Ai, unhappy 
day ! 

Al<i. lie day ! I never gave him caufe. Utaktff. 

Alas a day ! you have ruined my poor miil.ivs : 

you have made a pap in her reputation ; and can 

you blame her, if flie make it up with her hulbar.d > 

Alas the while. interjeS, Ah! un- 
happy time I 

AH as :he Ihcep, fuch was the flicpherd's lode ; 
For pale and wan he was (a!as tbt ivhile 1} 
May fecm he lov'd, or eile fame care he conk. 


Ala'te. aJv. [from a and /«»/*.] Lately; 
no long time ago. 

Alb. n.f. [album, Lat.] A furpHce ; a 
white linen veftment worn by priefts. 

Albe. lad-v. [a coalition of the words 

Albe'it. J all be it fo. Skinner. '\ Al- 
though ; notwithllaiiding ; though it 
(hould be. 

Ne wou'd he fuffer fleep once thitherward 
App'roach, aihc his drowfy den Was next. Sptnfir. 

I'his very thing is caufe I'ufficient, why duties 
belonging to each kind of virtue, alleit the law of 
«afon teach them, Ihould, notwithftandirg, be 
prefcribcd even by human law. Hooker. 

One whofe eyes. 
Albeit unufed to the melting mood. 
Drop tears, as fa(^ as the Arabian trees 
Their medicinal gum. Shaltffcart. 

He, who has a probable belief that he fliall 
meet with thieves in fuch a road, thinks himll'll 
to have reafon enough to decline it, albeit he is fure 
to fuftain fome lefs, though yet confiderable, in- 
convenience by his fo doing. Scjih's Sermons. 

Albug i'neous. atij. [albugo, Lat.] Re- 
fembling the white of an egg. 
£ggs will freeze in the albuginou! part thereof. 

Brvwn^s Vulgar Errours. 

I opened it by incifion, giving vent firft to an 

albugineouSt then to white concofted matter*, upon 

which the tumour funk. ff^feman^s Surgery. 

JLBU'GO. »./. [Lat.] A difeafe in the 
eye, by which the cornea contrafts a 
whitenefs. The fame with leucoma. 

A'lburn colour, n.f. See Auburn. 

A'lcahest. n.f. An Arabick word, to 
exprefs an univerfal diflblve:it, pretend- 
ed to by Paracclfus and Helmont. 


Alca'id. n. f. [from al, Arab, at.d 
npnp, the head.] 

1. In Barbary, the governour of a callle. 

Th* alcaid 
Shuns me, and, with a grim civility. 
Bows, and declines mv wsiks. Drydtr. 

2. In Spain, the judge of a city, firft 
inltituted by the Saracens. Du Came. 

ALCANNA, n. f. An Egyptian plant 
ufed in dying ; the leaves making a 
yellow, infufed in water, and a red in 
acid liquors. 

The root oi alcanna, though green, will give a red 
ilaiii. Brtiuns ^u.'gjr Errcnrs. 

Alch v'mical. ar^'. [from alcbymy-l Re- 
lating to alchymy ; produced by al- 

The rofe-n:ible, then current for (ix (hilling- 
and eight pence, the alchymifts do afBrm as ar. 
unwritten verity, wis made by pr'.je."1ion ■ r mul 
tiplicati rt alehymial of Rajmond Lully in the 
tovcr ot Lundon. Camden's Rentins. 

A L C 

Aicny'intCALLY. aJv. [from a/ciy. 
rmcal.] In the mannerof an alchymift j 
by means cf alchymy. 
Kaymond Lully would prove it elchymically. 


A'lchtmist. n.f. [from alchymy.'] One 
who purfues or profeiTes the fcience of 

'lo lolemnize this day, the glorious fun 
Stays in his c urfe, and fUyithealcbymifl, 
Turning, with fplcnduur of his precious eye. 
The meagre cloddy earth to glittering gold. 

• Siake/f. Ki'!g Jstr. 

Every alebymijt knows, that gold will endure 
» vehement fire fir a long time without a^y 
change ; and after it has been divided by corrofive 
liquors into inviftble parts, yet may prefently be 
prcipitated, fo as to appear in its ov.n form. 


A'LCHYMY. »./. [of al, Arab, and 

1. The more fublime and occult pan of 
chymiltry, which propofes for its objecl 
the tranfmutation of metals, and other 
important operations. 

There' is nothing more dangerous than thit 
deluding art, which changeth the meaning of 
wjids, as alclymy doth, or would do, the fuB- 
ftance of metals ; maketh of any thing what it 
lideth, and bringeth, in the end, all truth to no. 
thing. Hakcr, 

O he fits high in all the people's hearts; 
An* that which would appear offence in u>> 
His countenance, like richtft alchymy. 
Will change to virtue and to worthincfs. 

Sta.keff. yulius Cxjar. 
Compared to this. 
All honour's mimick, all wealth akhyny. 


2. A kind of mixed metal ufed for fpoons, 
and kitchen utenfils. 

White alchymy is made of pan-braft one pound, 
and arfenicum three ounces ; or alclypy is made 
of copper and auripigmentum. 

Baccn's Phyjiial Rtmaiiilm 
They bid cry. 
With trumpets regal found, the great refult; 
Tow'rds the four winds, four fpeedy cherubimt 
Put to their mbuths the founding alchymy, 
By herald's voice explain'd. Milton's Paradife Lrjt, 

A'LCOHOL. n. /. An Arabick term 
ufed by chymifts for a high rciflified 
dephlegmated fpirit of wine, or for any 
thing reduced into an impalpable pow- 
der, ^incy. 
If the fame fa't (hall be reduced into alcohol, 
as the chjmifta fpcak, or an impalpable powtler, 
the particles a. id intercepted fpaces will be ex- 
tremely Icfl'ened. Br.yle, 
Sal V ilatile oleofum will coagulate the feruni on 
account ot the alcjbtl, or rectified fpirit which it 
contairs". Arbutbmrt* 

Alcoholika'tion. n.f. [from alcoho- 
lia/.] The att of alcoholizing or rec- 
tifying fpirits ; or of reducing bodies 
to an impalpable powder. 

-r» A'lcoholize. v. a. [from alcohol.'] 

1 . To make an alcohol ; that is, to rec- 
tify fpirits till they are wholly dcphlegv 

2. To comminute powder till it is wholly 
without rough ne(s. 

A'lcOran. ti. /. [al and ioran, Arab.] 
The' book oi the Mahometan precept* 
and crcdenda. 

It this W3uld fatisfy the confcience, we might 
not only take the prefent covcnmt, but fubfcr^be 
to the of Trent; yen, and 10 the Turkilh 
olctran -J and-fwcar to maintain and defend cither 
of them. SauTidtrJcn agairj} the Covcnat:t* 




A t E 

Alco've. »./. [ahoba. Span.] A recefs, 
or part of a chamber, feparated by an 
ellrade, or partition, and other corre- 
fpoudenccrnaments ; in which is placed 
a bed of ilate, and ibmetimes feats to 
entertain company. Trenjoux. 

The weary'd champion lulfd in fofc a/ccves. 
The n^biefl boaft of thy rom^it cJc groves. 
Oft. if the mufe prcfage, tliall he bs feen 
By Roiam- nda fle»-ting o'er the green. 
In dreams be haU'd by heroes' nii|hty Hiades, 
A^ul hear old Ciiaucer warble through the glades. 

Deep in a rich alcove the prince was laid, 
And fiept beneath the pompous colonr^aJe. 

Pofe't Odify. 
A'lder,//, / [fl/m//, Lat.] A tree hav- 
ing leaves reiembling thofe of the ha- 
zel ; the male flowers, or katkins, are 
produced at remote diilances fiora the 
fruit, on the fame tree ; the fruit is 
I fquamofe, and of a conical figure. The 
fpecies are, i. Tiie common or round- 
leaved ij/rftr. 2. Tlie long-leaved «/atr. 
3. The fcarlet aUfr. Thefe trees de- 
light in a very moift foil. The wood is 
ufed by turners, and will endure long 
under ground, or in water. M.ller. 

Without the gror, a various fylvan fcene 
Appear'd arounj, a .d groves of living green j 
Popiars and aldcri e-cr quivering play'd. 
And nodding cypreft torm'd a fragrant (hade. 

PoT^c'i Odyjfy. 

Alderli'evest. adj.fuferl. [from «/^, 
aUer, old, elder, and litve, dear, be- 
loved.] Molt beloved ; which has held 
the longed poiTeflion of the heart. 

The mutual conference that my mind hath had, 
In courtly company, or at my beads, 
With you, mine alderliniji fovereign. 
Makes me the bolder. Shaitff. Humy VI. p. ii. 

A'lderman. ». /. [from aU, old, and 
man. ] 

1. The fame as fenator, Conuell. A go- 
vernour or magiftrate, originally, as 
the name imports, chofen on account 
of the experience which his age had gi- 
ven him. 

Tell him, myieJf, the mayor, and pljirmen. 
Are come to have fome eonrrence with his trace. 

Though my own aUirmtn conferr'd my bays. 
To me committing their eternal praife ; 
Their full-fed heroes, their pacifi.k may'rs. 
Their annual trophies, and their monthly wars. 

Fo[te*l Dunciad, 

1. In the following paflage it is, I think, 
improperly ufed. 

But if the t:umi>et's clangour you abhor,- 
And dare not be an a/dfrmart of war. 
Take to a dsop, behind a counter lie. 

Dry J. yuvi Sii:- 
A'ldep. MANLY. a//v. [from a/a'erman.] 
Like an alderman ; belonging to an 

Thefe, and many more, fuffcred death, in envy 
to their virtues and fuperiout genius, which em- 
boldened them, in exigencies (wan:ing an n/i^rr- 
manlf dif.retion) to attempt fervlce out of the 
cum.non forms. Sw/i'i MifccU^nlet. 

A'ldern. adj. [from aJdir.'[ Made of 
Then aJ!tr» boau firft plow'd the ocean. 
. . _ May't firm/. 

ALE. «./ [eal«r, Sax.] 
I. A liquor made by infufing malt in 

hot water, and then fermenting the li- 

You mud be feeing chriftenings. Do you look 
for ale and cakes here, you rude rafcals ? 

Sh,xiejpeare's Henry VIII. 
The fertility of the foil in grjin, and its being 
not proper for vines, put th^ Egyptians upon drink- 
ing ale, of which they were the inventors. 


2. A merry-meeting ufed in country 

And aU the neighbourhood, from old records 
Of antick proverbs drawn from Whirfon lords. 
And their authorities at wakes and a'cs. 
With country precedents, and uld wives tales. 
We bring you now. Ben '^anjoti. 

A'leberry. n. f. [from alt and berry.'] 
A beverage made by boiling ale with 
fpice and fugar, and fops of bread : a 
word now only ufed in converfation. 
Their altberriny cawdles, poflets, each one, 
Syllibubs made at the milking pale. 
But what are compofed of a pot of good ale. 

A'le-brewer. n./. [from a/tr and ^;vw- 
^r.] One that profefles to brew ale. 

The fummer-made mak "brews ill, and is dif 
liked by moft of our ali-hrewcrs. 

AP^ri'imer^ s llujhandty. 
A'i.econner. n.f. [from alt and con.'] 
An officer in the city of London, whofe 
bafineis is to infpeft the ir.eaiures of 
publick houfes. Four of them are cho- 
fen or rechofen annually by the com- 
mon-hall of the city ; and, whatever 
might be their ufe formerly, their places 
are now regarded only as iinecares for 
decayed citizens. 
A'LECosr. i/.f. [perhaps from ale, and 
cojius, Lat.] The name of an herb. 


Ale'ctryomancy, or Ale'ctoro- 

MANCY. n. f. [<iXjx1^t/»iir and fiiilxc,.] 

Divination by a cock. Dia. 

A'lecar. n. f. [from ale and eager, 

four.] Sour ale ; a kind of acid made 

by ale, as vinegar by wine, which has 

loft its fpirit. 

A'troER. adj. \allegre, Fr. alacrii, Lat.] 

Gay ; chearful ; fprightly : a word not 

now ufed. 

Coffee, the root and leaf betle, and leaf tobacco. 
of which the Turks are great takers, do all cin- 
dcnfe the Ipirits, and make them (Irong and ale- 
Z>r. D^ccn's Natural Hi/lory. 

A'lehoo^. a. /. [from ale and hoopb, 
head.] Grojndivy, fo called by our 
Saxon anceftors, as being their chief in- 
gredient in ale. An herb. 

yiUhvif, or groundlvy, is, in my opinion, of 
the molt excellent and moft g" ufe and vir- 
tue, of any plants we have amon^ us. Temple. 

A'i.ehouse. n. f. [from aU and hcufe.] 
A houfe where ale is publickly fold ; 
a tipling-houff. It is diftinguiflicd from 
a tavern,, where they fell wine. 

Thou tnoitijeauteous inn. 
Why (hould hard-fav /ur'd grief bs lodg'd in thee, 
.When triumph is become an aUhcufe gueft ? 

One would think it (hould be no eafy matter to 
bring any nun of fenfc in love with an alehnnfe; 
indeed of f • much fenfc as feeing and fm-'-ling 
am-'u'tj to i there bcin^ fuch ftron^ encounters of 
bo- 1, as would quickly lend him packing, did not 
the ovf of good fdiowihip reconcile to thefe 


StKlt. /Kail each alcboafe, thee each jilHioufe- 
And anfw'riiig ginlhops fourer Cghs return. Pope, 
A'lehouse-keeper. ». f. [from ale- 
houj'e and keeper.'] He that keeps ale- 
publickly to fell. 

Vou refemble perfectly the tva aLhoufe-heperi 
in Holland, who were at the fame time burgo- 
raailers of the town, and taxed one anotiicr's biUu 
alcernaiely. Letter to Stuif;. 

A'leknight.»./. [from ale and knight. ] 
A pot- companion ; a tippler; a word, 
now out of ufe. 

The old aUli..:ghts of England were well de- 
pair.ted by Hanville, in the alehoufe-colours of 
that time. Cumd^r.. 

Ale'mbick. n.f. A veffel ufed in diftil- 
ling, confiding of a veli'el placed over . 
a fire, in which is contained the fub- 
ftance to be diftilled, and a concave- 
cjofely fitted on, into which the fumes 
arife by the heat ; this cover has a beak 
or fpout, into which the vapours rile, 
and by which they pafs into a ferpen- 
tine pipe, which is kept cool by making 
many convolutions in a tub of water; 
here the vapours are condenfed, and 
wjiat entered the pipe in. fumes, comes 
out in drops. 

Though water may be rarefied into invifible 
valours, yet it is not changed into air, hut only 
fcattered into minute parts j which meeting toge- 
ther in the aUmhkk, or in the receiver, do pre- 
feiwly return into fuch water as they conftitiHcJ 
before. Beyle. 

-Ale'kcth. ad'v. [from a for at, and' 
Ungth.] At full length ; along; llretched- 
along the ground. 

ALE'RT. adj, [alerte, Er. perhaps from 
alacris, but probably from a I'art, ac- 
cording to art or rule.] 

1. In the military fenfe, on guard ; watch- 
ful ; vigilant ; ready at a call. 

2. In the common fenfe, bri£k ; pert ; pe- 
tulant ; fmart ; implying fome degree 
of c^fuie and contempt. 

I ii\*i an alert young fellow, that cocked his 
hat upon a friend of his, and accoftcd him. 
Well, Jack,, the oIJ prig is dead at laft. 

Addijon, SpeHator. 
Ale'rtnes*. n.f. [from o/er/.] The. 
quality of being alert ; fprightlinefs ;. 

That altrtnifi and unconcern for matters of 
common life, 9 campaign or two would infallibly 
have given Uim. - Add-Jm, SpeBaicr. 

A'i.etaster. n.f. [from «/? and C/T/^^r.]: 
An officer appointed in every court leet,, 
and fworn to lock to the affiztrand the 
goodnefs of bread and ale, or beer, 
within the precinds of that lordfhip. 

Coiuell. ■ 
A'levat. n.f. [from fl/« and -yij/.] The- 

tub in which the ale is fermented. 

A'lew. n.f. Clamour; outa-y. Not in. 

^ufe. • Spoi/ei-. 

A'lbwashed. adj. [from ale and wa/*.] 

Steeped or foaked in ale : not now in. 


What a beard of the general's cut, and a horrid 
fult of the camp, will do atn>ng foaming batties 
and alctoajhed wits, is wonderful to hi thought 
on- Hbakeffeare.. 

A'lewife. n.f. [from rt/f and zi-//^.] A. 
woman that keeps an alchonfe. 


A L G 

Perl>»;>i he will fwaggeranj heOor, «nd threaten 

to bcK »iiJ butcher an alivi'.ft, or take the goods 

by force, and throw them do»™ the bad halfpence. 

Swift's Drjfer's Ltiten. 

A'lcxakders. tt. f. [fmjrnium, Lat.] 
The name of a plant. 

A'lexander's-foot. «./. The name 
of an herb. 

Alexa'ndrine. n.f. A kind of verfe 
borrowed from the French, firft ufed in 
« poem called Alexander. They conEft, 
among the French, of twelve and thir- 
teen fyllables, in alternate couplets ; 
and, among us, of twelve. 

Our numbers (hould, for the moft part, be 
lyrical. For variety, or rather where the majefty 
61 thought requires it, they may be ft.ctthed to 
the Engl) Si heioic of five feet, and to the French 
A'-ixandrm of fix. Dryicn. 

Then, at the lad and only couplet, fraught 
With fome unmeaning thing they call a thought, 
A necdlefs A'.^-itanir.tie ends the fong. 
That, like a wounded fnake, drags its flow length 
along. Pifis Ejfay on Criikijm. 

Alexipha'rmick. adj. [from a.^l|/l■ and 
^o^^axor.] That which drives away 
poilbn ; antidotal ; that which oppofes 

Some antidotal quality it may have, fince not 

only the bone in the heart, but the horn o( a deer 

is a/exifbarmick. Brown's Vulgar Errmrs. 


[from aXi^i'i'.] That which drives away 
poifon ; that which refills fevers. 
A'lcates. adv. [^irom all znA gate. Skin- 
xer. Gate is the fame as 'via ; and ftill 
ufed for way in the Scottifh dialed.] On 
any terms ; every way : now obfo- 

Nor had the hoafter ever rifen more. 
But thit Renaldo's horfc cv'n then down fell, 
And with the fall his leg opp/ef^'d i'o fy:;e, 
•That, for a fpacc, there muft he algata dweil. 


A'LGEERA. n.f. [an Arabic word of 
uncertain etymology ; derived, by fome, 
from Gchcr the philc'.bpher ; by ferae, 
from gtfr, parchment ; by others, from 
algehijla, a bonefetter ; by Menage, from 
algiabarat , the reftitution of things bro- 
ken. ] A peculiar kind of arithmetick, 
which takes the quantity fought, whe- 
ther it be a number or a line, or any 
other quantity, as if it were granted, 
and, by means of one or more quanti- 
ties given, proceeds by confequence, 
till the quantity at firft only fuppofed to 
be known, or at leaft fome power there- 
of, is found to be equal to fome quantity 
or quantities which are known, and con- 
fcquently itfelf is known. This art was 
in ufe among the Arabs, long before 
it came into this part of the world ; and 
they are fuppofed to have borrowed it 
from the Pcrfians, and the Perfians from 
the Indians. The firft Greek author of 
algebra was Diophantus, who, about the 
year 800, wrote thirteen books. In 
1494, Lucas Pacciolus, or Lucas de- 
Burgos, a cordelier, printed a treatife 
of algebra, in Italian, at Venice. He 
fays, that algebra came originally from 
the Arabs. After feveral improvements 
by Victa, Oughtred, Harriot, Defcartes, 

A L I 

Sir Ifaac Newton brought thi« art to 
the height at which it ftill continues. 

Trevoux. Chambers. 

It would furely require no very profound Ikill in 

al^iha, to reduce the ditTerence of ninepence in 

thirty (hillings. Svii/t. 

A L C E B R a'i C K . l . jf^^^ J^.ira.] 

Algebra ical. J -^ >■ •* ■* 

1. Relating to algebra ; zs,^a algebraical 

2. Containing operations of algebra; as, 
an algebraical computation. 

Alcebra'ist. n.f. [from algebra.] A 
perfon that underftands or praftifes the 
fcience of algebra. 

When any dead body is found in England, 
no algeiraift or unciphertr can ufe more fubtl: 
fuppofitions, to find the demonftratlon or cipher, 
than every unconcerned perfon dDth to find the 
murderers. Craum's Bills cf Mortality. 

Confining themfelves to the fynthctitk and ana- 
lytick methods of geometricians and algehraiJIs, 
they have too much narrowed the rules of method, 
as though every thing were to be treated in mathe- 
matical forms. fVatts's L:gici. 

A'hGUy.adj. [fl/^/Vw,Lat.] Cold; chill. 


Aloi'dity. In./, [from a/^(V.] Chil- 

A'lcidness. 5 nefs ; cold. Dia. 

AhGi'ric. adj. [from fl^or, Lat.] That 
which produces cold. Di3. 

jfLGOR. n.f. [Lat.] Extreme cold; 
chilnefs. Dia. 

A'i. COR ISM. I"'/ Arabick words, 

A'lgorithm. J which are ufed to im- 
ply the fix operations of arithmetick, or 
the fcience of numbers. Dia. 

Ai.Go'sE. adj. [from algor, Lat.] Ex- 
tremely cold ; chill. . Dia. 

A' LI AS. ad'v. A Latin wo.-d,'fignifying 
othernulje ; often ufed in the trials of 
criminals, whofe danger has obliged 
them to change their names ; as, Sim- 
(on, alias Sm\x.h„^lias Baker; that is, 
othernvife Smith, elhcrtxije Baker. 

A'lible. adj. [a/;^y//V, Lat.] Nutritive; 
nourifhing ; or that which may be nou- 
rifhed. Dia. 

A'LIEN. adj. {alicnus, Lat.] 

1. Foreign, or not of the fame family or 

The m.ither plant admires the leaves unknown 
Of aVttn trees, and apples not her own. Drydtn. 

From native f)!! 
F.»ird by fate, torn from the tender'em brace 
Of his young guilttcfs pr^^geny, he feeks 
In^^l-rious fhelter in an alien land. Vhit.ft. 

2. Eftranged from; not allied to; ad- 
verfe to: with the particle yrawi, and 
fometimes to, but improperly. 

To declare my mind to the difciples of the 
fire, by afimilitude not alien from their profefiion. 

The fentiment that a'ifes, is a conviction of 
the deplorable ftatc of nature, to which fin re- 
duced us j a weak, ignorant creature, alien from 
Cod and goodnefs, and a prey to tlie great de- 
- ftrorer. Rogers's Sermons. 

They encouraged pcrfons and principles, alien 
/rem our religion and governmeit, in order to 
ftre.ngthen their faftion. Swift's Mifcellanies. 

A'liek. n.f. [alienus, Lat.] 
I. A foreigner; not a denifon ; a man 
of another country or family ; one not 
allied ; a ftranger. 

A L I 

In wbomfoever thefe things are, the church 
doth acknowledge tliem for her childnn ; them 
only (he holdeth for aliens and (Irangers in whom 
thefe things are not found. Htoiert 

If it be provM againft an alietif 
He feeks the life of any citizen. 
The party, 'gainft the which he doth contrive, 
Shall feiae on half his goods. 

Shaiejf. Merch. ofVeitUe, 

The mere Iri(h were not only accounted alitns, 
but enemies, fo as it was no capital ofience to kill 
them. Sir fobn Dai'ies on Ireland* 

Thy place in council thou halt ruJely lol^. 
Which by thy younger brother is fupplyM, 
And art almolt an alien to the hearts 
Of all the court and princes oi my blo'>d. 


The lawgiver condemned the perfons, who fat 
idle in divifr>ns dangerous to the government, aa 
ali'ns to tlie community, and theirfore to be cut 
off from it. Addi)on, Frtebolicr. 

2. In law. 

An alien is one born in a (Grange country, and > 
never enfrancliifed. A man b.'>m out of the land, 
fn it be within the limiu beyond the fcas, or of 
Englifh parents out of the k'ug's obedience, fo 
the parents, at the time of the birth, be of the 
king's obedience, is not ahen. If one, born out 
of the king's allegiance, cume and dwell in Eng- 
land, his children (if he beget any here) are not 
aliens, but dcnifons. CtTr*//. 

To A'n E N . -t;. a. [aliener, Fr. alieno, Lat.] 

1. To make any thing the property of an- 

If the fona/iflt lands, and then repurchals them 
again in fee, the rules of defcents are to be ob- 
ferved, as if he w;rc the original purchafer. 

HitU'i I-iijiory of Common Lavf* 

2. To eftrange ; to turn the mind or affec- 
tion ; to make averfe : with /row. 

The king was difquicteJ, when he found that 
the prince was totally aliened from all thoughts of, 
or inclination to, t'le marriage. Clarertlffti, 

A'lienaule. aii/. [from To alienate.] 
That of which the property may be 

Land is alienable, and treafure is tranfitory, and 

both muft pafs from him, by his own voluntary 

afl, or by the violence of others, or at lea.1 by fate. 

Denris^s Letters, 

-To A'lienate. v. a. [aliener, fr. ahem, 

1. To transfer the property of any thing 
to another. 

The countries of the Tu: ks were once Chriftian, 
and members of the church, and wl.erc the golden 
candk'fticks did ftand, though now they be utterly 
a'ienated, and no Chritlians Lfc. Bacon, 

2. To withdraw the heart or affeflions: 
with the particle frcm, where the firft 
pofleffor is mentioned. 

The manner of men's writing muft not aCtenett 
our hearts yiow the truth. Hosier, 

Be it never fo true «!iich we teach the world to 
bdievp, yet if once their afFeitions b-gin to be 
alienated, a fmall thing per fuadeth them to change 
their opinions. Hooker, 

His eyes furvey'd the dark idolatries . 
Of alienated Judah. Milton's Paradife LcJI, 

Any thing that is apt to difturb the world, and 
to alienate the af^eCiions of mt n from one another, 
fuch ai crofs and dilUHeful hum jurs, is cither tx- 
prcf^ly, or by clear confetjueiice and deduction, for- 
bidden in the New Teftamcnt. Tilhtfui, 

Her mind was quite alierated from the honeft 
Caftilian, whom (he was taught to look upon as a 
formal old fellow. ylJdifn, 

A'lienate. adj. [alienafus,I-,at.'j With- 
drawn from; ftranger to: with the par- 

The Whigs are damnably wicked ; impatient 
for the death of the ijven j ready to gratify their 


A L I 

•mbition and revenge by all defpcntt methods; 
wholly alitnate fnm truth, law, religion, mercy, 
confciencc, or honour. Siuift's Afifcel/jrics. 

Aliena'tion. »./. [alienatio, Lat.] 
I, The aft of transferring property. 

This ordinance was lor the maintenance of their 
lands in their pofterity, and for excluding all inno- 
vation or aUctunicn thereof unto ftrangers. 

Sfnfrr's State nf Irclavd 
God put it into the heart ot one of our princes, 
to give a check to fjcrilege. Her fuccefTour palTca 
a law, which prevented all future alicKath'm of the 
church revenues. Attcrlury 

Great changes and alhvat'iwt of property, have 
created new and great dependencies. 

Stvift en Albert and Rome. 

a. The ftate of being alienated ; as, the 
Hate was wafted during its alienation. 

3. Change of affection. 

It is left but in dark memory, what was the 
ground of his defeftion, and the tlicnathn of his 
heart from the king. BacQn. 

4. Applied to the mind, it means diforder 
of the faculties. 

Some things are done by man, though not 

through outward force and impulfion, though not 

againil, yet without their wills; as in aiirnation ot 

• mind, or any like inevitable utter abfencc of wit 

and judgment. Hookir. 

Ali'ferous. adj. [from alazni/ero,'La.t.^ 
Having wings. Diil. 

Ali'gikovs. aJj. [a//ffr, Xat.] Having 
wings ; winged. Dii3. 

ToAi.i'g&e. It. a. [from a, and %, to 
lie down.] To lay ; to allay ; to throw 
down ; to fubdue : an old word even 
in the time ofSpenfer, now wholly for- 

-Thomalin, why fitten we fo. 
As weren overwent with woe. 
Upon fo fair a morrow ? 
.The i'jyous time now nigheth fat, 
That (hall "liggi this bitter bUil, 
And Hake the uictcr foitow. 

Sperf-r't ^aftcrali. 

Ti Ali'ght. -j. n. [alihtan. Sax. af-lich- 

ten, Dutch.] 
I. To come down, and flop. The word 
implies the idea of Uejcending ; as, of a 
bird from the wing ; a travelW- from 
his horfe or carriage ; and generally of 
refting or flopping. 

1 here jncicnt nlgiit arriving, did alight 
From her high weary wa'ne. fa\ry Sluan. 

There is alighiti at your gate 
A young Venetian, Stho^Hp, Merch. ofVtnUe. 
Slacknefi breeds worms ; but the furc traveller, 
Though he atijhtt fometimes, ftill goeth on. 

Wh<n marching with his foot he walks till night ; 
When with his hoife, he never will al'tght. 

^ Detibam. 

When Dedalus, to 9y the Cretan fliore, 
Hi* he ivy limbs on jointed pinions bore j 
To the Cumcan ciaft at length he came. 
And here aligbllng built this coftly frame. 

Drydtns /Enciii. 
When he was admonilhed by his (ubjcft to de- 
fcend,hecame down gen'ly, and circling in the air, 
and finging to the ground. Like a lark melodi- 
ous in her m';unting, and continuing her fong till 
(he atighti ; ftili preparing for a higher flight at her 
next faliy. Drydin. 

When fini/h'd was the figl.t. 
The y\€ion from their lufty fteeds a/ifbt. 
Like them dilmounted all the warlike tra n. 


Should a fpirit of fupcriour rank, a Granger to 

human nature, alifht upon tie earth, «4ia! would 

his mtions of us be ^ Mdlfin, Hf^eflalcr. 


A L I 

2. It is ufed alfo of any thing thrown or 
falling ; to fall upon. 

But fli/rn;3 of Itor.ei from the proud temple'> 
Pour down, and on our batier'd lielms al'igtt. 


Ali'xe. adv. [from a and like.'\ With 
refemblance ; v/ithout difference ; in the 
fame manner ; in the fame form. In 
fome exprefHons it has the appearance of 
an adjedive, but is always an adverb. 

Tie daricnefs liijeih not from thee; but the 
night Ihinech as the Jay : the darknefs and the 
light are both atite to thee. Pfalm cxxxix. I2. 

With rhce converfing, I forget a!! time ; 
All feafons, and their change, all pleafe atiie. 

Paradifc Loft. 
Riches cannot rcfcue from the grave. 
Which claims alike the monarch and the flavc. 


Let us unite at leaft In an equal zeal for thole 

capital doftrines, which wc all equally embrace, 

and are ahke concerned to maintain. Atterhttry. 

Two handmaids wait the throne ; alike in place, 

But dilTring far in figure and in face. Pojic. 

A'LIMENT. «./. [alimentuoi, Lat.] Nou- 
rilhment ; that which nourilhes ; nutri- 
ment ; food. 

New parts are added to our fubtlance ; and, 35 
wc die, we are born daily : nor can we give an ac- 
couiK, how the aliment \h prepared for nutrition, or 
by what mechanifm it is diftributed. 

Glanvilll's Sceffij Srientifica. 

All bodies which, by the animal faculties, can 
be changed into the fluids and fdidsof our boiiies, 
are called In the Urged fcnfc, by alment, 
1 underdand every thing which a human cjeaturt 
takes in common diet; as, meat, drink; and fca- 
foning, as, fait, fpice, vinegar. Arhulhmet. 

AhtMt'KTAL. adj. [from aliment.] That 
which has the quality of aliment ; that 
which nourilhes ; that which feeds. 

The fun, tliat light imparts to all, receives 
From all his alimtntat rccompcnfe. 
In humid cxlialations. Mihcn's Pared. Loft. 

Except tliey be watered from higher regions, 
thefe weeds mull lofc their alimenial fap, and wi- 
ther. Brtnun. 

Th' indirftrious, when the fun in Leo rides, 
Forget not, at the foot of ev.-ry plant. 
To fink a circling trench, and daily pour 
A juft fapply of alimtatal ftreams, 
Exliaufteo fap recruiting. Philips 

Alime'ntally. adv. [from alime/ital.] 
So as to ferve for notirifhmenr. 

The fubftancc of gold is invincible by the pow- 
crful'eft heat, and thit not only aiimentally in a 
fubDantial mutation, but alfo medicamentally in 
any corporeal converfion. Bn-un's Vulg. Eiroun. 

Alimf/ntariness. n. /. [from alimen- 
tary.] The quality of being.alimentary, 
or of affording nourilhracnt. Di£i. 

Ahme'ntary. adj. [fTOmali?nenl.] 

1. That which belongs or relates to ali- 

'I he folucion of the aliment by maftication is 
nectfl'ary; withoutil, the aliment could notbedif- 
pofed for the changes which it icceivcb as it palfeth 
through the alimeBlary duel. 

Arl'utlnat on Aliments. 

2. That which has the quality of aliment, 
or the power of nourilbing. 

1 do not think that wjter lupj>lies animals, or 
even plants, with nourilhment, but ferves for a 
vehicle to the alimentary particles, to convey and 
dilitibotc tnem to the levcral parts of the body. 

Ray on ihc Creutijn. 

Of armentary roots, fome are pulpy and v^ ry 
nutritious ; as, turnips and carr \i. Thefe have 
a fattening quality. AfbulLnU on Ailments. 

A L K 

AlIjMENTa'tion. «./. [from aliment.] 

1. The power of affording aliment; the 
quality of nouriftiing. 

;. Tlie tete of being nourifl'.ed by affimi- 
lation of matter received. 

Wants do nouiifh; inanimate bodies do not: they 
have an accretion, but no ahmcr.tat'toi:. 

Bjcons 2\atural liif'iyry. 

Alimo'nious. adj. [from alimmy.] That 

which nourilhes : a word very little in ufc. 

The plethora tenders us lean, by fui-jji-elfing our 

fpirlts, whereby they are incapacitated of digelll] g 

the alvncnicus humours into flefli. 

Harvey on Confurrptions. 

A'LIMONY. n.f. [alimonia, Lat.] Jli- 
piony fignifies that legal proportion of 
the hufoand's eftate, which, by the fen- 
tence of the ecclefiaftical court, is aU 
lowed to the wife for her maintenance, 
upon the account of any feparation from 
him, provided it be not caufed by her 
elopement or adultery. Ayliffe's Parcrg. 

Uefore they fettled hands and hearts, 
Till a'.imany or death them parts. Hvdihra'-. 

A'Liciy AKT. adj. [aliquatituj, Lat.] Parts 
of a number, which, however repeated, 
will never make up the number exaflly ; 
as, 3 is an aliquant of 10, thrice 3 being 
9, four times 3 making 12. 

A'liqjjot. adj. [cliquot, Lat.] Aliquot 
parts of any number or quantity, fuch 
as will exaflly meafure it without any 
remainder : as, 3 is an aliquot part of 
12, becaufe, being taken four times, 
it will juft meafure it. 

A'lieh. adj. [from ale.] Refembling ale; 
having qualities of ale. 

Stirring it and beating down the yeaft, gives it 
the fweet a/j/A talle. • Mortimer's Mf/iardiy. 

A'liture. «./. [alitura, Lat.] Nourifh- 
ment. DiS. 

Ali've. adj. [from a and live] 

1. In the ftate of life ; not dead. 

Nor well ali've, nor wholly dead they were. 
But fome faint ligns of feeble life appear. Dryden 

Not youthful kings in battle feie'd alive. 
Not fcornful virgins who their charms furvive. 


2. In a figurative fenfe, unextinguilhed ; 
undeftroyed ; aiElive ; in full force. 

Thofe good and learned men had reafun to wl/h, 
that their proceedings might be favoured, and tlie 
good affeftion of fuch as Inclined toward them, kept 
alive. Hooker. 

3. Cheerful ; fprightly ; full of alacrity. 

She was not fo much alive the whole day, if fiie 
(lept more tl]an fix hours. Clarijp:. 

4. In a popular fenfe, it is ufed only to 
add an emphafis, like the French du 
Kionde ; as, the tejl man alive ; that is, 
the bejl, with an cmphafis. This fenfe 
has been long in ufe, and was once ad- 
mitted into ferious writings, but is now 
merely ludicrous. 

And to thofe brethren faid, rife, rife by-live. 
And unto battle do yourfelves addtcfi ; 

For yonder comes the prowelt knight alive, 
Frince Arthur, flower of grace and nobi'cfs. 

Fairy Siueev. 

The earl of Northumberland, wlio was the proud< 
eft man almt, could noir look upon the deftruflioii 
of monarchy with any pleafure. Clarendon. 

John was quick and underflood bulincis, but no 
man alive wajiuurc carelcli in looking into his ac- 
c"U"ts. Arbuihrot. 

A'l-KAHEST. n. f. A word ufed firft by 

Paracelfus, and adopted by his follow- 

1 ers 

A L K 

crs, to fignify an univerfal diflblvent, 
or liquor which has the power of re- 
folving all things iato their firft prin- 

'A L K A L E 's c E N T . adj. [ from aliali. ] That 
which has a tendency to the properties 
of an alkali. 
All animal diet is alkaltfcat ox anti-acid. 


A'IKALI. K. / [The word alia/i coma 
from an herb, called by the Egyptians 
inli ; by us, glalTwort. ' This herb they 
burnt to alhes, boiled them in water, 
and, after having evaporated the water, 
there remained at the bottom a white 
fait ; this they calledya/ iali, or a/iali. 
It is corrofive, producing putrefaction 
in animal fubflances to which it is ap- 
plied, jirbuthttot on Aliments.'] Any fub- 
ftance which, when mingled with acid, 
produces effervefcencc and fermenta- 

A'lkaline. adj. [from alkali.] That 
which has the qualities of alkali. 

Any watery liquor will keep an animal from 
ftarving very long, by diluting the fluids, and con- 
fequcntly keeping them from an alkaliite (late. 
People have lived twenty-four days upon nothing 
but water. ' Arbuthmt. 

To Alka'mzate. 'V. a. [from alkali.] 
To make bodies alkaline, by changing 
their nature, or by mixing alkalies with 

Alka'lizate. fl(?y. [from alkali.] That 
which has the qualities of alkali; that 
which is impregnated with alkali./ 

The odour ot the fixed nitre h very langi^d; but 
that which it difcovers, being difiblvcd in hot 
water, is different, being of kin to that of other 
tlkalizate falts. Biylr. 

The colour of violets in thei* fyrup, by acid li- 
quors, turns red, and, by urinous and aJialixare, 
turns green. Nnvlen. 

Alk aliza'tion.w./. [fromalkali.] The 
aft of alkalizatlng, or impregnating 
bodies with alkali. 
A'tKANET. «. /. [anchu/a, Lat.] The 
name of a plant. This plant is a fpe- 
cies of buglofs, with a red root, brought 
from the fouthern parts of France, and 
ufed in medicine. Miller. 

JLKEKFNGI. „. /. A medicinal fruit 
or berry, produced by a pKint of the 
fame denomination ; popularly alfo call- 
ed luinter- cherry ': the plant bears a near 
refemblance to Solanum, or Night- 
fliade ; whence it is frequently called 
in Latin by that name, with the addi- 
tion or epithet of 'vejicarium. 

JLKE'RMZS. n.f. In medicine, a term 
borrowed from the Arabs, denoting- a 
celebrated remedy, of the confiflence of 
a confeftion ; whereof the kermes ber- 
ries are the bafis. The other ingre- 
dients a;^ pippin-cyder, rofe-water, 
fugar, ambergreafe, mufk, cinnamon, 
aloes-wood, pearls, and leaf-gold ; but 
the fwcets are ufually omitted. The 
confeilit alkermes is chiefly made at Mont- 
pelier. The grain, which gives it the 
denomination, is no where found fo 
plentifully as there. Chambers. 


ALL. aJ}. [iEll, ^al, calls, all*. Sax. 
oil, Wellh; al, Dutch; alle. Germ. 
S^©-, Gr.] 

1. Being the whole number ; every one. 

Brutus is an honourable man j 
So are thi-y all, all honourable men. 

Shakeff. Jultus Cafar. 

To graze the herb all leaving, 

Devour'd each other. Miltcn'i Parad. Loft. 

The grirat encouragement of «//, is the affurance 

of a future reward. Tilloijtn. 

2. Being the whole quantity ; every part. 

Six days thou fhalt labour, and do all thy work. 

Dmt, V. 13. 

Political power, I take to be a right of making 
laws with penalties, and of employing the force of 
the community in the execution of luch laws, and 
in the defence of the commonwealth ; and all \\\i, 
only for the public good. Luke. 

3. The whole quantity, applied to dura- 
tion of time. 

On thofe pallures chearful fpring 
All the year doth fit and fing ; 
And, rejoicing, fmiles to fee 
Their green backs wear his livery. Crajha-w. 

\. The whole extent of place; 

Gratiano fpeaks an infinite deal of nothing, 
more than any man in all Venice. 

Shaktff. Merchant ofVanee. 

All. fl</-i/. [See ALL, a^'.] 
I . Quite ; completely. 

How is my love all ready forth to come. 

Know, Rome, that all alone Marcus did fight 
Within Corioli gates. Shaktffieart's Cariolanus. 

He fworc fo loud. 
That, all amaz'd, the prieft let fall the book. 

The Saxons could call a comet a fixed liar, which 
is all one v/\th Jlella criiiita, or ccmeta. 

Camdtn's Remains. 
For a large confcience is all one, 
And fignifies the fame with none. tludibras. 

Balm, from a filver box didill'd around, 
Shall all bedew the roots, and fcent the facred 
ground. Dry den. 

I do not remember he any where mentions ex- 
prefsly the title of the firlV-born, but all along 
keeps himfelf under the fhelter of the indefinite 
term, heir. Locke. 

Jufticc may be furniflied out of fire, as far as her 
fword goes ; and courage may be all over a conti- 
nued blaze. Addi/on. 

If e'er the mifer durft his farthings fpare, 
He thinly fpreads them through the public fquire, 
V/here, all befidc the rail, rang'd beggars lie. 
And from each other catch the doleful cry. Gi:y. 

z. Altogether ; wholly ; without any other 

1 am of the temper of moft kings, who love to 
be in debt, are all for prefent money, no matter 
how they pay it afterward. Diydcn. 

3. Only; without admiflion of any thing 

When I fhall wed, 
That lord, whofe hand muft take my plight, fhall 

Half my Icivc with him, half my care and duty. 
Sure 1 fhall never marry like my filler, 
To love my father all. StakeJip. King Lear. 

4. Although. This fenfe is truly Teuto- 
nick, but now obfolete. 

Do you not think th' accomplifhment of it 
Sufficient work for one man's fimple head. 
All were it as the refl but fimply writ. Sfenfcr. 

5. It is fometimes a word of emphafis ; 
nearly the fame with _/«/?. 

A fhepherd's fwain, fay, did thee bring, 
All as his ftriying flock he fed ; 
And, when his hcnour hath thee read, , 

Crave pardon for thy liardyliead. 

Spcnjtr'i Pafttrali. 


6. It was anciently in Englllh what it !i 
now in the other Teutoiiick dialcfls, a 
particle of mere enforcement. 

He thought them fixpcncea/Ztoo dear. 

Seng tn ^balefpeart. 
Tell us what occafion of import 
Hatli all fo long dcta'in'd you from your wife. 


All. n.f. 

1 . The whole ; oppofed to part, or no- 

And will fhe yet debafe her eyes on me j 
On me, whofe ail not equals Edward's moiety ? 

Nought's had, alfi fpent. 
Where our defire is got without content. 

Stakrfpeare's Mactetb, 
The youth fhall ftudy, and no m-re engage 
Their flattering wiihes for unceitain age ; 
No more with fruitlefs care, and cheated flrfe, 
Chace fleeting pleafure through the maze of life; 
Finding the wretched all thiy here can have. 
But prefent food, a:'.d but a future grave. Frier, 
Our all is at flake, and irretrievably loft, if we 
fail offuccefs. Addifal. 

2. Every thing. 

Then fhail we be news-cramm'd.— ^// the 
better ; we fhall be the mote reourkable. 

. Shakefpeart, 

Up with my tent, here will I lie to-night; 
But where to-morrow? — Well, aZ/'sone for that. 

All th^ fitter, Lcntulus : our coming 
Is not for falutation ; we have bus'nefs. 

. •^"' Jonfcn. 

3. That js, e<vtry thing is the better, tbi 
fame, the Jitter. 

Sci-ptre and pow'r, thy giving, I afTume ; 
And glad her fhall refign, when in the end 
Thou fhalt be all in all, and I in thee, •^ 

For ever ; and in me all whom thou lov'ft. 


They that do not keep up this indifTerency for 
all but truth, put coloured fpeflacles before their 
eyes, and look through falfe glalTes. Locke. 

4. The phrafe and all is of the fame kind. 

They all fell to work at the roots of the tree, 
and left it fo little foothold, that the firft blaft of 
wind laid it lac upon the giound, ncft, eagles, 
«'"' "l'- VEjlrange. 

A torch, fnufF and all, goes out in a moment, 
when dipped in the vapour. 

Addifon's Jiejaarks en Italy, 

5. .^// is inach ufed in compofition ; but, 
in moft inltances, it is merely arbitrary ; 
as, all-commanding. Sometimes the words 
compounded with it, are fixed and claf- 
fical ; as. Almighty. When it is con- 
nefted with a participle, it feems to be 
a noun ; as, all-furrounding : in other 
cafes an adverb; as, all-accomplijhed, or 
completely accompliftied. Of thefe ccTt- 
pounds, a fmall part of thofe which 
may be found is inlerted. 

All-bearing, adj. [from n/^and bear.] 
That which bears every thing ; omni- 

Thus while he fpoke, the fovereign plant he 
Where on th' all-hearing earth unmark'd it grew. 

.^L L-c HE E R I N c. adj. [from a//aod cheer.'\ 
That which gives gayety and cheerful- 
nefs to ail. 

Soon as the all-cleerhg fun 
Should, in the firtheft eaft, beg:n to draw 
The fhady curtains from Aurora's bed. Shakelp. 
All-commanding, adj. [from all and 
command.] Having the fovereiiinty over 
all. " 



He now fets before them the high and (hining 
«ioi of glory, tlie all^commtinditig image of bright 
gold. Raldgb, 

All-composing. aAj. [from «//and com- 
pofe."] That which quitts all men, or 
every thing. 

Wrapt in embow'r'mg /hades, Ulyfles lies, 
His woes forgot! but Pallas now adJreft, 
To bre^k the bands of all'4mtp^fi"g reft. Fcpe. 
ALL-cON(y;ERiKG. oAj. [from all and 
conquer.^ That which fubdues every 

Second of Satan fprung, aU-<cr:querlng death ! 
What think'ft thou of our empiie now ? Miltcn, 

All-consuming. aJJ. [from all and 
coitfume.'l That which confumes every 

By age unbroke— but ai!-confum}ng care 
Deftroji perhaps the ftrength that time would 
fpare. Pujx. 

All-devouring, adj. [from «// and tie- 
'vcur.'] That which eats up every thing. 

Secure from flames, from envy's fiercer rage, 
Dcftruftive war, and all-devour'mg age. Pope. 

All-fours, n. /. [from all and yi«r.] 
A low game at cards, played by two ; 
fo named from the four particulars by 
which it is reckoned, and which, joined 
in the hand of either of the parties, are 
faid to make all-fours. 

All hail. n. /. [from all and bail, for 
health.'\ All health. This is therefore 
not a compound, though perhaps ufually 
reckoned among them ; a terra of falu- 
tation. Salve, or/alvete, 
ylil tuil, ye fields, where conftant peace attends ! 

j4JI hail, ye facrcd, folitary groves ! 
jIU bailf ye books, my true, my real friends, 
Whofe convcrfation pleafet and improves I 

All hallow. In./, [from all a.nd hal- 
All hallows, j lo-Tv.'] All faints day; 

the firtt of November. 
All-h ALLOWN. ^(^^ [from all and hal- 

loiv, to make holy.] The time about 

All faints day. 

Farewell, thou latter fpring ! farewell, 
^li-ballvwn fummer. Sbakefp. Henry IV. 

Allh ALLOWTi DE. 17. /. [See All- 
HALLOWN.] The term near All faints, 
or the firft of November. 

Cut oft' the bough about M'ba/lciviiJe, in the 
bare place, and fet it in the ground, and it will 
grow to be a fair tree in one year. 

MaeoKi Natural ff Iff try. 

All-heal. n./. [pattax, Lat.] A fpecies 

of irenzvcre ; which fee. 
Ai.t-;uDGiNC. ar/J. [from e!l ^nAJitJ^e.'j 

That which has the fovereign right of 


I look with horroiir back, 
7 hat I deted my wretched feif, and curfe 
"My pail polluted life, jill-judv'ng Hcuvon, 
Who knows my crimes, has lecn my forrnw for 
thein. Rrtl'e'i y'Jne S^ire. 

A L L - K N ow ! N G. atlj . [from ail and iaint;.'\ 
Omnifcient ; all-wife. 
Shall we repine at a little mifplaced charity, 
we, who could no way foicfce the cffcft; when 
an a/Z-itfiivrng, all-wife Being, rtiowers down every 
day hit benefits on the unthankful and undef-rv- 
ing ^ j^tifr/jury^s .Serw-.tiu 

All-making, at/j. [from all ind maif.] 
That created all ; omnifiek. See All- 


All-powerful, ad/, [from all and 



finver/ul.] Almighty ; omnipotent ; 
pofleifed of infinite power. 

O a!l-pG^vfrfu! Being! the leaft motion of 
whofe will can create or deftroy a world j pity us, 
the mournful friends of thy dillrened ffirvant. 

All saints day. n. f. The day on 
which there is a general celebration of 
the faints. The firft of November 
All-seer, 71. f. [from all and /Jc] 
that fees or beholds every thing ; 
whofe view comprehends all things. 
That high All-jcir, which I dailied with. 
Hath turn'd my feigned prayer on my head, 
And giv'n in caraett what J begg'd in jcft. 


All-seeikg. adj. [from all and Jee."] 
That beholds every thing. 

The fame Firlt Mover certain bounds has plac'd, 
How long thofc periiTiable forms fliall lad ; 
Nor can they la!l beyond the time allign'd 
By that all-fuing and all-niak'ing mind. Dryden. 

All souls da v. «.y; The day on which 
fupplications are made for all fouls by 
the church of Rome ; the I'econd of 

This is all Jiuh day, fellows, is it not ?— 
It is, my lord.— 

Why then, allfauls day is my body's doomfday. 


All-sufficient, adj. [from alt and 
fupdeni.'\ Sufficient to every thing. 

The telUmonies of God are perfect, the tefti- 
monics of God are ali-Jtifficitnt unto that end for 
which they were given. Hooker. 

He can more than employ alt our powers in 

their utmofV elevation ; for Jie is every way per- 

feft and all-frfficieal. Narrii. 

All-wise. adj. [from a// and ivi/i.] Pof- 

feft of infinite wifdom. 

There is an infiniti-, eternal, all-wife mind go- 
verning the affairs of the world. Soutb. 

Supreme, all-tvife, eternal, potentate ! 
Sole author, fole difpofer of our fate ! Prior 

[from aWxz;, a gut, and n^©-, fhape.] 
The urinary tunick placed between the 
amnion and chorion, which, by the 
navel and urachus, or paflage by which 
the urine is conveyed from the infant in 
the womb, receives the urine that conies 
out of the bladder. i^iiitcy. 

To ALLA'Y. v. a. [from alloyer, Fr. to 
mix one metal with another in order to 
coinage ; it is therefore derived by fome 
from a la loi, according 10 laav ; the 
quantity of metr/Is being mixed ac- 
cording to law ; by others, from allier, 
to unite ; pe;lups from allocare, to put 

1. To mix one metal with another, to 
make it fitter for coinage. In this fenle, 
mod authors preserve the original 
French orrhograpliy, and write «//«/. 
See Alloy. 

2. To join any thing to another, fo as to 
abate its predominant qualities. It is 
uk'd commonly in a fenfc contrary to 
its original meaning, and is, to make 
fomething bad, Uf';. bad. To obtund ; 
to reprcfs ; to abate. 

Bring brt-u^^-.t into the open air, 
I would (j//rfy rhe burning quality 
Of that fell poifun. Shaitfptare. 

No friendly offices (hall alter or allay that 
rancour, tlut /Vets in foise UclUlli breaits, which, 


upon all occnRons, will foam out at its foul mnoth 
in llander and invciftive. Sourb. 

3. To quiet; to pacify ; to reprefs. The 
word, in this fenfe, I think not to be 
derived from the French alloyer, but to 
be the Bnglifh word lay, with a before 
it, according to the old form. > 

If by your art you have 
Put the wild waters in this roar, allay them. 

Alla'y. n.f. [alloy, Fr.] 

1. The metal of a bafer kind mixed in 
coins, to harden them, that they may 
wear lefs. Gold is allayed with filver 
and copper, two carats to a pound 
Troy ; filver with copper only, of v/hich 
eighteen pennyweight is mixed v/ith a 
pound. Convcll thinks the allay is add- 
ed, to countervail the charge of coin- 
ing ; which might have been done only 
by making the coin lefs. 

For fools are ftubborn in their way, 
As coins are hardened by th' allay. Hudibras, 

2. Any thing which, being added, abates 
the predominant qualities of that with 
which it is mingled ; in the fame man- 
ner, as the admixture of bafer metals 
allays the qualities of the firft mafs. 

Dark colours eafily fuffer a fenlible allay, by 
little fcattering light. Nenutori's Optirh* 

3. Allay being taken from bafer metals, 
commonly implies fomething worfe than 
that with which it is mixed. 

The joy has no allay of jcaloufy, hope, and fear. 

Rojcommon.'yer. n.f. [from allay.'] The per- 
fon or thing which has the power or 
quality of allaying. 

Phlegm and pure blood are reputed allayers of 
acrimony : and Avicen countermands letting blood 
in cholerick bodies } becaufe he efteems the blood 
a freenum bills, or a bridle of gall, obtunding its 
iicrimony and fiercenefs. Harvey. 

Alla'yment, «. / [from rdlay.] That 
which has the power of allaying or abat- 
ing the force of another. 

Irl could temporize with my afFeftion, 
Or brew it to a weak and colder palate, 
The like allas^ent would I give my grief. Shakefp, 
Allega'tion, n.f. [from allege.^ 

1. Affirmation ; declaration. 

2. The thing alleged or affirmed. 

Hath he noti twit our fovereign lady here 
With ignominious words, though darkly coucht ? 
As if ]7ie had fuborned fome to fwear 
Falfc allegafiom, to o'erthrow his ftate. 

Siiah/ptart'i Her.ry VI. 

J. An excufc ; a plea. 

I omitted no. means to be Informed of my 
err urs ; and I expetl not to be excufed in any 
negligcnc; on account of youth, want of leifure, 
or any otilfr i lie allegations. Pope. 

To ALLE'GE. •v. a. [nllego, Lat.] 

1. To afnrm ; to declare ; to maintain. 

2. To plead as an excufe, or produce as 
.an argument. 

Surely the prcfent form of church-government 

is fuch, as n.-i l.nv of CioJ, or rcafoa ofmim, 

hath hitherto been alleged of force luflicieut to 

prove they do ill, who, to the utmoft of tlo-ir 

power, withfland the alt'.-ration thereof. Uooher. 

If we forfake the ways of grace or gnodneft, 

we cannot alligc any colour of ignorance, or 

want ot inftrudion j wc cannot fay we have not 

' learned tlwm, or we could not. Sprat. 

He hith a clear and full view, and there is no 

more to be alleged for bis better information. 

I 2 ALLs'cEABLii. 

* T T 

/I SL. L< 

AtLE'cEAntF. atfj. [from allr^e.] That 
which may be alleged. 

Upm this all rosy t-c fo'vpd, that 

IS ttllrftttbte agawifi it« Br'^wn's l\lfar Err'iurs. 

Alle'cement. n. /. [from allege.'^ The 

fame with allegation. DiO. It. J', [horn allege.'] He that 


Tlie narrative, if we bdicv^ it as confidfntly as 
the fam'^us allfger of it, Pamghilio, appcirs to i-^. 
would argue, that there is no other principle re- 
quifite, tlian what may rel'ult from the lucky 
iiiixture of fcveral bodies. BifU. 

Alle'giance. «./. [alhgeancc, Fr.] The 
duty of fubjefts to the government. 

I did pluck alliziance from mrn's hearts, 
Loud Ihouts and Ulutations from their mouths, 
£vea in the prefcnce of the crowned king. 


We cha ge you, on allfgiance to ourfclves, 
To hold your Haughtering hands, and keep the 
peace. Stairffeare. 

The houfe of commons, to whom every day 
petitions are dlreflcd by the feveral counties of 
Fngland, profefling all altegUrtce to them, govern 
abfohicily ; the lords concurring, or rather fub- 
mitting to whatfoever is propofeJ. Clarendcn. 

Alle'giant. ar^'. [from allege.'\ Loyal; 
conformable to the duty of alhgiance: 
a word not now ufeJ. 

For your great graces 
Heap'd upon m?, po:ir undsferver, 1 
C.^n noching render but alli'g'tart thanks. 
My pvay'ri to heaven tor you. S}-iiif'f>, Hen. Vtll. 

Alleco'rick. ai^. [fromr.M.gory.] After 
the manner of an allegory ; not real ; 
not literal. 
A kingdom they portend thee ; but what king- 
Real or al/e^mci, I ditern rot. Mi'fcn. 

Allego'rical. a.|y. [from alhgory.] In 
the form of an allegory ; not real ; not 
literal ; myffical. 

When our Saviour fiid, in an a'lcg'r'tcal and 
xnyilicai fenfe, Except ye eat the ^t'/h of thj Son 
of Man, and drinlc his blo-^-d, ye havi no life in 
you \ the heaiers underflood him literally anil 
grofsly. Benihy. 

The epithet of .^po'lo for (hootirg. is capable 
of two applications ; one, in rcfpcdl of the 
da'-ts and b..w, the en.G^ns of that god; the other 
alltgwica!, in regard fj the rays -/fthe fun. Popr. 
Alt ego'rically. a^-v. [from allegory.] 
After an allegorical manner. 

Virgil often makes Iris ih; mcffcngcr of Juno, 
tB.gaicaHy taken fur the air. Peactiim. 

'Ihc phice is to be undeift-^od alU'girksiUy ; and 
what is thus fpoken by a Hb.-«ician w:th wifdom, 
is, by the Puct, applied to the goidefs of ir. Popt. 

Alleoo'ricalness. n. /. [from allego- 
rical.] The quality of being allego- 
rical. Dicl. 

To A'llecorize. t. a. [from allegory.] 
To turn into allegory ; to form an alle- 
gory ; to take in a fenfe not literal. 

He hath very wittily a//egorix^ this tree, al- 
lowing his fuppofition of the tree itfelf to be :r..e. 


As fome would alligor'me thefe figns, fo others 
W5uld confine them to the deftruiSion of Jeru- 
falem. Burnetii Theory. 

An alchymifl (hall reduce divinity to the max- 
ims of his laboratory, explain morality by fal, 
fulphur, and mercury ; and atlegcrixe the fcriptuie 
itielf, and the faced myderics thereof, into the 
pliiloforh^r'«i ftcne. Locke. 

A'LLEGORY. n./. [iAXr,705',«.l A figu- 
rative difcourfc, in which fomcthing 
other h intended, than is contained in 
tlie words literaJly taken ; as, -wealth 


;/ the daughter ef diligence, and the pa- 
rent of authority. 

Neiiirer niuft wc draw rut our alhgory too 
long, left clrher we make ouifelves obfcure, or 
fall into aO'e£tation, which is childilh. Ben. yonfor,. 
This word nympha meant nothing tlfe but, by 
nl'ugwy, the veget.itivf. huriMur or moifturc that 
ij rckeneih and givctb lite to trees and flowers, 
w!ietely -l-.'-y gr;^v.', Peacham. 

ALLE'GRO. n. /. A word denoting one 
of the fi.x diftinftions of lime. It ex- 
prefles a fprightly motion, the quicketl 
of all, except I'refto. It originally 
means gay, as in Milton. 
ALLELUJAH. n.f. [This word is falfely 
written for Hallelujah, ihh'n and n'.] 
A word of fpiritual exultation, ufed in 
hymns ; it fignifics, Praife God. 

He will fet his tongue to thofc pious divine 
ftrains, which may be a proper praeludium to thofe 
alUlujahi he hopes eternally to fing. 

G'i'crnmcnT ofthf Tcrrvue. 

ALLEMA'NDE. n.f. [Ital.] A grave kind 
of mufick.] DiSl. 

To ALLE'VIATE. -v. a. [allevo, Lat.] 

1 . To make light ; to eafe ; to foftenr 

The pains taken in the fpeculative, will much 
alleviate me in defcribing the pra^ic part. 


Moft of the dillempers are the effects of abufed 
plenty imd luxury, and muft not be charged upon 
our Maker; who, notwiththmding, hath provided 
excellent medicines, to alleviate thofe evils which 
we bring ourfelves. Bentley, 

2. To extenuate, or foften ; as, he alle- 
wiales his fault by an excufe. 

Allevi a'tion. n.f. [from alleviate.] 

1. The a£l of making light, of allaying, 
or extenuating. 

All apologies tor, and oUeviatiom of faults, 
though they are the heights of humanity, yet 
they are not the favours, but the duties of friend- 
(hip. South. 

2. That by which any pain is eafed, or 
fault extenuated. 

This lofs of one fifth of their income will fit 
heavy on them, who thall feel it, without the al- 
lei.iali:n of any profit. Locke. 

A'lley. n.f. [allee, Fr.] 

I. A walk in a garden. 

And all within were walks and allrys wide. 
With footing worn, and leading inward far. 


Wheie alleys arc clofc gravel'ed, the eatth put- 

teth forth the firft year knorgrafs, and after fpirc- 

grafs. Bacon i Natural Hijiijry. 

Yonder alleys green, 
Our walk at noon, with branches overgrown. 

'- Miltr^n. 

Come, my fair love, our morning's talk we lofe ; 
Some labour ev'n the eafie.^ life would choofe : 
Ours is not great; the dangling bows to crop, 
Whofc too luxuriant growth our uileyi rtop. Dryd. 

The thriving plants, ignoble bror.mfticks ma,lc, 
Now fwccp thofe alleys they were born to ihaJe. 


1. A paflfage in towns narrower than a 

A back friend, a Ihouldcr clapper, one that 
commands the palfages of alleys, creeks, and nar- 
row lands. Shakr/feare. 

Alli'ance. ft. f. [alliance, Fr ] 

I. The ftate of connexion with another 
by confederacy ; a league. In this fenfe, 
our hillories of Queen Anne mention 
the grand alliance. 

z. Relation by mariiagt?. 

A blo)dy Hymen fha.l th' fl//fdflf« join 
Bclw.xt tlic Trojan and th' Aufoolan line. Dryd. 


J. Relation by any form of kindred. 

For my father's fak-. 
And, for' fake, declare the caufe 
My father loft his head. Shakijf. Henry IV. 

Adraftus foon, with gids averfr, ih.ill join 
In dire eiHiarce with the Tin-ban line ; 
Thence ftrite ihail rife, and mortal war fucceed. 

\. The aft of forming or contrafting re- 
lation to another ; the ail of making a 

Dorfct, y:>ur fon, that with a feirful fjul 
Leads difcontented fteps in foreign foil. 
This fair alliance quickly fliall call home , 
To high promotions. Shakrfp. Richard III. 

5. The perfons allied to each Other. 

I would not boall the gi-eitnc.'^s of my father, 
But point out new alliances to Cato. Mdifin, 

Alli'ciency. n. f. [allicio, Lat. to en- 
tice or draw.] The power of attrafting 
any thing ; magnetifm ; attraftion. 

The feigned central allieimey is but a word, and 
the manner of itiWl occult. GLnville. 

To A'LLIGATE. -j. a. [alligo, Lat.] To 

tie one thing to another ; to tmite. 
Allica'tion.h./ [ from alligate. ] 

1 . The aft of tying together ; the ftate of 
being fo tied. 

2. The arithmetical rule that teaches to 
adjuft the price of compounds, formed of 
feveral ingredients of different value. 

Alliga'tor. a,/. The crocodile. This 
name is chiefly ufed for the crocodile 
of America, between which, and tJiat of 
Africa, naturalills have laid down this 
difference, that one moves the upper, 
and the other the lower jiw ; but this 
is now known to be chimerical, the 
lower jaw being equally moved by both. 
See Crocodile, 

In his needy (hop a toitoifeTiung, 
An al'lgator ftufPd, and other Ccins 
Of ill-lh.ip'd fillies. Sbtktffeart. 

Aloft in rows large poppy-heads were ftrung. 
And here a fcaly aliigjtjr hung. 

drib's Difpinl'r.ry. 

A'l. LIGATURE, n.f [from alligate'.] The 
link, or ligature, by which two things 
are joined together. ' DiH, 

.A L L I's 1 N . n.f. [alii Jo, alU urn, Lat.] The 
aft of llriking one thing agai.nil ano- 

There have not been any iflinds of note, or c<>n. 
fiderable extent, torn and ca'l oli' from the conti- 
nent by earthi^uakes, or fevered from it by the 
boilkrous a!'ifi,n of the fea. tVoodward. 

Allitera'tion. «. / [aJ and litera, 
Lat.] Of what the critics call the alii, 
teration, or beginning of feveral words in 
the fame verfe with the fame letter, there 
are inllances in the oldeft and bed wri- 
ters, as. 
Behemoth biggeft born. 

Milton's Paradife Loji, 
Alloca'tion. n.f. [alloco, Lat.] 

1 . The aft of putting one thing to ano- 

2. The admiffion of an article in reckon- 
ing, and addition of it to the account. 

3. An allowance made upon an account ; 
a term ufed in the Exchequer. 

Allocu'tion. n.f. [allocuiio, Lat.] The 

aft of fpeaking to another. 
Allo'dial. adj. [fjom allodium.] Held 




without any acknowicJ~tnent of fuperio- 
rity ; not feudal ; independent. 

ALLODIUM. K.f. \k word of very un- 
certain derivation, but moll probably of 
German original.] A poiTellion held in 
abfolute independence, without any ac- 
knowledgment of a lord paramount. It 
is oppoled to fee, or feidum, which inti- 
rcates f'omc kind of dependence. 1 iiere 
are no allodial lands in England, all 
being held either mediately or imme- 
diately of the king. 

Allo'nge. n.f. [ailonje, Fr.] 

1. A pafs or thruil with a rapier, fo called 
from the lengthening of the (pace taken 
up by the fencer. 

2. It is likewife taken for a long rein, 
when the horfe is trotted in the hand. 

To Allo'o. v. a. [This word is gene- 
rally fpoken halloo, and is ufed to dogs, 
when they are incited to the chace or 
battle ; it is commonly imagined to 
come from the French allons ; perhaps 
from all lo, look all ; (hewing the ob- 
jeft.] To fct on ; to incite a dog, by 
crying alLo. 

yjllc'j thy f. rirua maflifF; bid him vex 
The noxioj^ h-^rd, and print u't>on their cars 
A fad m:mo-ial of their paft offence. Pli'if!. 

A'lloqj;v. ». yr [allDjuiam, Lzt.] The 
aft of fpeaking to another ; addrefs ; 
converfation. Dici. 

To ALLO'T. -v. a. [from /o/.] 

I. To dillfibute by lot. 

■2. To grant. 

Five d:!js we dj alJat rhec for provifion, 
To fliic!d thee from cifafters of the winld ; 
And, on tlic fmh, to fjr.i thy h ited tjck 
Upon our kingdom. Sbakefj), King Lear, 

I (h.\\\ defcrve my fate, if [ refute 
That bappy hour which heaven allots to peace* 

Dry den. 

3. To diftribute ; to parcel out ; to give 
each his Ihare. 

S^ncc fame was the only end cf all their ftii- 
dies, a man cannot be tii fcrupulous in at'cnir.g 
them their due prrtion of it. Ta:Icr. 

Allo'tment. n.f. [from allot.] 

1. TTiat which is allotted to any one ; the 
part, the (hare, the portion grafted. 

There can be no thcught of f; • .;y or quiet ir 
thij uorld, but in a refignation co ihr a/Utnimu 
of God and nature. L^Fflrange, 

Thcu_h i: is ocr duty to fubmitwith patience 
to mo e kancy atlfitmtnii, yet thus much we may 
reafanabiy mi lawfully alk of Cod. 

Sogeis'i Sertnmi. 

2. Part appropriated. ' 

It is laid C'„c into a grove for fruits and (hade, a 
Tinfyarc, and an alktmetti for olives and herts. 


Ai-i.o'tter Y. ». /. [from allot.] That 
which ij granted to any particular 
perfon in a dillributicn. See Allot- 

A How .-ne fuch exercifcs as may became a gentle- 
man, or give me the poor allotttrj my father left 
me by tell.Tm-r.t. Stat'/fcar/. 

To ALLOW. "J. a. [alliuer, Fr. from «/- 

laudare, Lat.] 
I. To admit ; as, to allcui a podtion ; 
not to contradifl ; not to oppole. 

The principles which ail mankind alkiu for 
true, are innate; thofe, that men of right rejfon 
admit, arc the principles allm>ii\^ all mankind. 


Th*^ pow'r of mufick all our hearts cliiv; 
Ard what Timothcus, is Diyuen now. Tcpe. 

That fome of the PreJbyterians declared openl) 
agaiurt the king's murder, 1 aikiu to be true. 


2. To jnilify ; to maintain as right. 

The pow'rs above 
Alhvj obedience. Shakfjptare. 

The Lord allowtlh the righterus. Bible. 

3. To grant ; to yield ; to own any one's 
title to. 

V\e will nor, in civility, alloiv too much fin- 
cerity t'"> the profeifions of molt men ; but tliink 
their actions to be interpreters or their thoughts. 


T {hall be ready to alkio the pope as little p.nvrr 
here as yiu pleafe. i^ivift. 

4. To grant licenfe to ; to permit. 

Let's follow the olj earl, and get the beldam 
To lead him where he would ; his roguiih mad- 

yUlmii i!fe'f to any thing. Stc! efpet^re. 

But as we were alli'.i'ed of God to be put in 
truft with the gofpef, even to we ("peak, not as 
plealing men, but t^od, which trieth our hnrts. 

1 rkcf ii. 4. 

They referred all hws, that wore to be palTed in 
Ireland, tJ be conilJered, correSed, and at/ctorii 
firrt by the itatc of E.>^land. Vifjiiscn Jre^'ai.J, 

3. To give a fanftion to ; to authorise. 

1 here is no flandcr in an a!it/tv\i fool. Sbakijp. 

6. To give to; to pay to. 

Ungi a'.efu! then ! it wc no tears al/mu 
To him that gave us peace and empire t?o. 


7. To appoint for ; to fet oat tb a certain 
ufe ; as, he allovicJ his fen the third 
part of his income. 

8. To make abatement, or provifion ; or 
to (cttle any thing, with Ibme concef- 
fions or cautions regarding fomething 

If we conGder the different occalions of ancient 
and modern medals, we fliall find thev botli ag ee 
in recording the great anions and fucceflijs in 
war ; a/hiaing ftiU for the differei.t ways of mak- 
ing it, and the clrcumDanccs that attended it. 

Allo'wable. aifj. [from alloiv.] 

1 . That which may be admitted without 

It is not altvivable, what is obfervable in many 
pieces of Raphael, where Magdalen is reprefented, 
ber'ore our Saviour, walhirg his feet on her knees j 
which will not confill with the t-'xt. 

Brvwni Vulgar Erroun. 

2. That which is permitted or liceiifed ; 
lawful ; net forbidden. 

In adtions of this fort, the light of nature a- 

Irnc may difcover that which is in the fight 01 

God alh-.valle. linker. 

I was, by the freedom jHytvabie among friends, 

tempted to vent my thoughts with aegligencc. 

Reputation becomes a fignal and a very peculiir 
blefti g to magiftrates ; and their purfu!t of it ii 
not only alLiuoble but laudable. 

Atrertiiry's Sertrxni, 
Allo'wableness. a./, [from alloiua- 
tli.] The quality of being allowable; 
lawfulnefs ; exemption from prohibi- 

Lots, as to their nature, ufe, and aUc^vablemfs, 
in matters of recreation, are indeed impugned by 
Ibme, though better defended by others. 

South^s Sermort, 
Allo'wance. 1./. [from allciu.] 
I. AdmilTion without contradiftion. 

'1 hat which wifd'jm did firft begin, and hath 
been with good mca long continued, challengetb 


allitvance of them that fuccecd, although it pTead 
for itfelf nothing. Hc.ier, 

>Mthi>ut the notii'n and alh-uiaree of (pirits, 
our philofnphy will be lame and defcflive in one 
main part of it. Lccke, 

2. Sanction ; licenfe ; authority. 

Vcu fcrit a large commiflicn to conclude. 
Without the king's will, rr the Hate's alh-wance,' 
A lea^jUe bctwctn his Highoelsand Ferrara. 


3. Permiflion ; freedom from reftraint. 

Thry (hcuij therefore be accuftonicd betimes to 
corfult and make ufe of their rcafon, before they 
give alhivjitce to their irclinations, L ih, 

4. A fettled rate, or appointment for any 

1 he vliflual in piartatiofts ought to be expended 
almoil as in a beiieged town; that is, with certain 
aiUxrance. Baccru 

And his alicivance was a continual alh'wsrtii 
g'vcn liim of the king ; a daily rate for every day 
all his life. ' . - 2 K.rp. 

5. Abatement from the llrift rigour of a 
law, or demand. 

1 he whole pccip, though written in heroic!:: 
verfp, is of the Pindarick natuic, as well in tll^ 
tnrught as the expieflion ; and, as fuch, requiics 
the lame grains of a/Uiuance for ir. Drydtr;, 

I'arents never gm alLivance: for an innccent 
pafiion. i'li'i/r. 

6. Eftablifhed charaftcr ; reputation. 

His bark is ftoutly timbered, a id his pilot 
Of veiy expert and approved allc^vance, Shakefp, 

Ali.o'y. fi./. [See Allay.] 

1 . Bafer metal mixed in coinage. 

'I hat precife weight and fincnels, by law ap- 
propriated to the pieces of eacli dcnominatl^'n, is 
caiied the llandard. Fine filver is filver without, 
tlie mixture oC any bafcr metal. AlUy is baTer nne- 
tal mixed with It. Locke. 

Let anoihcr piece be c^ned of the fame weightjf 
wherein half the filver is taken cut, and copper, 
or other fl//oy, pilt into tlie place, it will be worth 
but half as much ; for tiie value of the alloy is fa 
inconfiderable as not to be reckoned. Locke, 

2, Abatement ; diminution. 

The pleafuies of (enfc are probably reiiflied by 

beafts in 3 more exquifite degree than they are by 

men ; for they tafte them finceie and pure without 

mixture or alley. Atterl'Ury, 

Allube'sce-VCY. ff. y. [alluie/eeatia, 

Lat.] Willingnefs ; content. Die/.' 

To ALlU'DE. -j. n. \nUudo, Lat.] To 

have fome reference to a thing, without 

the direct mention of it ; to hint at ; to 

infinuate. It is ufed of perlbns ; as, he 

alludes to an old Jlory ; or, of things, 

as, the lampoon alludes to his mother's 


Thcfe fpeeches of Jerom and Chryfoflom do 
fecm to allude unto luch miniltcrial garments as 
were then in ufe. Hooker, 

True it is, that many things of th's natuie be 
a/ludtd unto, yea, many things declared. Hooker, 
Then j uft proportions were taken, and cveiy thing 
placed by we-ght and mcafure : and this 1 doubt 
not wai that artificial flruflure here alluded to. 

Burm'Cs Theory* 
Allu'minor . ff.y; [allumer, Fr. to light.] 
One who colours or paints upon paper 
or parchment ; becaul'e he gives graces,, 
light, and ornament, to the letters or 
figures coloured. Coiuell. 

To ALLLJ'RE. 'V, a, [leurer, Fr. looren, 
Dutch ; bdls)-.4n. Sax.] Toentici- toany 
. thing whether, good or bad ; to draw to- 
wards any thing by enticement. 

Unto laws that men make for the benefit of 
men, it hath fectned always needfil to add re- 
wards, which may more allure unto good, than 
9 •njr 


A L M 

A L M 

any hardnefs detemth from it ; and puniUjments, 
M'hii^h may more deter from evil, th>n any fwcet- 
ocli thcict.i allurcth. Hooker. 

The golden fun, in (plendoiir likeft heav'n 
jil.w'ii his eyf. AL/ton'i PuradifcLiJi- 

Each flacc'ring hofc, and each aliurir.g joy. 


Ali.u'rf. 1. f. [from the verb allure.'] 
Something fct up to entice birds, or 
other things, to it. We now write lure. 
I he tathct to train th m to his allure, he told 
the.Ti both otKni ^\\i with a vehement voice, how 
they vi'cre over-topped and trodden down by g'n- 
itcmeM. IIiiytL'ttfit. 

All u'rement. n./. [from allure.] That 
which allures, or has the force of allur- 
ing i enticteent ; temptation of plea- 

A^-ninft a/'urcmrnt, cuftom, and a world 
Oti'eiiJed i t'carlci's of reproach, and fcorn. 
Or vioifncc. Alihoni Paradiff Lrji. 

— .Adam, by his wife's alluremM, tVll. 

X Pitrad'ljc Regain f J. 

To (hun th' tlhrcmevt'n not Jiard 

To niindt refuivM. turew.irn'd, and well prvpar'd ; 

But wond'ious diilkult, when once bcfet. 

To fttugjle through the firaits, and break th' in- 

lo.ving net. Dryiitn, 

Ai-lu'rer. n.f. [(rom allure.] Theper- 

fon that allures ; enticer ; inveigler. 
Allu'ri'x'. [from allure.] In an 

alluring manner ; enticingly. 
Ali.u'ri N GNESS. n.f. [from alluring.] 
The quality of alluring or enticing ; in- 
vitation ; temptation by propofing plea- 
Allu'sion". n. /. [allufio, Lat.] That 
which is fpoken with reference to fome- 
thing fuppofed to be already known, and 
therefore not exprclfej ; a hint : an im- 
plication. It has the particle to. 

Here are manifeft olhf.ons and footfteps of the 
difliflufion ni the earth, as it was in the deluge, 
and will be in ir^ bll ruin. Burners Theory. 

'1 his hft allafii"! gall'd the Panther more, 

Becaufe indeed it ri;b'/'d upon the fore. Dryden. 

Expreffions now out of ufe, nUuJions to cuftoms 

loft to us, and varitms particularities, muft neeJs 

continue fcveral paHjgts in the dark. L'jcke. 

Ai.Lu'siVE. adj. [alludo, allufum, Lat.] 
Hinting at fcmething not fully e.vprefled. 

Where the exprcflirn in one place is plain, and 
the fenfe affixed to it ai;recab!e to the proper force 
of the words, and no negative objeilion requires 
uj to depart from it ; and the exprcflion, in the 
other, is figurative or cUuJ\-vc^ and the do£lrinc, 
ile.'luccd from it, liable to r^reat obj;;flJons ; it is 
Tcafcinable, in this litter place, to reftrain tbe ex- 
tent of the figure and ailuiiun to a confiiiency with 
the former. Robert's So Mens. 

Ai-Lu'si VELY. a^v. [from alliiji've.] In 
an allufive mmner ; by implication j by 
The Jewifli nation, that rcjefled and crucified 
.him, within the compafs of one generation, v\crr, 
according to his p.edi^rion, dellroyed by the Ro- 
nians, and pieycd upon by thofe eagles (Afjir 
jtr.'tv. 28.), by which, ailujively, are noted liic Ro- 
man armies, whofe enCgn was th: eajjlc. 


Ai.i.u'sivENESs. rt. f. [from alLfiije.] 

The quality of being allufive. 
Allu'vion. »._/". \_nlliivio, Lat.) 
I. The carrying of any thing to fcmething 

elfe by the motion of the water. 
a. The thing carried by water to fome- 

thing elf-. 

Ihc civil law gives the owner of land a rigfit to 

dut incieafe which ari/esfrum alluvion, wluch is 

defined an infeniible increment, brought by the 
water. Cowell. 

Allu'vidus. aJj. [from allwvion.] That 
which is carried by water to another 
place, and lodged upon fcmething elic. 

To ALLY', -v. a. [alliir, Fr.] 

1. To unite by kindred, friendlhip, or 

All thefe fcpcs are allied to the inhabitants of the 
North, fo as there is no hope that they will e>cr 
ferve faithfully agjinit them. i'feajer on Ireland. 

Wants, frailties, paHions, dofer ftill ally 
The common int'reft, or endear the tye. Pofe. 

To the fun el/y'd. 
From him they draw the animating fire. Thctnjen. 

2. To make a relation between two things, 
by fimilitude, or refemblance, or any 
other means. 

Two lines are indeed remotely allied to Virgil's 
fenfe ; but they arc too like the tcndcrners of 
Ovid. Dryden. 

Ally', n.f. [nllie, Fr.] One united by 
feme means of connexion ; as marriage, 
friendlhip, confederacy. 

He in court ftood on his own feet; for the moft 
of his allies rather leaned upon him than Hiored 
him. H^ofun. 

We could hinder the acceflion of Holland to 
France, either as fubjedls, with great immunities 
for the encouragement of trade, or as an inferiour 
and dependent ally under their protection. Terr.ple. 

JLMACA'NTAR. n. f. [An Arabick 
word, written varioully by various au- 
thors ; by D'Herbelot, almocantar ; by 
others, almucantar.] A circle drawn pa- 
rallel to the horizon. It is generally 
ufed in the plural, and means a feries of 
parallel circles drawn through the feve- 
ral degrees of the meridian. 

Alm aca'ntar's Staff, n. f. An in- 
Urument commonly made of pear-tree 
or box, with an arch of fifteen degrees, 
ufed to take obfervations of the fun, 
about the time of its riling and fetting, 
in order to Jind the amplitude, and con 
fequently the variation of the compafs. 


A'lmakack. ». f. [Derived, by fome, 
from the Arabick al, and manah, Heb. to 
count, or compute ; by others, from al, 
Arabick, and ^))», a month, or (/.ix»«>!oc, 
the courfe pf the months ; by others, frciT! 
a Teutonl:k original, al and maan, the 
moon, an account of efery moon, or 
month: all of them are probable.] A 
calendar ; a book in v;hich the revolu- 
tions of the fcafons, with the return of 
feafts and falls, is noted for the enfuing 

It will be faid, this Is an ainuir.ack for the old 
year; all hath been vvcUj Spain hath not aiTaikd 
this kingjom. Baron. 

'J his illrologer made his almanack give a tolcia- 
ble account <if the weather, by a iXreSl iuverfioii 
of the common prognofticators. 

GovcrnmenI of tie Tciigue. 

Beware the woman too, and (hun her fight, 
Who in thefe ftudies docs herfeif delight ; 
By whom a greafy almarack is borne, 
With often hand.. fg, like chaft amber worn. 


I'll have a fafting almanack printed on purp^le 
for her ufe. Dryden^t Spanijh Friar . 

J'LMJNDINE. n. f. [Fr. almandina, 
Ital.] A ruby coarfer and lighter than 

the oriental, and nearer the colour of 
the granate. DiH. 

Alm I'cHTi NESS. n.f. [from almighij.] 
Unlimited power ; omnipotence ; one of 
the attributes of God. 

It fcrveth to the woild for a witnefs o( his al- 
mighiircfi, whom we outwardly honour with the 
cbiefeli of cutward things. Hocker, 

In creating and making exillcnt the world uni- 
verfjl, by the abfolute a£l of his own word, Co4 
Viewed his power and almightinejs. 

air tValtcr Raleigh. 

In the wildemefs, the bittern and the dork, the 
unicorn and the elk, live upon his proviHons, and 
revere his power, and feel the foicc of his aimi^b- 
tincfi. Tayjtr. 

Almi'ghty. adj. [from all and mighty.] 
Of unlimited power; omnipotent. 

The Lord apjeared unto Abraham, and fald 
unto him, I am the almighty God; walk before 
me, and be thoa perfeft. Cemjit xvii. i. 

He wills you in the name oi God almighty. 
That you djvcft yourfclf, and lay apart 
1 he borrow'd glories, that, by gift of heav'n, 
By law of nature and of nations, 'long 
To him and to his hei s. Slake fjreare, 

.■^'lmon'd. n. /. [amand, Fr. derived by 
Menage from amandala, a word in low 
Latin ; by others, from Allcmand, a Ger- 
man ; fuppofing that almonds come to 
France from Germany.] The nut of the 
almond tree, either fweet or bitter. 

Pound an almond, and the clear white' colour 
will be altered into a dirty one, and the fweet tafte 
into an oily one. Locke* 

A'lmond tree. ». yC [amygdalus, Lat.] 
It has leaves and flowers very like thofe 
of the peach tree, but the fruit is longer 
and more comprefled ; the outer green 
coat is thinner and drier when ripe, and 
the (hell is not fo rugged. Miller, 

Like to an almond tree, mounted high 
On top of Green Selcnis, all alone. 
With blollbms brave bedecked daintily, 
Whofe tender locks do tremble every one, 
At every little breath that under heav'n is blown. ' 

Fairy •^een, 

Mark well the flow'ring almonds in the wood j 
If od'rous blooms the bearing branches load. 
The glebe will anfwzr to the fylvan reign. 
Great heats will follow, and laige crops of grain. 


A'lmonds op the throat, or Ton- 
sils, called improperly Almonds of the 
ears, are two round glands placed on 
the fides of the bafis of the tongue, un- 
der the common membrane of the fau - 
ces ; each of them has a large ov,aI 
finus, which opens into the fauces, and 
in it are a great number of lefler ones, 
which difcharge thcmielves through the 
great finus 0/ a mucous and llippery 
matter into the fauces, larynx, and cefo- 
phagus, for the moiftening and lubri- 
cating thofe parts. When the a-fopha- 
.gus mufcle afts, it compreflfes the al- 

, mondi, and they frequently are the occa- 
fion of a fore tliroat. ^incy. 

The tonlil<, or aimttnds of the ears, are alfo 
fre:juently fwclled in the kmg's evil j wfiich tu- 
mour may be very well reckoned a fpecies of it. 

ff^ijeman^s Surgcjy, 

A'lmond-furnacc, or A'lman-fu r- 
KACE, called alfo the Snveep, is a pecu- 
liar k nd of furnace ufed in refining, to 
feparate m.:tals from ciaders and other 
foreign fubliances. Chambers. 


A L M 

A'lmoser., or A'lmwer. n. f. \eleemofy- 
ntirius, Lat.] The officer of a prince, 
or other perfon, employed in the diftri- 
bution of charity. 

1 enquired tor an almctrer'j and the general fame 
has pointed out your reverence as the worthie:t 
mm. Drjticv 

Ai'MONRY. n. f. [from almoner.^ The 
place where the almoner relides, or 
where the aim? are dii^ributed. 

AlMo'sT. ad-v. [from all and tnojl ; that 
'\%, moft part of all. Skinner J\ Nearly; 
well nigh ; in the next degree to the 
whole, or to univerfality. 

Who is there alwjf, whole mind, at fome time 
or other, luve or anjcr, fear or grief, has not fo 
fiiSened to fome clog, that it could not turn itfe'.c 
to any otltcr objefl. Locke, 

There can be no fuch thing or notion, as an a/ 
tnyji infinite' ; there can be nothing next or fecond 
to an omnipotent God. Btntley'i S^mcn:, 

Atlai becomes unequal fo his freitjh:. 
And almtfi faints beneath the glowi.^g weight. 


ALMS. n. f. [in Saxon, elmej-, from 
eUemofyna, Lat.] What is given gra- 
tuitoully in relief of the poor. It has 
no fingular. 

My arm'd knees. 
Which bow'd but in my (lirrup, bend like his 
■That hath received an j!mi. SbakeJl>€are. 

The poor beggar hath a juft demand of an utmj 
from the rich man ; who is guilty of frauJ, injul- 
tice, and opprcflion, if he does not atfurd relief ac- 
cording to his abilities. Sivift, 
Alms-basket. «./. [from a/;n/ and baf- 
kel.'] The baflcet in which provifions are 
put to be given away. 

There fweepings do as well. 
At the bell order'd meal ; 
For who the relifll of thefe guefts will fit. 
Needs fet them but the almi-bajktt of wit. 

Ben yotij^fi. 
We'll (land up for our properties, was the beggar's 
fong that lived upon the almi-ba/ket. 

L EJlrange'i FMcs, 
A'lmsdeed. n.f. [from alms and deed.'\ 
An aft of charity ; a charitable gift. 

This woman was full of good works, and alms- 
Jttdi which (he did. y*3i, .x. 36. 

Hard-favour'd Richard, where art thou ? 
Thou art not here : murdir is thy alirideed ; 
Petitioner for Hood thou ne'er put'll back. Shaie/f. 

A'lms-gh'e r. n.f. [from alms and gl'va:] 
He that gives alms ; he that fupports 
others by his charity. 

He endowed mar^y religious foundations, and yet 
was he a great alnti-^lver in fecret, which lhewc-1 
that his works in publick were dedicate^ rather to 
God's glory than his own. Baeon. 

A'l.MSHOUSE. n.f. [from alms ind i>t>uje J 
A houfe devoted to the reception and 
fupport of the poor ; an hofpital for the 

Theivay of providing for the clergy by tithes, the 
ie\\cKof almshiujei f^r the poor, and the forting out 
of the p-*oj'Ic inrj paiifbc', a.e manifeft- Huttkcr, 

And to relief of lazars, and weak age 
Of inHig"nt faint fouls, palt corporal till, 
A iiiiJi d a/mshtafes right well fupplied. Sbakeft, 

Many penitents, after the roboing of temples 
and other rapine, build an hofpital, or alitubtufe^ 
out of ihe ruins of the church, and the fpoils of 
widows and orphans. L' EJirtinge. 

EehoH yon almihcufe, neat, but void of (late. 
Where age and want fit fmll'ng at the gate. Pope, 

A'lmsman. n.f. [from alms and »/««.] 
A man who lives upon alms ; who is 
fupported by charity. 

A L O 

I'll give my jewels for a fet of beads ; 
My gorgeous palace for a hermitage j 
My gay apparel for an almsmarCs gown. Shahefp, 
A'lmug-tree. n.f. A tree mentioned in 
fcripture. Of its wood were made mu- 
fical inflruments, and it was ufed alio 
in rails, or in a llaircafc. The Rab- 
bins generally render it coral, others 
ebony, braxil, or pine. In the Septua 
gint it is tranflated ixsrought luoad, and 
in the Vulgate, Lignu Thyina. But co- 
ral could never anfwer the purpofes of 
the almugim ; the pine-tree is too 
common in Judea to be imported from 
Ophir ; and the Thyinum, or citron- 
tree, much cfteemed by the ancients for 
• its fragrance and beauty, came from 
Mauritania. By the wood almugim, or 
algumim, or fimply gummim, taking al 
for a kind of article, may be underlTood 
oily and gummy forts of wood, and par- 
ticularly the trees which produce gum 
ammoniac, or gum arabick ; and is, 
perhaps, the fame with the Shittim 
wood mentioned by Mofes. Calmet. 

And the navy alfo of Hiram that brought gold 
from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty oi 
almug-treei and precious trees. i Kings, x. 11. 

A'lnagar, A'lnager, or A'lneger. 
n.f. [from alnage.'\ A meafurer by the 
ell ; a fworn officer, whofe bufinefs for- 
merly was to infpeft the affize of woollen 
cloth, and to lix the fcals appointed 
upon it for tliat purpofe ; but there are 
now three officers belonging to the 
regulation of cloth-manufaftures, the 
fearcher, meafurer, and alneger. DiS. 

A'lnace. n.f. [from aulnage, or au- 
nage, Fr.] f.U-nieafure, or rather the 
meafuring by the ell or yard. Di3. 

A'lnight. n.f. [from a// and «/g-/'/.] 

A fervice which they call almgbt, is a great cake 
of wax, with the wick in the midft j whereby it 
Cometh to pafs, that the wick fetcheth the nourilh- 
ment farther off. Bacon. 

A'LOES. n.f. [obni*, as it is fnppofed.] 
A term applied to three different things. 

1. A precious wood ufed, in the Eaft, for 
perfumes, of which the bell fort is 
01 higher price than gold, and was the 
moft valuable prefent given by the king 
of Siam, in 1686, to the king of France. 
It is called Tambac, and is the heart, or 
innermofl part, of the aloe tree; the next 
part to which is called Calembac, which 
IS Ibmetimes imported into Europe, and, 
though of inferiour value to the Tambac, 
is much eileemed : the part next the 
bark is termed, by the Portuguefe, Pao 
d^uquila, or eagle-wood ; but fome ac- 
count the eagle-wood not the outer part 
of the Tambac, but another fpccies. Our 
knowledge of this wood is yet very im- 
perfeft. Salary. 

z. Ahes is a tree which grows in hot coun- 
tries, and even in the miountains of 

3. Aloes is a medicinal juice, extrafted, not 
from the odoriferous, but the common 
aloes tree, by cutting the leaves, and ex- 
pofing the juice that drops from them to 
the fun. It is di/linguifhed into Sccoto- 

A L O 

rlne and Caballine, or liorfe aloes : the 
firft is lo called from Sccotora ; the fe- 
cond, becaufe, being coarfer, it ought 
to be confined to the ufe of farriers. It 
is a warm and ftrong cathartick. 
Aloe'tical. adj. [f.'om aloes."] Con- 
fifting chiefly of aloes. 

It may be excicea by ahttical, fcammoniate, or 
acrimonious medicines. lyijemars Surgery, 

Aloe'tick. n.f. [fromfl/of/.j Any me- 
dicine is fo called, which chiefly confifls 
of aloes. ^iiicy. 

Alo'ft. ad-v, [^loffter, to lift up, Dan^ 
Loft air, Icelandijh ; fo that aloft is, into 
the air.] On high ; above ; in the air: 
a word ufed chiefly in poetry. 

For I have read in (lories oft. 
That love has wings, and foars alft, SuckUn^, 

Upright he ftood, and bore akjt h's fliicld 
Confpicuous from afar, and overlook'd the field. 

Z?Q den^ 

Alo'ft. prep. Above. 

The great luminary 
Ahft the vulgar conftellations thick, 
That from his lordly eye kec-p dil'ance due, 
Difpenfcs light from far. M'dnin^s Paradife LoJ}* 
A'looy. n. f. [a^oy©-.] Unreafonable- 
nefs ; abfurdity. Dia. 

Alo'ne. adj. [alleea, Dutch; from a/ and 
een, or one, that is, fngle.] 

1 . Without another. 

The quarrel touchcLh none but us aUfte; 
Betwixt ourfelves let ;s decide it then. Hbakefpm 

If by a mortal hand my father's rhroiie 
Could be defended, 'twas by mine ulone, Drydert* 

God, by whofc alone pjwer and converfation we 
all live, and move, and have our being. Benl/ey* 

2. Without company ; folitary. 

Eagles we fee fly a/one, and they are but (hecp 
which always herd together. Sidney* 

Alone, for other creature in this place 
Living, or lifdcfs, to be found was none. Milton^ 

I never durrt in darknefs be ahne, Dryden* 

Alo'ne. ad-u. 

1. This word is feldom ufed but with the 
word let, if even then it be an adverb. 
It implies fometimes an ironical prohi- 
bition, forbidding to help a man who i» 
able to manage the affair himfclf. 

Le: us alone to guard Corioii, 
If they fet down before 's } 'fore they remove. 
Bring up your army. Sbi^keJ^earu 

Lei you alone, cunning artificer ; 
See how his gorget peers above his gown. 
To tell the people in what darger he was. 

Ben yonfott^ 

2. To forbear ; to leave undone. 

His cHcnt dole it, but he had better have let it 
alone; for he lo!l his caufe by his jeff. Addijon,. 
Alo'nq. ad~j. [au longne, Fr.] 

1. At length. 

Some rr.wl a mighty ftone ; fome laid along. 
And bound with burning wires, on (pokes of 
wh-eis a c hung. Dryden, 

2. Through any (pace mcafured length- 

A firebrand carried along, leaveth a fra'n of light 
behind it. Bjeon'i Ifalural UiJI'jiy^ 

W'lerc Ufens glides along the lowly lands. 
Or the black water of Pnmptii.a (Inndy. Drydcn* 

3. Throughout ; in the whole : with ali 

bilomon, all along in his Proverb", givi-s the 
title of fool to a wicked man. Tilhtjon, 

They were all along a crofs, untoward f )rc cf 
people. Soutbm. 

4. Joined with the particle ivitb; in com- 
pany i joined with. 


A L O 

I ynur cotnm'inion will foithwirh difpitch, 
'An<l he to England (hall ahn^ with you. 

Shaltfffnarc^s Hamlet. 

Hence then t and Evil go vmh chee a!img, 

.Thy ofTspring, to the place of evil, Hell. Alilur. 

Religious ze.ll is fubjedl to an excefs, and to a 

defeft, when fnm-thing is mingled with it which 

■ it Aiould not have; or wlwn it wants fomething 

that ought to j;o »i/o»j|' ^rA it, Sfral. 

5. Sometimes I'jiib is uiiderflood. 

Command thy (laves : my free-born foul difdains 
A Tyrant's curb, and reftive breaks the reins. 
Talcc thx&aLngy and no difpute Hiall rife 
' (Though mine the woman) for my raviih'd prize. 

■6. Fonvard ; onward. In this fenfe it is 
.derived from allons, French. 

Come then, my friend, my genius, comt afoftg, 
Thou mafter of the poet and tlie fong. Pspc. 

Alo'ncst. ati-v. [a corruption, as it 
-';feems, from along.] Along; through 
the length. 

Tlic Turks did keep ftrait watch and ward in all 
their ports alotigjl the fca coaft. 

KmlUs's Hijlory cf:te Turks. 
Alo'of. aii'v. [all off", that is, gui/e 0^'.] 
I. At a diftance ; with the particleyru/a. 
•It generally implies a fmall dillance, 
• fuch as is wichia view or obfervation. 

Then bade the knight this la.iy jc^c «fct/. 
And to an hill herfelf withdraw afide, 
Trom whence flie might behold the battle's proof, 
And elfe be fate from danger far dcfciicd. 

Feiry Slucn. 
As next in waith, 
.Came fingly where he itoo^[, on the bare Hrand, 
While the promifcuous crowd flood ypxa!oof. 

Miitm's Paraaie Loft 
The noife approaches, though our palace flood 
.jj/ooffrcm llreets, encompafs'd with a wooi. 


z. Applied to perfons, it often infinuates 
caution and circumfpeftion. 

Turn on the bloody hounds with heads of ftcel. 
And make the cowards fland d/iw/'at bay. SbaUfjt. 

Going northwards, ahof, as long as they had any 
duubt of being purfued ; at lafl, when thry were 
out cf reach, they turned and crofled the ocean to 
Spain. Baan. 

The king would not, by any means, enter thr 
city, until he had aiocf (etn the crofs fct up upon 
the greater tower of Granada, whereby it became 
Chriftian ground. Bacon. 

Two pots flood by a river, one of brafs, the 
other of clay. The water carried them away ; the 
earthen veflel kept alocffrom t'other. 

L'EJlrange'i FahUs. 

The ftrong may fight ahaf; Ancaeus try'd 
His force too near, and by prefuming dy'd. 

VrydetCs FabUi. 

3. In a figurative fenfe, it is ufed to import 
art or cunning in converfation, by which 
a man holds the principal queition at a 

Nor do we find him forward to be founded ; 
But with a.crafty madnefs keeps aUof, 
When we would bring him on to fome confcfTion 
'Of his true flate, Shaktfpeari'i Hjm/er. 

4. It is ufed metaphorically of perfons that 
will not be feen in a defign. 

If is neceffary the queen join ; for, if flie fland 
tf/co/", there will be ftill lufpicions: it being a re- 
ceived opinion, that flie-hajl' a great interefl in ihe 
• king's favour and power. Sncklmg. 

5. It is applied to things not properly be- 
longing tp each other. 

Love's not love, 
When iris mingled with regards that fland 
Ai'txffrem tli' entire point. Shahffetite's K. [.ear, 

Ai.o'uD. cdiv. [from « and /o«./.] LouJly; 
with a ftrong voice; with a great noi4e. 

A L S 

Strangled he lies I yet fccms to eryalmJ, 
To want the mighty, and inftrud the prjulj 
That of the great, negledling to be juit, 
Hcav'nina moment makes an heap of diift, H^alUr. 

Then heai'n's high monarch thund'red thrice 
And thrice he (hook aloft a golden cloud. DryJen. 

Alo'w. at/v. [from a and /aw.] In a low 
place ; not aloft. 

And now alvzvt and now aloft they Hy, 
As borne through air, and feem to touch the (ky. 


A'lPHA. n. /. The firft letter in the 
Greek alphabet, anfwering to our A ; 
therefore ufed to fignify the firft. 

J am alpha and omc^a, the beginning and the 
ending, faith the Lord, which is, and which was, 
and which is to come, the Al.nighty. Rcvelationi. 

A'LPHABET. n. f. [from ^Mpa, alpha, 
and ^iTtt, beta, the two firft letters of 
the Greeks.] The order of the letters, 
or elements of fpeech. 

Thou flialt not figh, 
Nnr wink, nor nod, nor kneel, nor make a fign. 
But I of thcfe will reft an alflahtt. 
And by ftill pra£lii||( learn to know thy meaning. 

The letters of the a'.fhahel, formed by tho ("cve- 
ral motions of the mouth, and the great variety of 
fyliables compofed of letters, and formed with al- 
nioft equal velocity, and the endlefs number of 
w.trds capable of being framed out of the aiphabet, 
either of more fyllables, or of one, are wonderful. 

Taught by their nurfes, little children get 
This fayirg, fooner than their alfhalet. 

Drytl. jun. Juv. 

To A'lphabet. t>. a. [from alphabet, 
noun.] To range in the order of the 

.Alphabe'tical. \adj. [from alphabet; 

Alphabe'tick. i alphaietique.Fr.l In 
the order of the alphabet; according to 
the feries of letters. 

] have dig^ifted in an alphabetical order, all the 
counties, corporations, and boroughs in Great Bri- 
tain, with the.r rtfpedlve tempers. Siu'ift. 

Alphas e'c i c a l l y . adv. [ from alpha- 
betical.] In an alphabetical manner; 
according to the order of the letters. 

i had once in my thouglits to contrive a gram- 
mar, more than I can now comprilt: in fii>rt hints; 
and a di£fionary, at^babeticaUj containing the 
words of the languagr, \^h1th%hc deaf pcrfon is to 
learn. HaUcr's F.'ancnn of Speech. 

Alre'ady. flifo. i[frora «// and ready.] 
At this prelent time, or at fome time 
paft ; oppofeJ to futurity ; as, fVill he 
come foot! ? He is here already. IVill it 
be done ? It has been done already. 

Touching our uniformity, that wliicii hath been 
already anfwered, may ferve for anfwcr. Hickcr. 

You warn'd me ftill of loving two ; 
Can I love him, already loving y-tw ? 

DrydtJI^i Irdian Empercr. 

See, the guards, from yon fa^ eaftern hill 
Already move, no longer flay aftord ; 
High in the air they wave the flaming fword. 
Your fignal to depart. Drydcn's State 0/ 

Methods for the advancement of piety, are in 
the power of a prince, limited like ours, by a i\r\&. 
execution of tlie laws already in force. Swift. 

A^cthinks, already 1 your tears furvey, 
Already hear the horrid things they fay, 
Already fee you a degraded toaft. 
And all your honour in a whifpcr loft \ Vnpt. 

Als. adv. [als, Dutch.] Alfo ; likewife: 
a word now out of ufe. 

Srd remembrance now the prince amoves 
With frelh defire his voyage to purfue ; 
Ali Una eai n'd her travel to renew. Fairy f^uetn. 


X\.so.aJv. [from a//andya.] 

1. In the fame manner ; likewife. 

In thefe two, no doubt, are contained the caofei 
of the great;:, as according to Motes, fo alft 
according to nc^ellity ; for our world aflords no 
other treafurcs of wat^r. Burnet's Tbery. 

2. Jlj'o is fometimes neaily the fame with 
and, and only conjoins the members of 
the fentencc. 

Cod dj I'o CO me, and more alfa. 

I Sartuel, x!v. 44, 

A'ltar. «./. [altare, Lat. It is obfervcd 
by Junius, that the word al:ar is re-